Portland NORML News - Thursday, May 14, 1998

'Oregonian' Poll (Activists From Portland And Beyond Ask You To Send
A Quick E-Mail In Support Of Medical Marijuana)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 13:58:20 -0700 (PDT)
From: Anti-Prohibition Lg (aal@inetarena.com)
Subject: Oregonian Poll (fwd)

Thanks to Dr. Rick Bayer for bringing this to our attention.


-- Forwarded message --
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 08:39:50 -0700
From: Rick Bayer (ricbayer@teleport.com)

May 14 Oregonian in "MetroWest Neighbors" under "In Your Backyard" there is
a section called "You Make the Call" (in the upper left hand corner of page
3M W-B (1)). This is what was in the paper

"Should the law allow medical use of marijuana? Tell us what you think.
We'd like to publish your response. To use the Oregonian's Inside Line,
dial (503) 225-5555 from a touch-tone telephone, then enter this four-digit
category number to let us know: 6689. Or e-mail us at
west@news.oregonian.com . Please leave your name and phone number so we can
contact you. Responses will be published in next week's [Oregonian]
MetroWest Neighbors."

One can only suppose this has to do with Craig Helm's recent trial for
possession and manufacture of 8 mj plants. Craig is a middle-aged man who
is wheel-chair bound from Multiple Sclerosis and was convicted by a jury in
Hillsboro (western burb of Portland) when his "choice of evils" defense
didn't quite work.

I saw nothing in the paper that said one had to live in Washington county
(west Portland to the coastal mountain range) so let's get those e-mails
buzzing. Thanks.

Rick Bayer
6800 SW Canyon Drive
Portland, OR 97225
503-292-1035 (voice)
503-297-0754 (fax)


Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 18:56:20 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: rose@sonic.net (Rose Ann Fuhrman)
Subject: Oregonian poll

I wrote a note to them and threw away the notice. (I think the notice came
from this list.) Anyway, I just got a call (here in Santa Rosa, Ca) from
the Oregonian, far from what I expected. I thought they would throw my
e-mail away because I am not in their neighborhood.

The reason for this message is to assure anyone who has a doubt: are
having an impact in ways we will never know.

Rose Ann


Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 19:03:24 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: R Givens (rgivens@sirius.com)
Subject: Re: Oregonian poll

>The reason for this message is to assure anyone who has a doubt: are
>having an impact in ways we will never know.
>Rose Ann

Right. An editorial assistant just called. I gave her a 5 minute lecture on
Harry Anslinger's Reefer Madness and the fact that medical marijuana was
legal until 1969.

R Givens

Alric Forbes Benefit (Seattle List Subscriber Asks Reformers To Attend Benefit
For Ailing Supporter May 17 At Ballard Firehouse)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 01:38:17 -0700 (PDT)
From: pcehthns@scn.org (SCN User)
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net
Subject: HT: NW Alert! Alric Forbes benefit
Reply-To: pcehthns@scn.org
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net

Yeh it's me again. I know this is slightly off topic, well not really...
Alric Forbes is a kind Jamaican brother who has ben playin and singin
about the green herb in Seattle for years (remember The Defenders?). He
has been a champion of our cause since many of us were in high school.

Alric has Leukemia. His sister has just flown into the states to give him
bone marrow and he's at Fred Huthcinson Cancer Research Center. There's a
BENEFIT TO HELP PAY FOR HIS OPERATION @ the Ballard Firehouse Sunday,
May 17, with Clinton Fearon and the Boogie brown Band, Haard Copy, Pup Tent,
House of Dread Sound w/Leon X & DJ Pokey. Jamaican food by Fitz. Door by
Clive. 7pm $8 CHEAP!

If we can't band together for our own how can we achieve our lofty goal?
We are different than the drug warpigs because we have compassion, love
in our hearts, hope in our minds and because of that we will overcome.


Vivian Mc Peak
Seattle Peace Heathens

Federal Judge Rules Against Clubs (Bay Area Correspondent
Says The Federal Government Has Won Its Lawsuit
Against Six Northern California Medical Marijuana Dispensaries -
Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative Considers Its Patients
A Higher Priority, However, And Will Remain Open)

From: "ralph sherrow" (ralphkat@hotmail.com)
To: ralphkat@hotmail.com
Subject: Federal Judge rules against clubs
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 10:57:13 PDT

Hey ya'll, Just talked to Jeff Jones. The federal court ruled against
the 6 clubs on all three counts. They signatured the papers & sent them
back to the judge so he will find them in contempt of court on Monday.
Jeff said that they are not going to close down 'til they come & put
everyone in jail. There will be a press conference at 1 pm today. Anyone
wanting to attend for support is encouraged to be at the Oakland CBC at
1pm sharp. Ralph

Federal Ban On Medical Marijuana Could Be Put On Trial (Press Release
From Americans For Medical Rights Responds To The Ruling Against Six
Northern California Medical Marijuana Dispensaries)

From: "ralph sherrow" (ralphkat@hotmail.com)
To: ralphkat@hotmail.com
Subject: Federal ban on Medical Marijuana could be put on trial
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 15:42:38 PDT

Federal Ban on Medical Marijuana Could Be Put on Trial

Judge's mixed ruling suggests a jury should decide fate of cannabis clubs

SANTA MONICA, May 14 - Federal judge Charles Breyer today indicated that he
will issue a preliminary injunction against six medical marijuana providers,
in an initial ruling that hands significant victories to both the federal
government and the defendants.

The judge refused to grant summary judgment or a permanent injunction, as
requested by government lawyers. While the ruling means the government has
succeeded, thus far, in arguing that the providers may be violating federal
law, Judge Breyer clearly envisions that some of the defendants will not
close their facilities, and could risk contempt of court charges. Those
charges, the judge said, should be decided in a jury trial.

Dave Fratello, spokesman for Americans for Medical Rights, which sponsored
California's medical marijuana law, Prop. 215, said, "The government has been
told today that its policy of banning medical marijuana could be put on trial
as a result of this case. Many of us relish the prospect of that kind of
fight, because it is winnable."

"It has been proved time and again," Fratello said, "that the prohibition of marijuana
for medical use is a wildly unpopular policy. In the court of public opinion,
the federal government is already in a losing position. If medical marijuana
patient advocates are given their day in court, as the judge suggests, the
government could - and should lose big."The case against the six medical
marijuana providers, filed in January, is the second major federal assault
on California's medical marijuana law. First, immediately after passage of
the law in 1996, federal agencies threatened California doctors who might
"recommend" marijuana to their patients with harsh sanctions, including the
loss of prescription licenses. Those threats were turned back when another
federal judge, Fern Smith, issued a preliminary injunction against federal
punishment of physicians on April 30, 1997.

Fratello said, "It's clear that the federal government wants Prop. 215 to
fail in California. In fighting the cannabis clubs, the only medical
marijuana distribution system available to patients in California right now,
the government is fighting the spirit of our state law. These actions violate
the will of the voters, the rights of patients, and the principle of state and
local government control."

"Instead of fighting progress," Fratello said, "the federal government needs
to change its policy. Marijuana can and should be reclassified to be made
available by prescription. If the government wants to get rid of cannabis
clubs, the only justifiable and humane way to do it is to provide a real

Judge Breyer Grants Preliminary Injunction Against Six California
Medical Cannabis Providers - Stage Set For Jury Trial Of Medical Marijuana
(News Release From California NORML)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 12:01:51 -0700
To: aro@drugsense.org, dpfca@drugsense.org
From: canorml@igc.apc.org (Dale Gieringer)
Subject: DPFCA: Federal Injunction Against Clubs
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org

Judge Breyer Grants Preliminary Injunction Against Six California Medical
Cannabis Providers; Stage Set for Jury Trial of Medical Marijuana

SAN FRANCISCO, May 14, 1998: US District Court Judge Charles
Breyer granted the government's request for a preliminary injunction
barring distribution of marijuana by six Northern California medical
marijuana providers. However, the judge denied the government's request
for a summary judgment and permanent injunction, allowing the case to
proceed to a likely trial by jury, where the issue of medical necessity
would be raised.

Breyer's ruling, which will not take effect before next week, is
expected to lead to contempt of court proceedings against the defendants in
the likely event that they violate the injunction by continuing to supply
medical marijuana.

"We will have our day in court," declared defense attorney William
Panzer, noting that the government's bad faith in dealing with medical
marijuana would be put on trial.

In his ruling, Breyer found that the defendants' conduct was a
likely violation of the Controlled Substances Act, and that under the
Supremacy Clause of the Constitution it could be enjoined even if their
conduct was legal under state law by Proposition 215. Breyer rejected
defense arguments that the clubs' distribution lay outside the bounds of
interstate commerce, or was protected by a fundamental right to medical
marijuana or by a necessity defense. However, he noted that the issue of
medical necessity might be raised by defendants in subsequent trial for
contempt, which would require a unanimous jury verdict.

"We look forward to being vindicated by a jury of Californians who
recognize the medical value of marijuana," said defense attorney Robert
Raich, representing the Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative.

Judge Breyer's ruling is narrow in scope, pertaining only to the
distribution and manufacture of marijuana by the six defendants, and not to
other providers. Breyer noted that the constitutional validity of
Proposition 215 was not an issue, nor was he deciding on whether seriously
ill persons who possessed marijuana for personal use upon a physician's
recommendation were in violation of federal law.

"This decision does not alter the basic fact that federal laws
prohibiting medical marijuana are morally bankrupt and unenforceable,"
stated California NORML coordinator Dale Gieringer, "The people of
California will not sustain this high-handed and contemptuous disregard of
their right to medicine by Washington bureaucrats. No matter what the
courts say, Californians will continue to work to ensure that medical
marijuana remains available to patients who need it."

Cannabis Clubs Vow To Continue Operations Regardless Of Federal Law
(Different California NORML News Release Notes Oakland
And San Francisco Dispensaries Vow To Stay Open)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 16:36:41 -0800
To: aro@drugsense.org, dpfca@drugsense.org
From: canorml@igc.apc.org (Dale Gieringer)
Subject: DPFCA: Clubs Vow to Stay Open
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org

Cannabis Clubs Vow to Continue
Operations Regardless of Federal Law

OAKLAND, May 14, 1998. Cannabis clubs in the Bay Area vowed to
continue operations despite today's decision by US District Court Judge
Breyer to issue a preliminary injunction ordering them to cease providing
medical marijuana to seriously ill patients protected by Prop. 215.

"We will do everything in our power to stay open," said Jeff Jones,
director of the Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative, which serves some
1,300 seriously ill members. "The alternative that the government is
giving them is the street; that's not adequate."

"We have a moral imperative to keep our facility open."

Other Bay Area medical marijuana providers voiced similar
intentions. "We plan to continue serving our sick and dying patients,"
declared Hazel Rodgers, 79-year-old director of San Francisco's Cannabis
Healing Center, successor to Dennis Peron's Cannabis Cultivators Club, one
of six medical marijuana providers named in the suit.

U.S. Attorney Michael Yamaguchi called on all cannabis clubs to
close voluntarily in light of the court's decision. In reply, defense
attorney William Panzer called on the government to voluntarily withdraw
its suit "in light of the truth and science."

The government is expected to file suit against the clubs for
contempt of court should they violate the injunction, which will not take
effect before next week. In that event, the clubs will be able to argue
their case before a jury, invoking the arguments of medical necessity and
patients' fundamental rights to medicine. "This case is far from over,"
says Panzer, "we will put the government on trial and show that it has
acted arbitrarily and capriciously."

Dale Gieringer (415) 563-5858 // canorml@igc.apc.org
2215-R Market St. #278, San Francisco CA 94114

Federal Judge Orders Closure Of Six Northern California Pot Clubs
('Associated Press' Version)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 20:07:49 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: Richard Lake 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: US CA: Wire: Federal Judge Orders Closure Of Six Northern
Newshawk: Frank S. World and Dave Fratello
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: Associated Press
Author: Bob Egelko, Associated Press
Editors note: I trust our newshawks will be watching for the press stories
on this one, and will send them to editor@mapinc.org - Thank you! Richard
Lake, Sr. Editor at DrugSense News Service


SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - A federal judge today ordered closure of six medical
marijuana clubs in Northern California, saying prosecutors were likely to
prove the clubs were violating antidrug laws.

U.S. District Judge Charles Breyer rejected the clubs' argument that they
were entitled to furnish the drug because their customers, many of whom
suffer from AIDS or cancer, cannot survive without marijuana to ease pain
and the side effects of therapy.

A "medical necessity'' defense might be available in individual cases, but
can't be used by a club that distributes marijuana to a large number of
patients with different diseases, Breyer said.

In 1996, California voters approved Proposition 215, which changed state
law to allow patients suffering from certain serious illnesses to possess
marijuana for medical use, with a doctor's recommendation.

But the Clinton administration, which fought the initiative both before and
after its passage, filed civil suits in January to halt operation of six
clubs - two in San Francisco and one each in Oakland, southern Marin
County, Santa Cruz and Ukiah.

Federal prosecutors argued that national antidrug laws override the

"Laws which are passed by Congress cannot be supplanted by state law,''
Justice Department lawyer Mark Quinlivan told Breyer during a hearing in
March. He said advocates of medical marijuana must turn to Congress and
federal health authorities, not the courts.

In his ruling today, the judge agreed the proposition could not override
federal law.

He also rejected the clubs' argument that an injunction should be denied
because the federal government has thwarted studies on medical marijuana
and ignored evidence that the drug is safe and effective.

Breyer acknowledged that it took more than 20 years for the federal
government to consider, and deny, the last formal request to reclassify

But he said medical marijuana advocates had been unable, so far, to
convince the government to allow medical use of marijuana. Noting that a
new request was sent to Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala
in December, Breyer said, "One would expect the secretary to act
expeditiously on the petition in light of the expressed concerns of the
citizens of California.''

Copyright 1998 The Associated Press

US Judge Moves To Close California Marijuana Clubs ('Reuters' Version)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 20:25:32 -0400
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Wire: U.S. Judge Moves To Close Calif. Marijuana Clubs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Dave Fratello <104730.1000@compuserve.com>
Source: Reuters
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Andrew Quinn


SAN FRANCISCO, May 14 (Reuters) - A federal judge has moved to close
California's medical marijuana clubs, saying the government was likely to
prove that their operations violate federal anti-drug laws. In what could
be a final blow to California's medical marijuana movement, U.S. District
Judge Charles Breyer said he was ready to issue a preliminary injunction
despite the clubs' arguments that they stave off death and disease for
thousands of people suffering from AIDS, cancer and other serious illnesses.

"The only issue before the Court is whether the defendants' conduct
violates federal drug laws," Breyer said in his ruling, issued late
Wednesday. "The Court concludes that the federal government has established
that it is likely that it does."

Breyer said he would issue injunctions against six northern California
medical marijuana clubs named in federal suits after both sides submit
final written statements next Monday.

The ruling was hailed by federal officials, who have fought to close the
clubs despite Prop. 215, California's pioneering 1996 state law which
legalized the use of marijuana for medical purposes under the direction of
a doctor. "Federal law is clear and Judge Breyer's opinion is clear -- the
distribution or cultivation of marijuana is unlawful," U.S. Attorney
Michael Yamaguchi said Thursday.

"I call on all of the marijuana distribution clubs in California to take
cognizance of this order and voluntarily shut down." But the clubs vowed to
fight on -- taking heart from Breyer's refusal to grant a government
request for a permanent injunction and summary judgment. Club attorneys
said most would probably continue to operate despite the injunction, a move
which could draw contempt of court proceedings and trial before a jury.

"We look forward to being vindicated by a jury of Californians, who
recognize the medical value of marijuana," said Robert Raich, an attorney
representing the Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative. "The government has
been told today that its policy of banning medical marijuana could be put
on trial as a result of this case," said Dave Fratello, a spokesman for
Americans For Medical Rights, one of the sponsors of the 1996 state law.

"Many of us relish the prospect of that kind of fight, because it is
winnable." Government attorneys have said their case against the clubs is
not an attack on the California measure, which allowed medical use of
marijuana under specific, tightly-defined circumstances.

California's state courts have already ruled that the 20-odd clubs around
the state are illegal because they are not "primary caregivers" to their
members - a condition set by the state law.

Federal officials have attacked the club operations and accused them of
using the law as an excuse to peddle marijuana to the public at large, an
"outright and flagrant" violation federal anti-marijuana laws. Breyer's
ruling Wednesday was extremely cautious, and he emphasized that it by no
means resolved the medical marijuana issue or declared Prop. 215

While he said the clubs had so far not found the right argument to justify
their operations, he said his ruling did not foreclose "the possibility of
a medical necessity or constitutional defense" in any future proceeding.

Copyright 1998 Reuters Ltd.

Pot Ruling Disregards Legality Of Medical Use ('San Francisco Examiner'

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 20:35:07 -0400
To: rlake@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Pot Ruling Disregards Legality Of Medical Use
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Page: One - FRONT PAGE
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Larry D. Hatfield Of the Examiner Staff


A federal judge in San Francisco Thursday ordered the closing of Bay Area
cannabis clubs, agreeing with the government that federal drug laws
supercede the state initiative legalizing the medicinal use of marijuana.

U.S. District Judge Charles Breyer ruled in favor of U.S. Attorney Michael
Yamaguchi's suits for an injunction against the clubs.

But he made it clear he was not ruling on the legality of a sick individual
possessing pot for medical use or on the possibility, raised by San
Francisco District Attorney Terence Hallinan, that local governments might
take over the distribution of medical marijuana.

Federal narcotics laws make it unlawful to cultivate, distribute or possess
marijuana. California's Proposition 215, passed by voters in 1996,
legalized the cultivation and medical use of marijuana by patients with
AIDS, cancer, glaucoma and a variety of other illnesses.

The U.S. Justice Department and Attorney General Dan Lungren have tried to
shut the clubs down ever since.

In making the ruling, Breyer dismissed amwi curiae briefs from San
Francisco and officials in Oakland, Santa Cruz and West Hollywood opposing
the federal position.

San Francisco Cannabis Club founder Dennis Peron said the ruling was
actually a good thing because it set him up for a federal trial that will
decide the issues of medical necessity and a state's constitutional right
to make its own laws.

"It sets us up for legalizing medical marijuana in all the states," Peron
said "Marijuana laws are on trial more than me and I think that's good.
Sometime's you've got to lose before you win."

Peron said he expects federal marshals to go undercover next week to buy
marijuana from the club with a doctor's note and then report back to Judge
Breyer that the club was defying the injunction. The judge will then likely
order the club enjoined and shut down until a trial can be conducted in his
courtroom, Peron said.

The Justice Department filed civil suits in January seeking to halt
operations of six clubs: Peron's Cannabis Cultivators Club and Flower
Therapy Medical Marijuana Club in San Francisco, and similar operations in
Oakland, Santa Cruz, Ukiah and Fairfax. The Flower Therapy and Santa Cruz
clubs have since closed.

The other 11 clubs in the state, including major ones in Los Angeles and
San Jose, were not named in the suits but are likely now to become targets.

In his 28-page ruling, Breyer said the only issue before him was whether
the defendants' admitted distribution of marijuana for use by seriously ill
persons under a physician's recommendation violates federal law.

The lawsuits did not challenge the constitutionality of Prop. 215, nor did
they reflect a decision on the part of the federal government "to seek to
enjoin a local governmental agency from carrying out the humanitarian
mandate envisioned by the citizens of this state when they voted to approve
this law," Breyer wrote.

"Flnding that there is a strong likelihood that defendants' conduct
violates the Controlled Substances Act, the court concludes that the
supremacy clause of the United States Constitution requires that the court
enjoin further violations of the

He said the government was likely to prevail at trial on the issue of
whether the defendants have a fundamental right to medical marijuana. "The
court, however, is not rulling as a matter of law that no such right exists
... (but) defendants have not established that the right to such treatment
is 'so rooted in the traditions and conscience of our people as to be
ranked as fundamental.'"

Breyer cautioned about "what this decision does not do.... The court has
not declared Proposition 215 unconstitutional. Nor has it enjoined the
possession of marijuana by a seriously ill patient for the patient's
personal medical use.... Nor has (it) foreclosed the possibility of a
medical necessity or constitutional defense in any proceeding in which it
is alleged a defendant has violated the injunction issued herein."

Dave Herrick Found Guilty Of Two Counts (A Local Correspondent
Writes That The Former Official With The Now-Defunct Orange County
Cannabis Co-Op Was Convicted Wednesday On Two Charges Of 'Selling'
Medical Marijuana By A Jury In Santa Ana, California, After The Judge
Disallowed Proposition 215 And Medical Necessity Defenses -
Three-Year Minimum Sentence Expected At June 26 Sentencing
If Appeal Isn't Successful)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 00:09:40 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: FilmMakerZ 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: Dave Herrick found guilty of two counts

Dave Herrick, of the Orange County Cannabis Co-op, was found guilty of two
felony counts of "sales" of marijuana. He was found not guilty of two other
counts of sales because the jury said there wasn't enough evidence.

During testimony, the defense presented three witnesses -- a patient, a
caregiver, and DA investigator Andy Pedrosa. Both the patient and caregiver
could not say that they ever received cannabis from or donated money to Dave.
They did acknowledge that he was present when the transactions took place,

During their testimony, they both said that investigator Pedrosa harassed them
and tried to put words they didn't say in to their mouths. When Public
Defender Sharon Petrosino questioned Andy Pedrosa, she caught him in several
lies and inconsistencies. He changed dates of transactions and in his notes
and reports. He asked leading questions to try to evoke the response he
wanted. He lied under oath about what was said in recorded interviews, and
Petrosino brought those lies out with transcripts of interviews.

The defense was stifled when they weren't allowed to use a Proposition 215 or
medical necessity defense. Evidence of medical use was heard throughout the
trial in testimony that the patient and caregiver were obtaining it for
medical use, and they were doing what they thought was legal under Proposition

Petrosino called for a mistrial during closing arguments when DA Carl Armbrust
said she should have subpoenaed donation receipts if she wanted to prove Dave
wasn't guilty of "sales" on the dates alleged. The judge denied her request.
What the jury didn't know is that Petrosino already had the receipts, but
wasn't allowed to submit them.

Judge Froeberg did not allow any evidence to be seen by the jury that related
to Proposition 215, virtually eliminating all evidence Petrosino had to
submit. Stickers from cannabis baggies stating "Not for sale," a club ID
card, and a doctor's note could not be seen by the jury.

The jury came out after about an hour of deliberations to ask the judge why
they weren't allowed to consider Proposition 215 in deciding the verdict.
Judge Froeberg said that 215 covers possession and use, but not sales. The
jury deliberated for about two more hours before coming up with the two guilty

After the hearing, Armbrust was asked how much cannabis a patient could have
or grow to avoid being prosecuted by him. His answer was, "I don't know." He
said 215 was a badly written law and it didn't specify how much a patient
could have. When asked how he decides to prosecute someone who is a patient,
and if he just randomly picks them and says, "This one should be prosecuted,
this one shouldn't," etc., he answered, "Yep." He also said that no medical
cannabis patient is being prosecuted anywhere in the state.

Dave is facing a minimum of three years in jail. Sentencing will be on
Friday, June 26. Petrosino plans to file an appeal.


Herrick Verdict In (Different Account From Another Orange County Witness)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 07:56:20 +0100
To: dpfca@drugsense.org, friends@freecannabis.org
From: Ellen Komp (ekomp@slonet.org)
Subject: DPFCA: Herrick Verdict In
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org

I had to leave before jury deliberations, but reports are the jury
returned to ask why Prop 215 wasn't a factor, and were read the part of
the law covering possession and cultivation; nothing about asking the
state for a distribution system. They the returned with either guilty
on one felony and one misdemeanor count or possibly two felony counts
(I've gotten conflicting stories).

Sentencing will be on Friday, June 26. An appeal is planned.

The day started with the defense resting. No witnesses were called
because all avenues for defense had been closed.

Judge William R. Froeberg then gave the jury their instructions.
Jurors were given standard instructions, including ordering them not to
consider the penalty, that they must apply the law as stated, whether
or not they agree with it. H&SC 11360 a&b was read, but not 11362.5
(The Compassionate Use Act of 1996 a.k.a. Prop 215).

The jury was given the option of finding Herrick guilty on 11360b,
"every person who gives away. . . not more than 28.5 grams of
marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis, is guilty of a
misdemeanor." However, he said, first the jury must unanimously find
the defendant "not guilty" on the sales charges. To find the defendant
guilty of the lesser crime, the judge said, there must exist general
criminal intent, which can exist whether or not the person knows the
crime is unlawful.

Armburst, in his summation, said that sales mean trading for money or
favors and that "a donation is a favor." He compared the case to that
of a prostitute who can't accept money for her services but charges $50
to pet her dog.

He argued that it didn't matter that the prosecution failed to
pinpoint the exact dates the so-called crimes were committed; it was
close enough that they were on or about a certain date. He said that
whether or not Herrick actually received money or handed off marijuana,
he was just as guilty because he aided and abetted the crime. He read
the definition of aiding and abetting and said, "that doesn't mean what
it sounds like it says." He said that the person must know the purpose
of the action but doesn't have to know it's unlawful; in any case
because selling pot is a "general criminal intent" crime it does not
require intent to violate the law. "You might say, well, gee, that's
unfair. Well it's not, It's the law," he said. He compared it to a
motorist pleading ignorant to a speed limit law.

Petrosino took the podium and evoked the Magna Carta of 1290, asking
the jurors to raise their swords around Herrick to protect him, as the
original jurors had done. She said Armburst's summation reminded her of
an old law school saw: When you don't have the facts, argue the law.
That's what the DA did, she said.

She brought up the discrepancies in dates, amounts donated, and
identifying Herrick. She used some colorful examples of her own. To
illustrate the technique of leading questions (as she charged Mr.
Petrosa had done) she used the example of a woman telling a man she
loved him and asking, "Do you love me?" If he answers, I think so (as
witnesses in this case did), should she begin planning the wedding? So
should the jurors acquit.

She argued that someone's mere presence at a crime does not constitute
aiding and abetting. To aid and abet, she said, must be "With knowledge
of unlawful purpose." In this case, she said the purpose was to provide
marijuana for seriously ill Californians. She noted that "no one
disputes that Mr. Hoffer and Mr. O'Rear required marijuana, that they
were sick."

Petrosino compared accepting donations for a gift to the return
address stickers non-profit groups send to potential donors. The gifts
are given freely, and donations are not required in exchange. "There is
no sale in this case," she said. She argued that the prosecution had
not proven anything except perhaps the lesser charge of giving away
(she only mentioned this once and tried to emphasize that she didn't
really think they proved this either.) When Armburst suggested she
would try to argue for the lesser charge during his summation, she
objected (overruled).

Once more, she brought up the donation slips, making that point that
prosecution, with its burden of proof, should have subpeoned and
presented the donation slips to clarify discrepancies in dates and
amounts donated. Rumor had it she examined 800 slips in Armburst's
possession last Friday and couldn't find a single slip for patients #54
and #62 (the two in question).

She provided a chart explaining the types of reasonable doubt that
must lead to acquittal. Reasonable doubt, she said, is when the jury
"cannot say they feel an abiding conviction of truth."

She finished with a quote from "one of our Presidents": "What we need
in this Country is not division, not hatred. . . but compassion for
those who suffer." The Orange County Co-op, she said, felt compassion
for those who suffer and "shame on anyone who say they committed a

Morning recess was called. After the jury left, Armburst argued that
because Petrosino had mentioned 215 in her final argument, he should be
able to present the ballot pamphlet statement (by Hallinan, I believe)
that "patients who sell pot can still be arrested." The judge read her
words back and ruled against Armburst, saying Petrosino had only
appealed to the passion and compassion of the jury.

Armburst came back for his last word. He expanded upon Petrosino's law
school saw, implying she was relying only on reasonable doubt.

He stated that there was nothing presented to show that marijuana
prolonged life, only that it ended pain. He said "Mr. Pollard bought
marijuana for his friend, and there's probably nothing wrong with
that." He said the Petrosino argued Herrick was "trying to help."
That's true, he said, but "any street dealer can make the same claim--I
was just trying to help the guy out. . . and we'd never convict anyone
for marijuana, cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine."

Armburst pulled his meanest move by telling the jury that Petrosino
also had subpoena power over the phantom donation slips, to which
Petrosino objected, but it was overruled. After the jury left, she
moved for a mistrial because of this statement. The judge denied it,
instead admonishing Petrosino for repeatedly bringing up the slips
despite the fact that the court had ruled she did not lay proper
foundation to present them.


Ellen Komp

215 Reporter

Prop. 215 No Defense For Cannabis Co-Op Volunteer ('Sacramento Bee' Version
Notes Jurors Said They Were Troubled That The Issue Of Proposition 215
Was Raised In Defense Of Herrick, A Retired San Bernardino County
Sheriff's Deputy - They Submitted A Handwritten Note To The Judge
Asking About 'The Will Of The People')

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 17:42:27 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Prop. 215 No Defense for Cannabis Co-Op Voluteer
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: Sacramento Bee (CA)
Contact: opinion@sacbee.com
Website: http://www.sacbee.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998


SANTA ANA, Calif. (AP) -- A cannabis co-op volunteer was convicted of
felony marijuana sale after a judge refused to allow Proposition 215, the
medical marijuana law, as a defense.

David Lee Herrick faces a maximum three years, eight months in prison.
Orange County Superior Court Judge William R. Froeberg scheduled sentencing
for June 26.

Herrick, a 48-year-old retired San Bernardino County sheriff's deputy, was
a volunteer at the Orange County Cannabis Co-Op, whose policy was to
distribute marijuana to the sick under the proposition approved by voters
in 1996.

The case had been anticipated as a test of the law until Froeberg excluded
it as defense on grounds the co-op accepted donations, amounting to sale of

Jurors said they were troubled that the issue never came up during trial
this week. They submitted a handwritten note to the judge asking about "the
will of the people," according to Thursday's Orange County Register.

Instructed that the law does not protect sale of marijuana, they quickly
returned a conviction on Wednesday. Herrick was acquitted of two other sale

Defense attorney Sharon Petrosino said she would appeal.

"Clearly the jury thought (Prop. 215) was relevant," she said. "The people
voted for this. Let the people make the decision."

"It was a good verdict," said prosecutor Carl Armbrust. "You cannot sell
marijuana. It's not authorized. The law was not changed."

Man Who Sold Pot To The Sick Convicted ('Orange County Register' Version)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 19:14:46 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Man Who Sold Pot To The Sick Convicted
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: John W.Black
Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Stuart Pfeifer


The judge rules that Prop. 215 allows only the use, not the sale of
marijuana for medical purposes.

A Santa Ana man was convicted Wednesday of felony marijuana sales for
distributing the drug to sick people who had obtained doctors'
prescriptions after the 1996 approval of California's medical-marijuana

David Lee Herrick was not allowed to use Prop. 215 as a defense at his
trial because the law does not protect the sale of marijuana, only the use.

Jurors said they were troubled by that void, submitting a handwritten note
to the judge that asked, what about "the will of the people?"

Instructed that the law does not protect the sale of marijuana, jurors
quickly convicted Herrick, 48, a retired San Bernardino County sheriff's

"Unfortunately, the way the law was described to us, it couldn't have
anything to do with it," said jury foreman Richard Emmons, 37, a financial
officer from Mission Viejo.

Jurors acquitted Herrick of two other sale charges. He faces a maximum
sentence of three years, eight months in state prison at sentencing June 26
before Judge William R. Froegerg.

Defense attorney Sharon Petrosino vowed to appeal, largely because Froeberg
prohibited her from using Prop. 215 as a defense.

"Clearly the jury thought it was relevant," Petrosino said. "The people
voted for this. Let the people make the decision."

The judge's decision to exclude Prop. 215 also gutted much of the
significance of what was supposed to have been Orange County's first legal
test of the medical-marijuana law.

Duputy District Attorney Carl Armbrust said the verdict sends just one
message: It is illegal to exchange marijuana for money in California,
prescription or not.

"It was a good verdict," Armbrust said. "You cannot sell marijuana. It's
not authorized. The law was not changed."

US Approval Sought For Pot Study ('San Jose Mercury News' Version
Of Yesterday's News About San Mateo County
Funding Medical Marijuana Research)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 17:19:36 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: U.S. Approcal Sought for Pot Study
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family 
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 13 May 1998
Author: Alan Gathright - Mercury News Staff Writer


Goal is to clarify medicinal benefits

Hoping to break California's political stalemate over the use of medicinal
marijuana, San Mateo County officials decided Tuesday to seek federal
approval for a major clinical study of marijuana's medicinal benefits.

The San Mateo County supervisors voted 3-1 to approve $50,000 in initial
funding for a three-year, $500,000 study that would follow between 500 and
1,000 people who use marijuana to control such medical problems as nausea
triggered by cancer treatment and AIDS-related weight loss. County health
officials said they would contract with a researcher to file a study
application within six months, asking the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
to authorize marijuana as an investigative drug in the clinical trials.

Supervisors Mike Nevin, Mary Griffin and Rich Gordon voted for the study.
Supervisor Tom Huening said he supported medicinal marijuana in principle,
but found the study too costly.

County officials said the ultimate hope is that a first-class, strictly
controlled study could convince the federal government to reclassify
marijuana as a prescription medication for seriously ill people.

Under federal law, marijuana is classified as an illicit drug on a par with
heroin and cocaine. It can only be prescribed by doctors in a pill form,
called Marinol, which contains a synthetic version of marijuana's active
ingredient. But some patients find smoking ``natural'' marijuana more
effective and complain that Marinol is so powerful, it leaves users in a

In November 1996, California voters passed Proposition 215, which legalized
marijuana for medicinal use under certain circumstances. But when so-called
cannabis centers distributed marijuana under the new state law to patients
with a doctor's approval, federal, state and local authorities repeatedly
acted to shut down the centers for improper sales. This left people
suffering from cancer, AIDS and other diseases able to obtain marijuana
legally only if their ``primary caregiver'' grows it for them.

Given the battle over the state law, San Mateo County officials want to
fund a study to get a definitive answer to the controversy over marijuana's
effectiveness as a medicine.

``We see this as the best and only alternative to legitimizing the use of
medical marijuana,'' said county Health Director Margaret Taylor.

Like many local jurisdictions across California, San Mateo County has been
legally thwarted from complying with Proposition 215.

Supervisor Nevin has already lobbied state Attorney General Dan Lungren for
approval of a pilot study to dispense contraband marijuana to patients at
county health clinics. But that plan died in January when federal officials
filed civil lawsuits to shut down six Northern California cannabis clubs,
saying they violated federal laws against marijuana possession, cultivation
and distribution.

``We can't do anything without the full support and cooperation of the
federal government,'' Nevin said. ``We need the Clinton administration's
blessing to be able to move on these clinical trials.''

County officials said their support for medicinal marijuana is rooted in
personal experience with sick friends. Taylor, the county health director,
said her late colleague Joni Commons, who died in January, used marijuana
to combat chemotherapy-related nausea in a 20-year battle with breast

``She is what inspired me,'' Taylor said. ``Joni . . . found it to be the
best possible drug to alleviate her symptoms.

``She got it from her caregivers -- her kids.''

She added, ``If you talk to people on the street, most think this
(marijuana study) is a great idea, especially if you do it legally and
don't make people go to cannabis clubs.''

Nevin, a former police investigator, firmly believes most Californians
support medicinal marijuana and distinguish it from recreational drug use.

``We're trying to find a compassionate way of getting this drug to the sick
and dying people who need it,'' he said.

Marijuana's medical effects have been studied for decades. But last year, a
National Institutes of Health workshop reviewed past research and found it
lacking in the scope and size necessary to prove anything definitive about
the drug's benefits. Also last year, the White House drug policy director
announced $1 million in funding for the Institute of Medicine to review
studies already done on the medical use of inhaled marijuana.

The only current research into the medicinal benefits of smoking marijuana
is a two-year, $1 million study of 63 AIDS patients at the University of
California-San Francisco, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Researchers want to determine whether marijuana alters the concentration of
AIDS drugs, making them toxic or ineffective.

A state bill to fund study of medicinal marijuana nearly passed the
Assembly floor last August but stalled amid last-minute political
wrangling. Sen. John Vasconcellos, D-San Jose, the bill's author, said he
hopes to win its passage this summer.

``I think it's great that San Mateo County is helping to raise the
visibility of an issue that the people have spoken on,'' said Vasconcellos,
who has invited federal and state officials to a summit on medicinal
marijuana May 26 in Sacramento.

San Mateo To Design Clinical Trials Of Pot ('San Francisco Examiner' Version)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 02:07:12 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: San Mateo To Design Clinical Trials Of Pot
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/


Redwood City San Mateo County supervisors have taken the first step in what
they hope will result in an unprecedented federally sanctioned study on
whether medical marijuana can ease the pain of seriously ill patients.

Board members voted to spend $50,000 over a six-month period to help design
the three-year clinical trial. Before the trial can start, it needs federal
Food and Drug Administration approval.

"There's a real lag between the law and real life," said Supervisor Mike
Nevin, the board's most outspoken supporter of Prop. 215, the medical
marijuana initiative approved by voters in 1996.

Prop. 215 allows patients and their primary caregivers to posses or grow
marijuana for doctor-recommended medical treatment.

Although there is plenty of anecdotal evidence that pot-smoking helps people
cope with the pain of serious illnesses, there is no sanctioned scientific
evidence to back up such claims.

If the clinical trial proceeds, it would be the first scientific look in the
country at whether using medical marijuana can relieve pain associated with
AIDS, cancer and other serious illnesses, according to Margaret Taylor, the
county's director of health services.

Girlfriend Of Alleged Crack Dealer Fatally Shot ('San Francisco Chronicle'
Notes 10 Police In San Francisco Trying To Apprehend A 21-Year-Old
Man Who Had Failed To Appear In Court Apparently Shot The Fugitive's
Teen-Age Girlfriend In The Head As The Two Made Their Getaway In A Car)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 17:32:06 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Girlfriend of Alleged Crack Dealer Fatally Shot
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Jaxon Van Derbeken, Chronicle Staff Writer


Fugitive, 21, at large after eluding cops

A teenager was fatally shot yesterday when San Francisco police officers
opened fire as they tried to arrest her boyfriend, an alleged crack-cocaine
dealer who had failed to appear in court.

The shooting occurred at noon as about 10 officers from the San Francisco
Police Department, the FBI and other agencies tried to arrest Raymondo Cox,
21, outside the Oakwood Apartments, across from Lake Merced in the Lake
Shore neighborhood.

According to police, Cox jumped into a Ford Mustang driven by Michael
Johnson, 24, with Cox's 17-year-old girlfriend in the front passenger's

The Mustang sped toward two officers and shots rang out, shattering the
rear window of the car, police said.

The 17-year-old, whose name was not released, was shot at least once in the
head. ``We're not considering her as an innocent victim, but she is a
victim,'' said homicide Lieutenant David Robinson.

Initially, police spokesmen said officers fired the fatal shot.

But last night, Robinson said investigators have yet to reach that
conclusion, although they are certain that some officers opened fire.

``We're trying to determine for sure how the female was shot; perhaps it
was someone in the vehicle,'' Robinson said. ``We believe that two officers
(who were in the path of the Mustang) are the officers who fired . . . but
I have no facts to support that.''

Investigators were still interviewing law enforcement officers late last night.

According to police, officers were justified in opening fire. ``A car is a
multi-thousand-pound bullet,'' Robinson said. ``You have a right to defend
yourself to neutralize aggression.''

``It was pow . . . pow, pow, pow,'' said Oakwood resident Loni Brown, who
heard the screeching of tires and the sound of gunfire.

One officer was shouting: ``Did anybody get hit? Did anybody get hit?'' she

Minutes later, the fleeing suspects slammed into the traffic median near
34th Avenue and Sloat Boulevard and collided head-on with an Oldsmobile,
officers said.

Cox and Johnson leaped out, abandoning the mortally wounded teenager. The
two then hijacked a Toyota Camry, yanking its driver, 68-year-old Zayed
Zawaydeh, from behind the wheel and shoving him to the ground.

One of the suspects shouted, ``Give me the car, give me your car,'' said
Zawaydeh, who had just left his home. ``I was afraid, I didn't know what to
say. Finally, I said, `Why do you want to take my car?' But he threw me to
the ground. He just pulled me out like a small bird.''

The crash occurred near the Lakeshore Plaza shopping center, and off-duty
firefighter Bob Jackson ran to scene and tried to revive the teenager. He
soon discovered that there was no hope. ``I just realized it was a lost
cause,'' he said. ``There was no pulse, no breath. She was dead.''

Cox and Johnson fled east on Sloat, driving Zawaydeh's 1987 gray four-door
Camry, with license number 2FAV515. They are considered armed and

Cox, a parolee with a history of narcotics convictions, was being sought on
a $50,000 bench warrant that was issued after he failed to appear in San
Francisco court in a crack-cocaine trafficking case. Police, the FBI and
other law enforcement agencies had gone to the apartment complex in
connection with the warrant and a pending drug investigation.

``They (Cox and Johnson) are involved in a narcotics enterprise,'' dealing
in cocaine and possibly other drugs, Robinson said. ```They are
distributors above street level.''

Reached last night at her home in Washington state, Cox's mother said she
was stunned by her only child's alleged involvement in the case. ``I want
him to please call me and to turn himself in,'' Chequita Cox said. ``I want
him to know that I love him and that I want to see him alive, not six feet
under.'' Chequita Cox said she sent her son to live with relatives in San
Francisco about six years ago. ``He told me he was working, but like many
kids his age, he didn't tell me what he was doing,'' she said, adding that
she last spoke to him on Mother's Day. ``I can't believe my son is walking
around with a gun and that he's dangerous.''

1998 San Francisco Chronicle

Girl Dies In Busted Stakeout ('San Francisco Examiner' Version)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 02:47:05 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Girl Dies In Busted Stakeout
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Author: Ceric Brazil, Tyche Hendricks and Larry D. Hatfield


Cop may have fired fatal shot as fleeing suspect stepped on gas; fugitive's
mom urges him to give up

A police dragnet widened Thursday for two San Francisco men who escaped
after a teenage girl was gunned down in their car. It remained unclear
whether police or one of the fugitives fired the bullets that killed the girl.

Police sought suspected drug dealer Raymondo Cox, 21, and his friend,
Michael Johnson, in his early 20s, as Cox's mother and grand mother pleaded
through the media for him to give himself up.

It was unclear whether the fugitives were armed.

The teenager, who has not been identified and was believed to be Johnson's
girlfriend, was shot and killed, apparently by San Francisco police as they
tried to arrest Cox for missing a court appearance on drug charges. He also
was wanted for assault on a Daly City police officer, police said.

Cox and Johnson allegedly fled after the gunfire near Lake Merced, then
commandeered a motorist's vehicle in the Parkside District and escaped.

The girl was in the front passenger seat of a car in which the two suspects,
who authorities say tried to run police officers down, escaped early
Wednesday afternoon.

The girl was shot in the head.

"If you're printing this for my son to read, please tell him to please call
grandma, someone in the family (or) call me," said Cox's mother, Chequita
Cox, of Bellevue, Wash. "I love him. I just don't want to see him hurt."

His grandmother, Valerie Williams, with whom Cox lived in The City, also
pleaded with him to give up and expressed fears he would be gunned down by
police whether he was armed or not "The boy's in trouble," Williams said.
"OK, fine, but don't make it worse than it is."

Raymondo Cox has lived in San Francisco since he was 15 and first came to
The City to visit his grandmother, his mother said.

Police refused to identify the officers who fired or to release the name and
age of the victim, a juvenile, whose body was found in the car after a
head-on crash in the Parkside District.

The deadly events began shortly before noon at the Oakwood Apartments at 555
John Muir Drive on the west shore of Lake Merced near the Police
Department's firing range.

Police spokesman Sherman Ackerson said a team of SFPD plainclothes officers
from the joint FBI-SFPD fugitive recovery unit spotted Cox in a gray Mustang
in the sloping driveway of the big apartment complex.

Officers in the stakeout reportedly observed Cox completing a drug deal.

Cox was wanted on a $50,000 bench warrant issued in San Francisco for
failure to appear in court on charges of possession and sale of rock cocaine.

When one of the officers approached the car, its driver, believed to be
Johnson, apparently hit the gas "as if to run him down," Ackerson said.

Homicide Lt. David Robinson said two officers were believed to have fired at
the Mustang, registered to an uncle of Cox's, before it whipped out of the
driveway and sped north along John Muir Drive. Three shell casings were
recovered at the scene.

"I heard pow! Pow! Pow! Pow!" said Loni Brown, who lives in the apartment
complex. "Then one of the cops was saying, 'Anybody get hurt?"'

"We have to determine how she was shot," said Robinson. "We don't know if it
was the officers' rounds or the suspects' rounds."

But Robinson said there was no evidence from the scene or from witnesses
that the occupants of the Mustang had returned gunfire. The rear window of
the car was shattered.

Among the charges the fugitives will face, police said, is assault with a
deadly weapon and car jacking. "You can consider a car a multithousand pound
bullet," Robinson said.

The Mustang turned east on Sloat Boulevard but went out of control in the
1600 block opposite Lakeshore Plaza near 34th Avenue. The vehicle's left
rear tire was torn off as the car careered around the planted median strip
and crashed head-on into a westbound, Oldsmobile, whose driver was not
injured by the impact.

With the girl slumped lifeless in the front seat, the two suspects ditched
the car, police said.

One of the fugitives, possibly Johnson, accosted Zayed Zawaydeh, 68, a
retired grocer, who had just pulled out of his driveway and was stopped for
a red light.

"I saw this car running, but it was smoking, like it was on fire, and I
stopped for the light," Zawaydeh said. One of the suspects "came to me and
pulled me out like a small bear. He was a very strong ...... He just said,
'I want your car,' and he threw me out on the ground."

Zawaydeh was uninjured. He said he had not seen a weapon in his assailant's
possession. "I was really afraid," he said. "I didn't know what to say."

The dead girl was Johnson's girlfriend, according to Cox's grandmother. She
didn't know the girl's name. The two suspects were last seen driving
Zawaydeh's gray four-door 1987 Toyota Camry east on Sloat. Its California
license number is 2FAV515.

An all-points bulletin has been issued to law enforcement officials in
Northern California to be on the lookout for the suspects and the stolen car.

Off-duty San Francisco firefighter Bob Jackson was first to the scene of the
crash and tried to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation to the young
woman, who had been shot through the ear.

"At first I didn't even know she was shot," Jackson sai~ "She had no pulse,
she wasn't breathing, but I started CPR because I just thought there was
just a chance I could bring her back." He stopped the CPR when paramedics
arrived. He detected no sign of life, he said. Police would not say whether
the dead girl was a suspect in the narcotics surveillance operation.

Four Candidates In Sole Primary Debate ('San Francisco Examiner'
Account Suggests Proposition 215 Was Not An Issue
To Any Of The Four Primary Contenders Vying For California's Governorship)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 02:04:14 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Four Candidates In Sole Primary Debate
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Section: A,1
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Author: Robert Salladay and Zachary Coile


Lone Republican Lungren enjoys the sniping among Democrats Checchi, Gray, Harman

LOS ANGELES - Al Checchi's opponents in the Democratic gubernatorial
primary, reeling from his multimillion-dollar barrage of negative campaign
ads, seized the platform Wednesday of the lone primary campaign debate to
fire back at the financier.

Rep. Jane Harman and Lt. Gov. Gray Davis challenged Checchi assertions that
he is only highlighting their records as public servants.

"I watched in horror as Michael Huffington smeared Dianne Feinstein. And,
sadly, now it's happening among Democrats," Harman said, referring to
Feinstein's Republican opponent in the 1994 U.S. Senate campaign.

"These things happen because too many macho politicians say, "Do it my way,
or I will tell the media about something naughty you did when you were 12.'
If (Checchi) runs a divisive and negative campaign, you can expect a
divisive and negative governor."

Davis took aim at Checchi as well: "There are only 20 days left, you could
do a great service by focusing on the merits of your campaign rather than
the alleged deficiencies of your opponents."

Harman, who repeatedly says she is running a positive campaign, went on the
attack again during her closing remarks. She chided Davis for not being bold
enough, said Republican Attorney General Dan Lungren was too extreme and
Checchi was buying the election.

When she was through, Lungren looked at Harman and said: "Thanks for that
positive closing." He got a big laugh from the audience.

The debate was the first chance for the four major candidates - Checchi,
Davis, Harman and Lungren, the lone Republican in the group - to challenge
one another on the same podium. No other debates are scheduled, although
some news organizations are trying to arrange a Northern California match-up.

The 90-minute debate, which was not televised by any major network, took
place in an auditorium at the Los Angeles Times building with about 300
reporters and civic leaders present.

The satellite feed of the debate, picked up and broadcast live in the Bay
Area by BayTV and KQED-FM, went off the air for about 10 minutes.

Requests to candidates

Times executives had asked the candidates to stay away from personal attacks
and "focus your comments on issues and actions you would take" if elected
governor. They envisioned a forum, not a nasty exchange.

For much of the forum, the candidates politely answered direct questions,
but tried often to go on the attack.

Davis and Lungren, who at first got a laugh for wondering if he should jump
between the Democrats, nevertheless swiped at Checchi for his failure to
vote in four of the past six state elections.

Lungren, a former congressman, also questioned Checchi's attacks on Davis
and Harman as career politicians.

"How can you denigrate public service?" Lungren asked. "How can you tell
them you should have spent your time making money?"

Although Checchi spent much of the debate talking about his numerous plans
for education and government reform, he broke away on several occasions to
defend himself.

"I've been attacked for spending my own money from people who take money
from others," he said.

Of his attack ads, Checchi said "this election is about comparisons, and the
things I've talked about are factual, not personal."

Open primary

Although he is an overwhelming favorite for the Republican nomination,
Lungren was included in the debate because of the state's new open primary,
which allows voters to pick any candidate regardless of party. Checchi, for
one, insisted that Lungren be included because Checchi hopes to capture
Republican cross-over voters in the primary.

During opening remarks, the candidates laid out essentially the same themes
they have been selling in their barrage of TV ads - at an estimated $50
million the most expensive ad campaign in California's political history.

Checchi, who told the audience he is the grandson of immigrants, talked
about the coming new century and went through his list of proposals and
promises: cutting bureaucracy, adding more police, and offering tax breaks.

He said he has traveled the state meeting people and "through their eyes I
have also seen that people are concerned about their future and are
dissatisfied with politicians who say things are pretty good right now and
have no plan for the future. I reject the old politics that say we have to
be content with the way we are."

Harman repeated her mix of public and private experience, her fiscal
conservatism and the fact that she is a woman and mother. She took the
middle - and most specific - road when asked how she would spend the state's
current $4 billion surplus.

Harman said she would divide the money between education and a limited tax
cut. She said Lungren's call for eliminating the state's car tax was the
"cut-and-run approach."

Davis mentioned several times his work as chief of staff to former Gov.
Jerry Brown, his status as a Vietnam veteran and his experience as an
assemblyman, state controller and lieutenant governor. He said he wanted to
fix the schools, cut crime and work toward a more diverse state.

"I will work to bring this state together, and end divisive, wedge-issue
campaigns," Davis said.

Lungren highlighted what he said was his record as attorney general helping
drive down the crime rate in California. Asked about the increase in prison
spending, the fastest growing part of the state budget, Lungren said he
would not apologize for tougher sentencing laws he has backed.

"We'll stop building prisons when they stop committing crimes," he said.

For those who missed the live broadcast on BayTV, C-SPAN or KQED-FM, the
debate will be played on KCBS-AM radio from 8 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. Wednesday
and on BayTV this weekend and C-SPAN at 9 a.m. Sunday.

(c)1998 San Francisco Examiner

Senator Lockyer's Pitch (Staff Editorial In 'The Orange County Register'
Says The Democratic Candidate For California Attorney General,
State Senator Bill Lockyer, Fully Supports Proposition 215
And Would Shift The Department's Emphasis More Toward Consumer Rights
And Civil Rights Cases And Away From 'Narcotics' Enforcement,
A Cornerstone Of Dan Lungren's Administration)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 19:14:22 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Editorial: Sen. Lockyer's Pitch
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: John W.Black
Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998


A change of emphasis would come to the California attorney general's office
if Democrat Bill Lockyer is elected. The former state Senate president
pro-tem, who still serves in the Senate, believes current Attorney General
Dan Lungren-a Republican now running for governor- has taken the wrong
track in some areas.

In an interview yesterday with the Register editorial board, Sen. Lockyer
indicated how he's likely to be distinctively different. He would shift the
department's emphasis more toward consumer rights and civil rights cases
and away from narcotics enforcement, a cornerstone of Mr. Lungren's
administration. And Sen. Lockyer would push to improve the technology and
management structure of a department that has more than 4,000 employees,
including 1,000 lawyers.

Sen. Lockyer criticized existing enforcement of child-support statutes,
noting there is a backlog of one million names of Californians that local
district attorneys want to find for collection purposes. Sen. Lockyer
conceded that much of the problem was a state computer system that didn't
work. As a politician representing Silicon Valley, he said, "You start by
enlisting some of the best brains in the planet who work in California" in
the computer industry.

In some other areas Sen. Lockyer had ideas that we think would move the
department beyond the rigidities of the Lungren administration. He fully
backs Proposition 215, the medical marijuana initiative passed by voters in
1996, and voted for it.

He believes physicians ought to be able to prescribe whatever pain-relief
medications are necessary to those in severe pain. He remembered the
suffering of his mother, who died of leukemia at 50, and of his sister, who
died from the same disease. "If you can give them morphine [which it is
legal to prescribe], you can give them marijuana," he said, speaking of
patients in general. He admitted the initiative "wasn't written well" and
would advocate statutes that better define, for instance, who is a
caretaker, and would allow the regulated distribution of marijuana to sick
people who need it, but with safeguards to prevent broader use.

He opposes new taxes on and censorship of the Internet and would favor
allowing local public schools and libraries to establish sensible use
policies, rather than the state.

He has been a major supporter of the 1993 law that limited the seizures of
innocent people's property under asset forfeiture laws, requiring a
conviction in court before the property is taken. (The previous state law,
and current federal law, allow seizures without a trial.)

He also sensibly favors shifting the emphasis of drug abuse offenders from
incarceration to treatment. In 15 years, prison costs have zoomed to $4
billion a year from $400 million. More than 150,000 prisoners are behind
bars in California, a majority sufferering alcohol or drug problems. Drug
treatment programs would help relieve overcrowding, he believes, in part
because they reduce recidivism.

In a couple of ways, Sen. Lockyer would act like Mr. Lungren. He supports
the actions of 40 state attorneys general, including Mr. Lungren, against
the tobacco companies. He believes a cigarette tax might be necessary to
"pay the social costs" of smoking and that government, through taxes, can
significantly change behavior. And, he is predisposed to viewing Microsoft
Corp. as a monopoly in terms of its operating system. All this could well
mean a hard eye on big business and a tilt toward intrusion, though he
professed a respect for the free market.

On the subject of taxes, he pointed out that he sponsored last year's $1
billion state income tax cut and was the sole Senate Democrat who opposed
the "car tax " that was imposed in 1991, and which now costs an average of
$184 a year for each car. "It's regressive, high," he said, but hasn't
endorsed Assemblyman Tom McClintock's new proposal to repeal the tax. "I
don't want to cut local services" which the tax pays for, Sen. Lockyer
said. And the state budget surplus expected this year could be only part of
a "temporary upswing in the economy" that soon could fade.

It seems to us that on these tax issues Sen. Lockyer wants it both ways. If
the car tax was wrong in 1991 then it's wrong now and ought to be repealed.
And if cigarette taxes would unfairly hit the poor and precipitate black
market activity, as happened in Canada, Then the taxes ought not be

Government is about making hard public-policy choices. Sen. Lockyer aligns
with our views in some areas - First Amendment issues, the Internet, asset
forfeiture and medical marijuana - but on tax issues he almost reflexively
wants to keep revenues on the government ledger, instead of returning them
to the producers, the taxpayers.

But one thing seems certain: the attorney general's office under Sen.
Lockyer, if elected, would not be a continuation of the Lungren days, in
many significant ways.

Officers Train To Eradicate Pot Plants ('Tulsa World' Says Cops
From 20 Law Enforcement Agencies Have Been Training At Camp Grubor
This Week For The Annual Crackdown Starting In June In Eastern Oklahoma's
Marijuana Harvest - Herbicide Sprays Will Be Used For The First Time,
Making Oklahoma Only The Second State To Use The Method)

From: nora@november.org (Nora Callahan)
To: november-l@november.org (Multiple recipients of list)
Subject: [Fwd: Marijuana Crackdown]
Date: Thu, 14 May

While we are discussing war metaphor....

read this!

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 13:19:36 -0500
From: Meg (river@busprod.com)
To: ajsmith@intr.net
CC: nora@november.org
Subject: Marijuana Crackdown

Oklahoma has now made itself into a "police state". The following is
from the May 14, edition of the Tulsa World:



CAMP GRUBER - Officers from 20 law enforcement agencies have been
training here this week for the annual crackdown starting in June in
eastern Oklahoma's marijuana harvest.

Authorities are expecting a more efficient eradication program this year
because sprays will be used for the first time, making Oklahoma only the
second state to use the method.

Russ Higbie, chief agent over enforcement for the Oklahoma Bureau of
Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, said the use of sprays gives officers an
eradication tool quicker than the old method of chopping down stalks and
then burning them.

"It is going to revoluntionize this entire project, making it possible
to eradicate thousands of more marijuana plants in a shorter period of
time," he said, noting that in the past "we had to whack it, stack it
and burn it."

The Bureau, the lead agency in the eradication program, joined hands
this week with the Okla. Army National Guard to provide the training at
Camp Gruber where the Guard frequently hold weekend and annual two week

The Guard also is a source of "federal funding" for the marijuana
operation and will provide equipment and manpower for surveillance from
helicopters, Higbie said.

Traditionally, the major marijuana alley in the state has stretched
through the eastern sector of the state, virtually all the way from
Kansas to Texas. Officers training with the Guard this week are from
nine counties, large and small municipal police departments, the
Oklahoma Highway Patrol and the Cherokee Nation.

Much of the training Wednesday centered on the officers descending from
a platform on ropes. Later this week they will test their skills at
coming down ropes from flying helicopters.

The rappel training is necessary, Higbie said, because in many areas of
the state it is impossible to land helicopters.

Higbie said the Bureau's marijuana eradication program started 10 years
ago, and the department of the Army began "blending in" by providing
monies and personnel to combat drug use.

Though he didn't have numbers readily available, Higbie said the program
has been a major success, resulting in high arrest and seizure rates
during the summer months.

While the primary marijuana corridor in Okla. is in the eastern part of
the state, Higbie said the "task force" also has worked operations in
the western sector.

The participation of the officers is important, he said, because they
have the qualifications to make the hundreds of arrests "occurring each

The National Guard, he said is never put in a position of having to
"give testimony" or "be involved in the chain of custody of evidence".

They support us, he said, "by allowing us to work the towers and flying
the helicopters to work the surveillance and spotting mission through
their own funding."

Higbie said the chemical spraying program passed an environmental impact
study and is patterned after one in Hawaii, the only other state where
sprays are used on marijuana.

"We gave a demonstration of the spray late last year and were very happy
with it," he said.

In previous years, when marijuana was chopped down and then burned he
said, officers were eradicating an estimated 8,000 plants per week.
During the demonstration program last October, 50,000 plants were
eradicated in two days.


......this speaks for itself I think, the National Guard is already
taking everything Frank Keating said to heart. They now have the right
to help "law enforcement" with state as well as federal busts.

"Your doing fine Oklahoma", now has a whole new meaning, at least for
me. Makes me sad, I used to like it here, wanted to raise my kids, have
a home, a future......now I just want out, before its too late.

- meg


Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 20:50:14 -0700 (PDT)
From: bc616@scn.org (Darral Good)
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net
Subject: HT: SENT: to Tulsa Today: herbicide spraying is dangerous and wrong!

I just visited Marijuana HELL, otherwise known as Oklahoma,

won't you join me in saying HIGH on their BBS?

Linkname: Frameset for Public Policy Discussion Area

URL: http://www.tulsatoday.com/discussion2/index.htm
Link that you currently have selected

Linkname: MARIJUANA herbicide spraying is dangerous and wrong
URL: http://www.tulsatoday.com/discussion2/_disc1/0000003d.htm

Ann Landers - Drug Policy Requires Common Sense (Syndicated Advice Columnist
Notes Zero Tolerance School Policy That Led To A 6-Year-Old Boy
In Colorado Springs Being Suspended For Lemon Drops Shows Zero Sense)

Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 15:29:57 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Ann Landers: Drug Policy Requires Common Sense
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family 
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998



DEAR ANN: I clipped the enclosed article from the Grand Rapids Press
because it struck me as a perfect example of what's wrong with our society.
Too many people these days are being promoted to their level of
incompetence. I realize that school personnel must monitor for drugs
because of the problems we have with school-age pushers and violent crimes,
but let's take a second or third look before losing our sense of balance.
Here's the story:

A 6-year-old boy in Colorado Springs has been suspended for half a day
because he brought ``drugs'' to school. Actually, they were lemon drops
that he had purchased in a health food store.

The fire department and an ambulance were called after a teacher found the
first-grader giving the candies to a fellow pupil. Both boys' parents were
urged to take their children to the hospital for tests, despite the
mother's assurances that the lemon drops were harmless.

An administrator at the school said the half-day suspension was consistent
with the district's drug policy, which treats unfamiliar products as
controlled substances. The boy's mother called the response ``complete
hysteria,'' adding, ``I can't believe these people are educating our

-- J.W. in Martin, Mich.

DEAR MARTIN, MICH.: I'm glad you sent the clipping. I would have had a hard
time believing the story without proof.

Write to Ann Landers in care of Silicon Valley Life, the Mercury News, 750
Ridder Park Drive, San Jose, Calif. 95190. Enclose an addressed, stamped

ACLU In 'New York Times' (List Subscriber
Notes The American Civil Liberties Union Ran A Quarter-Page Ad
In Support Of Marijuana Law Reform Yesterday)
Link to earlier story
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 01:30:14 -0700 (PDT) From: pcehthns@scn.org (SCN User) To: hemp-talk@hemp.net Subject: HT: ACLU In New Yrk Times! Cc: november-l@november.org Reply-To: pcehthns@scn.org Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net Hello Hemp-Talkers! Me here. In yesterday's New York Times there's an amazing phenomenon that is in my knowledge rather unprecedented... a 1/4 page advertisement by the American Civil Liberties Union. It has a huge black M...in it is white text that reads..."Let me ask you something...If you had the choice what would it be, Marijuana or Martinis?" Then it says in small print: Millions of Americans who are highly productive and stable clandestinely choose marijuana over martinis. They say that it's less toxic than alcohol. But while the government classifies both substances drugs, mysteriously one is legal while the other is not. Why should it be so? The scientific evidence doesn't justify this distinction. The National Academy of Sciences has concluded that marijuana is one of the least dangerous drugs, legal or otherwise. More than a dozen commissions in the US and other countries have found that its dangers have been exaggerated and that moderate use is rarely harmful. On the other hand, alcohol is a leading cause of disease, violence and accidents. So why has our government arrested millions of adults who prefer marijuana? And why have such arrests doubled in recent years? Is this right? Shouldn't adults have the right to choose marijuana over martinis? Think about it. And if you want more information, write me. Ira Glasser, executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union 125 Broad St, New York, New York, 10004 www.aclu.org Whoa! I guess I will renew my membership after all. Even though they balked @ my challenge of Seattle's anti-poster law (on appeal to state supreme court!). The New York Times! The Times they are a changin'. And I don't mean the newspaper. The war on drugs is a war on people and war always has casualties...usually, as we've heard...the truth...but any halfway decent truth will rise up offa that stretcher and BITE YA! -the vivulator- p.s. I'm sick and gettin sicker...just had my second MRI and go in for a gruesome nerve conduction study 2morrow. Please say a prayer, dance a jig, smoke a hooter, turn off the TV, eat some tofu or put the cat out 4 me:) laterdazemygoodfriendsandfamilyIloveyousooooomuch! *** Vivian Mc Peak Seattle Peace Heathens pcehthns@scn.org

City Is Sued by a Woman Whose Home Was Raided ('New York Times'
Says A $20 Million Lawsuit Was Filed On Tuesday Against The New York City
Police Department And The City Over A No-Knock Search Warrant
That Led To A Vicious Drug Raid Last June In Brooklyn
That Violated The Rights Of A Woman And Her Two Children, Ages 6 And 1)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 20:38:25 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US NYT: City Is Sued by a Woman Whose Home Was Raided
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: emr@javanet.com (Dick Evans)
Source: New York Times (NY)
Contact: letters@nytimes.com
Website: http://www.nytimes.com/
Pubdate: May 14, 1998
Author: Michael Cooper


NEW YORK -- The no-knock search warrant, for a drug raid that the police
carried out last June at 396 New Jersey Ave. in East New York, Brooklyn,
was quite specific. "Upon reaching the second-floor landing," it said, "one
turns to the left and proceeds to the gray metal door clearly marked with
the letter and number '2M."' There was just one problem: There is no
apartment 2M at 396 New Jersey Ave. The only apartments on the second floor
are marked 2L and 2R. And both doors are red, not gray.

But the family that lives in apartment 2L claims that the discrepancy did
not prevent a team of police officers from breaking down its door about
8:30 a.m. on June 5. Instead of finding the heroin or handguns they were
looking for, the family said, the police found only a woman and her two
children, who were ages 6 and 1.

The woman, Sandra Soto, 27, held a news conference Wednesday to announce
that she had filed a $20 million lawsuit on Tuesday against the Police
Department and the city. "They just broke down the door," she said. "I told
them, 'Please, can I take the baby out of the crib?' She was screaming.

They said, 'No."' But police officials said Wednesday that they were
confident the officers had raided the right apartment, even if it was not
the one named in the warrant and even though no drugs or contraband were
found. And they questioned the timing of Ms. Soto's lawsuit, suggesting
that she was trying to capitalize on recent cases in which the police have
been accused of raiding the wrong apartments or carrying out improper drug
raids. "It's just like a number of other cases," Police Commissioner Howard
Safir said Wednesday at his weekly news conference, "that are popping up as
people line up to see if they can sue the city for big dollars with
attorneys who hold press conferences rather than litigate."

Ms. Soto's lawyer, Susan Karten, said that Ms. Soto filed a complaint with
the Civilian Complaint Review Board on the day of the raid and filed a
notice of claim against the city -- which paved the way for the lawsuit --
last July. "We believe that this incident, as well as the others that
followed in its wake," Ms. Karten said, "represents a continuing systemic
problem within the New York City Police Department with regard to the way
they confirm and verify information obtained by confidential informants in
connection with drug raids."

The search warrant stated that a confidential informer -- who had been a
heroin user for eight years and who said he had sold the drug from time to
time -- told a police officer that he had been in apartment 2M and had seen
a man named Lucky "cutting heroin and placing it in plastic glassine
envelopes" that were stamped with a percent symbol.

The informer also said that he had seen a 9-millimeter pistol and a
.38-caliber handgun in the apartment, according to the warrant. A police
official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said Wednesday that the
informer had proved reliable before and after the raid on New Jersey
Avenue. And he said the police felt sure that they had raided the right

"He went on the description of the location, rather than any letters or
numbers on that door," the official said of the officer who led the raid.
Ms. Soto said that she did not know anyone named Lucky. "I don't mess with
anybody in the building," she said. "I'm always in the apartment."

First International Conference On Heroin Maintenance - Update
(The Lindesmith Center Gives New Details And Registration Information
Regarding The Meeting June 6 In New York City)

From: enadelmann@sorosny.org
Date: Thu, 14 May 98 21:45:26 EST
To: #TLC__ACTIVIST_at_osi-ny@mail.sorosny.org, tlc-activist@soros.org,
#TLC__ASC_at_osi-ny@mail.sorosny.org, tlc-asc@soros.org,
Subject: First Internt'l Conf. on Heroin Maintenance - Update
Sender: owner-tlc-activist@soros.org





Saturday, June 6, 1998
9:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
New York Academy of Medicine
103rd Street and 5th Avenue

The use of heroin maintenance as pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction
is gaining acceptance. A landmark Swiss study has successfully
maintained heroin addicts on injectable heroin for almost two years,
with dramatic reductions in illicit drug use and criminal activity, as
well as greatly improved health and social adjustment.

This conference will mark the first U.S. presentation of the results
of the Swiss program by Professor Ambros Uchtenhagen, M.D., PhD.,
Principal Investigator of the Swiss National Project on the Medically
Controlled Prescription of Narcotics.

Heroin trials are also under way or under consideration in several
other countries. Leading clinicians, researchers, public health and
law enforcement officials from Australia, Canada, Germany, Great
Britain, The Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States
will present their perspectives, plans and programs.



9:00 Registration

9:30 Introductions

9:45 The Swiss Heroin Prescription Program

Thomas Zeltner, PhD, Director of the Swiss Federal Office of
Public Health

Ambros Uchtenhagen, MD, PhD, Principal Investigator, Swiss
National Project on the Medically Controlled Prescription
of Narcotics

11:00 Break

11:15 Developing Models for Heroin Maintenance Treatment

Australia: Gabriele Bammer, PhD, Senior Fellow, National
Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian
National University

Netherlands: Prof. Wim Van den Brink, Chairman, Dutch
Health Council Committee on Medicinal Intervention in Drug

12:30 Lunch

Speaker: Craig D. Reinarman, PhD, University of California,
Santa Cruz -- "The Hidden History of Opiate Maintenance in
the United States"

2:00 Commentator Panel: Medical leaders provide their
perspectives on opiate treatment and anchor an audience

- Peter Beilenson, M.D., M.P.H. Commissioner of Health,
Baltimore, MD

- David C. Lewis, M.D., Director, Center for Alcohol &
Addiction Studies, Brown University

- Martin Schechter, M.D., Ph.D., Faculty of Medicine,
University of British Columbia

- Alex Wodak, M.D. Director, Alcohol & Drug Service, St.
Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia

3:30 Concurrent Focus Sessions

1) Clinical and Treatment Issues
- Tony Barthael, Switzerland
- Robert Haemmig, Switzerland
- David Marsh, Canada
- William Shanahan, Great Britain

2) Research and Evaluation
- Nicky Metrebian, Great Britain
- Thomas Perneger, Switzerland
- Ambros Uchtenhagen, Switzerland
- Wim Van den Brink, The Netherlands
- Maria Victoria Zunzunegui, Spain

3) Legal/Policy Strategies
- Gabriele Bammer, Australia
- Alex Wodak, Australia
- Thomas Zeltner, Switzerland

5:00 Reception



The First International Conference on Heroin Maintenance

Saturday, June 6, 1998, 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

The New York Academy of Medicine - 1216 Fifth Ave. New York, NY

Fees: includes lunch $40 per person; $20 per student: A limited number of
scholarships will be available upon request.















The New York Academy of Medicine
1216 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY

Limited Parking is Available.

For more information call:
e-mail: ralcantara@nyam.org

Please Register by Mail or Fax:

For Online Registration:

Make Checks Payable To:




Expanded Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Opiate Dependence

Friday, September 25, 1998, 9am - 5pm

at The New York Academy of Medicine


These conferences are sponsored by:

*Beth Israel Medical Center
*Columbia University School of Public Health
*The Lindesmith Center of the Open Society Institute
*Montefiore Medical Center
*The New York Academy of Medicine
*Yale University Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS

Why Needle Exchanges Stink (An Op-Ed In 'The Trentonian'
By New Jersey Governor Christie Whitman Ignores The Science
That Rebuts Her Position)

Date: Thu, 21 May 1998 15:59:27 EDT
Errors-To: manager@drcnet.org
Reply-To: borden@intr.net
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: David Borden (borden@intr.net)
To: Multiple recipients of list (drctalk@drcnet.org)
Subject: write to the Trentonian

Anyone want to write some letters to The Trentonian? Ken Wolski is one of
our members. In reply, Gov. Christine Whitman published one of the most
skillful pieces of demagoguery I've ever seen. But she's so far wrong that
it's not that hard to poke holes in her reasoning even so. One important
point is that since the beginning of the NJ needle exchange controversy,
Whitman has consistently focused on her objection to "government giving out
needles," as opposed to the more basic issue that her administration has
used armed agents of the state to prevent sterile syringes from being
provided even privately. Letters go to:

Attn: Letters to the Editor
The Trentonian
600 Perry St.
Trenton, NJ 08618
All letters must be signed and a daytime phone number must be included for
confirmation purposes.


Why needle exchanges stink

The Trentonian, 5/14/98

Recent statements by national figures as diverse as President Clinton and
Miss America have heightened the media's attention to the issue of
government-sponsored needle-exchange programs.

Citing studies that purport to show a direct link between needle-exchange
programs and a reduction in AIDS deaths among intravenous drug users, the
White House published a statement acknowledging the supposed effectiveness
of the program while refusing to provide federal funds for its expansion.

In issuing this essentially split decision, the White House missed an
important opportunity to take an unequivocal stand against drug abuse.

I have long been opposed to needle-exchange programs. That opposition has
nothing to do with AIDS. Rather, my opposition comes from two sources: I
am a mother and I am a governor.

As a mother, I learned early in my children's lives that there are some
issues on which you cannot equivocate. One of those issues is the use of
drugs. I also learned that children will see right through conflicting
messages. Such messages only confuse them.

Government cannot on the one hand say that drug use is bad and illegal, and
on the other provide the tools for this destructive behavior in the name of
health. Kids will not accept that. It is like saying, "Just say maybe."

As a governor, I have rejected this program, not because I am insensitive
to the plight of people with AIDS -- New Jersey spends nearly $60 million
annually to treat AIDS patients and to prevent the spread of the disease.
My opposition to an exchange program also goes beyond the fact that the
behavior it supports is illegal.

My refusal to consider such a program in New Jersey stems from the fact
that drug abuse continues to threaten the lives, health and safety of the
people of New Jersey.

For example, recent reports reveal that heroin use and overdose deaths are
up in New Jersey and across the nation. Every county in New Jersey is
reporting an increase in heroin use. In Essex, Morris, Somerset, Sussex
and Union counties alone, hospital admissions for heroin-related problems
are up by 22 percent. In the past 10 years, the proportion of New Jersey
students who admit to using heroin has tripled.

The potency and purity of heroin on the streets today is at its highest
ever. Street heroin today is from 70 to 90 percent pure. In the 1970s, it
was just 5 to 10 percent pure.

Eighty percent of the inmates in New Jersey prisons have drug problems, and
the growth of drug use in American is related to half of all street crime.
And drug users and their victims are not the only ones who suffer from
illegal drug abuse. Nationally, 11 percent of newborns are born with drug
or alcohol problems, problems that will affect them, and those around them,
for life.

Sadly, this is just the tip of the iceberg. That is why needle-exchange
programs cannot be discussed simply in terms of preventing AIDS. Drug use,
and its consequences, must be part of any honest review.

For these reasons, both as a mother and as a governor, I cannot support a
needle-exchange program. I only wish that the president had used his
unique platform to share his reasons for reaching the same conclusion. I
know it would have raised level of discussion and, perhaps, helped us in
our fight to both stop drug use and prevent AIDS.

Gov. Christie Whitman

Is The Drug War Racist? ('Rolling Stone' Interviews Glenn C. Loury
And Orlando Patterson, Two African-American Academics And Critics
Of America's War On Some Drug Users)

Date: Fri, 8 May 1998 06:37:29 -0700 (PDT)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
From: arandell@islandnet.com (Alan Randell)
Subject: Is the drug war racist?
Newshawk: Alan Randell
Pubdate: May 14, 1998
Source:	 Rolling Stone
Contact: letters@rollingstone.com

Is the drug war racist?

The government's policy has scorched the inner cities and put a
generation of young black men behind bars. Two leading African-
American scholars reflect on the damage done.

By Samuel G. Freedman

America's war on drugs has ravished the inner cities it aspired to
save. Without curbing drug traffic, the crusade has sent a generation
of young black males into the criminal-justice system, which offers
them not rehabilitation but firsthand instruction in violent crime.
While blacks make up thirteen percent of the national population and
thirteen percent of the country's monthly drug users, they account
for thirty-five percent of arrests for drug possession, fifty-five
percent of convictions and seventy-four percent of prison sentences,
according to the Sentencing Project, a nonprofit that promotes
criminal-justice reform. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of blacks
held in state prisons on drug charges rose by 465 percent, the
project also reported. That increase partly reflects the inequality
of federal sentencing rules, under which a person convicted of
possessing five grams of crack cocaine receives the same five-year
mandatory minimum as someone caught selling 500 grams of powder

Such evidence has turned Glenn C. Loury and Orlando Patterson into
vociferous critics of the war. Two of America's leading public
intellectuals, both men espouse cautious, unromantic liberalism on
issues like affirmative action are socially conservative about family
values. Loury is an economist who won an American Book Award in 1996
for "One by One, From the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and
Responsibility in America". He also directs the Institute on Race and
Social Division at Boston University and was one of thirty-four
prominent scholars and law-enforcement officials who last September
signed a set of "principles for practical drug policies" that staked
a middle ground between what it called "two positions stereotyped as
'drug warrior' and 'legalizer.'" Patterson is John Cowles Professor
of Sociology at Harvard University and the winner of a 1991 National
Book Award for "Freedom in the Making of Western Culture." He decries
the drug war in his current book, "The Ordeal of Integration."

Both men speak as academics and as products of their divergent pasts.
Loury, who is forty-nine, grew up in a black working-class
neighborhood in Chicago. he later joined, then broke from, the
neoconservative movement and now calls himself "a recovering
reactionary." He is also a recovering freebase addict who went
through a highly publicized arrest and finally got clean in a halfway
house. Patterson, 57, was brought up in Jamaica, did graduate study
in England and served in the Seventies as special advisor to the
Democratic Socialist prime minister of Jamaica, Michael Manley.

ROLLING STONE: If ten years ago you had said to people, "We're going
to increase arrests and incarceration by several hundred percent over
the next decade," the response probably would have been that there
won't be any more drug problem. Arrests and incarcerations have gone
up, as promised, but the drugs are still here. What makes it so
difficult to reform our policy?

LOURY: There's an anxiety among people about drugs. I mean, this is
not just an inner-city issue. You've got it throughout rural and
urban life; I hear about drugs in the Brookline [Massachusetts]
schools where my kids go. The War on Drugs is a way of doing
something about it. It's away that we're determined to fight back.
It's easy to get that concern on the table. It's harder to get a
concern about the consequences of a particular way of fighting drugs
on the table.

What happens to the fellow who stands up and says, "Look at what's
going on with the incarceration of racial minorities in the country.
Look at the way in which we're criminalizing a whole class of young
black men. There is a tremendous cost of this policy"? The person who
stands up and says that isn't seen as credible. After all, he's
advocating on behalf of these bad guys. They're the threat, right?

ROLLING STONE: What is the cost when you criminalize a whole class of
young men?

PATTERSON: Horrendous. You not only send these people to prison but
you actually make them into criminals. The ones who go to prison end
up as professional criminals committing major crimes later on - the
costs of which are borne by the society in terms of property damage,
murder and police costs.

It's often been pointed out, though, that many drug crimes are, in
fact, victimless crimes. In a funny kind of way, that may well be
what explains why people buy into this scorched-earth approach to
controlling drugs. You don't have to account for people who are
victimized as a result of making criminals of these people and
sending them to prison.

LOURY: You've got social policy being fueled by very significant
resources on the ground. Peter Reuter, a criminologist who's a
student of these matters, said that something like $30 billion is
spent annually on the War on Drugs. So this is a massive
mobilization; these are some significant resources. If we propose to
spend $30 billion over five years on preschool education for kids,
after-school programs, summer jobs or whatever, people would be up in
arms in the Congress, saying, you know, "Midnight basketball doesn't
work." Michael Tonry, in his book, "Malign neglect: Race, Crime and
Punishment in America", makes a very strong case that the anti-drug
money substantially affects the behavior of police departments.

ROLLING STONE: You mean that because the dollars are there, the
public demands great numbers of arrests?

LOURY: Yes, exactly. What's success? Success is locking people up.
Success is cases, it's collars. And where does the police department
find people? It's going to go to the point of least resistance, where
there are transactions that are occurring on the street, where
neighborhoods are poorly organized so that it's easy to infiltrate
the rings that are selling the stuff.

I use this analogy: If we were having a war on prostitution and we
decided we wanted to lock up as many prostitutes as possible, you're
going to concentrate on people who are streetwalkers. You're going to
go down by the docks, to the wrong side of the railroad tracks, the
Combat Zone here in Boston. What you're going to find are poor woman
who are drug-addicted, who are welfare dependent, who are going to be
disproportionately minority. And you're going to lock them up.
Now we all know that sex for money is being transacted in this
society at many different levels and in many different ways. But a
policy designed to maximize the number of persons arrested for
selling sex for money will predictably fill up the jails with women
of a certain kind.

So the perspective from these communities well could be, "This is a
war on us." I use that kind of rhetoric cautiously because I don't
mean to contribute to conspiracy theorizing.

PATTERSON: The difference between [the criminal penalties for]
cocaine powder and crack cocaine is way out of proportion, and it
doesn't matter what the original motivation is. One doesn't have to
prove that this deplorable state of affairs originated in deliberate
racist practices. In fact, I don't think it did. Because there's good
evidence that the members of the African-American community wanted a
strong crackdown on crack and pushed for having extreme penalties.

ROLLING STONE: Part of what went with that was the idea that crack
was so addictive that you couldn't rehab from it. And once you
believe that, you take the whole idea of treatment off the table and
it becomes purely a debate over punishment.

LOURY: The animus against crack that you find in the African-American
community comes from the tremendous damage that crack addiction has
done to so many people. The last thing you want to learn is that your
son-in-law, your nephew, your cousin, is on the pipe. Because that's
going to be trouble for a long time, and you know the downside is
pretty far down.

Now, the anti-treatment people say treatment doesn't work, and it's
true that on any given attempt treatment has a relatively low cure
rate. You have to keep at it. But from my prospective, anybody who
pulls themselves up out of the gutter and says, "I want to go and try
and get my life together," there should be a place for them to go.
And if it doesn't work this time, as long as there's a place there
and they can go back - and they do go back - that should be paid for.

ROLLING STONE: Would you talk to some extent from your own

LOURY: It's dangerous business to try and make social policy on the
basis of one's biography. So I wouldn't, except to say I have
observed firsthand the difficulty of getting out from under the
allure and the obsession with some of these substances.

ROLLING STONE: How is it that criticizing the drug war has become
perceived as tantamount to being soft on drugs?

LOURY: You have to distinguish between the effect of a policy and the
symbolic meaning of a policy, which I think is important politically.
You know, we have sodomy laws on the books that are not enforced. My
view is that they're bad laws in some demonstrable sense, but it
might be very hard politically to get them off the books because an
effort to take them off is understood to be endorsing a certain way
of life.

Similarly, with drug policy, the discourse is shrouded with these
symbolic meanings. If you have a lot of pot-smoking hippies running
around denouncing all of the drug laws, then we know those are bad
people. The fact that the image of drug users and dealers is that of
a hooded-sweat-shirt-wearing, gun-toting sixteen-year-old hanging out
in a doorway - the black, urban, thug - gives you some indication of
the demonization. Once these people become the face of this problem,
those who say, "Let them out, don't hit them too hard" are people who
don't take the problem seriously. That's the construction of symbolic

PATTERSON: There was a time when alcohol was also ethnically
identified, and the Irish in America were criminalized as a result.
As long as that association existed, no one could see alcoholism as
an illness. It wasn't until people were able to persuade themselves
that, in fact, alcoholism wasn't the problem of one single ethnic
group that they were able to see it as an illness.

LOURY: The degree of tolerance for alcohol use is relatively unique
in American history. But the policy of Prohibition is universally
recognized to have been a failure. It seems to me that we need to
recognize the same failure with drug policy.

PATTERSON: Having acknowledged all of this, the question is, "What do
we do now?" And it seems to me that this is something that political
will could be very effective in changing.

ROLLING STONE: But virtually no politician is willing to stand up
publicly and question the drug war. It's like the Cold War years and
no wants to normalize relations with China because they'll look soft
on communism. This issue is waiting for its Nixon.

PATTERSON: This is a fundamental problem in the American political
process, isn't it? There's nothing you can say about changing
traditional attitudes towards law-breaking behavior because of the
political fear that it will used against you. I don't know how
America got itself into this bind. But in the final analysis, it will
only be a powerful leader who also is courageous enough to risk his
popularity by saying, "This is ridiculous."

LOURY: Look at what the Republicans tried to do in the last
presidential election. When there was some statistic about marijuana
use among high-school students, there was a whole campaign about how
Clinton had had some marijuana smokers in the White House so he's
sending the wrong message. Which is ridiculous. These social trends
are not driven by the symbols that are given off by somebody who sits
in Washington, D.C. They're driven by the fundamentals on the ground
in a nation of 270 million people.

PATTERSON: I don't see why Clinton in his second term couldn't have
selected a few issues that are ostensibly unpopular. This would have
the political benefit for him of making him appear to be courageous.
And given the fact that the African-American community constitutes
such a major part of his base, he has a responsibility to take some
unpopular stands on important issues. And drug policy is one I would
certainly emphasize.

LOURY: This is what Clinton's "national conversation on race" should
partly be about. You don't have to frame it in terms of "You know the
drug policy is racist." But you can say that the policy is creating
distress and polarization and alienation among inner-city blacks. And
that is a problem.

PATTERSON: What I find irritating is that in prison not only is there
no rehabilitation but there's widespread use of drugs, which is quite
incredible. At least we could get to drug users at that point. If you
can't get to them in prison, you don't stand a chance in hell

If Clinton and others decided to come down heavily on the need to do
something about addiction in prison, that is politically easy to do.
And it reinforces the heavy stick - the stick rather than the carrot

ROLLING STONE: To what degree might religious leaders have a role in
turning the debate from punishment to treatment? Because you know
religion is going to speak in a moral way about issues of substance
abuse. At the same time, if you think about who houses Alcoholics
Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous groups, who runs rehab centers,
it's religious sector of society.

LOURY: If you're looking for a Nixon today on this issue, that's one
quarter where he or she might come from. Someone who is a Pat Robertson-
type person or a Gary Bauer-type person who woke up one morning and
said, "Oh my God, I've looked at this. We're criminalizing a whole
class of people. How big can the prison population be? What manner of
country are we? Real resources go into that prison system, diverted
from somewhere else. This is not the answer."

PATTERSON: I'm pessimistic about any such person coming on the scene
any time soon. There is another way we can consider changing policy,
and that is the enormous amount of money being spent on trying to
stop the drugs from flowing in. I read some figure - it's
preposterous. It's in the billions and billions of dollars. And it's
gotten us nowhere.

We have not succeeded in preventing the drugs from coming in, and,
therefore, we have to emphasize somehow trying to reduce the demand.
Perhaps we should shift some of the billions of dollars we're now
wasting on trying to prevent drugs coming into rehabilitation. I'm
not going to be spending any less, I'm not soft on drugs - I'm simply
saying, as a practical matter, instead of spending $50 billion on
Colombia or Bolivia, all of which is going just to sort of fill the
pockets of these corrupt generals, spend it here.

Since we're in a prison-building mode, let's start getting a little
creative and perhaps build some kinds of prisons that are more
rehabilitative centers rather than simply throwing these people among
hardened criminals. One of the disturbing things that has come out in
research in some ghetto areas is the fact that going to prison is not
any longer seen as a big deterrent.

ROLLING STONE: No, in fact it's become like a rite of passage.


ROLLING STONE: I remember reporting on South Africa and talking to
people who'd been part of the resistance there and almost expected to
go into prison for their political actions. There was a Zulu term for
jail that translated to "the place of men."

PATTERSON: Then maybe we need to build a place of boys and relegate
some first-time offenders and nonviolent offenders there. I would use
some money on that instead of wasting it on military exercises in

ROLLING STONE: Professor Loury, you've been a steadfast critic of
liberal solutions to social problems. Does this sound like one that
is both tough-minded and efficient?

LOURY: We're not talking about washing our hands of drug abuse,
becoming relativists and saying it doesn't matter. What's being said
is, "Can we think sensibly about how we can enter into people's lives
more constructively in order to try to produce something positive?"
Now the idea of rehabilitation has a bad odor. People laugh at you
when you talk of rehabilitation. Our prisons now don't rehabilitate;
what they do is incapacitate.

I'd like to see much greater funding for treatment and a focus on
the demand side of the drug market as well as the supply side. And a
ratcheting down of the punitiveness of the mandatory-minimum
sentencing. Those would be pillars of moderation.

PATTERSON: As a practical matter, it's simply politically not in the
cards right now to have decriminalization. I personally would think
that, in the long term, that may be the best approach. But in terms
of what's possible, I do not see this ever taking place.

But there are alternatives. One we actually tried in an ad hoc sort
of way in Jamaica. In the Seventies, we had a large number of young
people being arrested for ganja - marijuana - and the jails were
being filled up with people who perhaps aren't violent. What happened
in response was not so much decriminalization but that the police
were urged, essentially, to back off. And they did. The police
themselves did not want to decriminalize, because they found the use
of ganja laws an effective strategy to get people for other things.
So the laws are on the books and you can get arrested, but for the
typical user the probability of being arrested is very low. Some
version of this is one possibility for America.

LOURY: Never mind the point that we have an enlightened self-interest
in seeing that people come out of prison better than what they went
in. Because we're not going to put them in a spaceship and ship them
off to another planet. They're going to still be here, they're going
to have children, they're going to have an impact. Because we're in
this thing big time. I mean 1.7 million under lock and key on any
given day - and it's going up.


Young, vulnerable and black

Black leaders are in a bind: it is on their turf that the drug war is
being fought. For years black politicians and church leaders
supported the War on Drugs because they saw the damage inflicted on
their communities by drugs like crack. Even today, Atlanta's
Democratic mayor, Bill Campbell, takes a tough line and tells ROLLING
STONE: "We must reject all proposals to legalize illicit drugs,
because it is morally reprehensible to consider an action that would
(a) erode our children's anti-drug attitudes of risk and social
disapproval and (b) make harmful and addictive drugs far more
accessible." Another black officeholder, Rep. J.C. Watts Jr., R-
Okla., argues that drug use is a "widespread epidemic that is
everyone's problem."

But the drug laws have had unforeseen and damaging consequences for
African-Americans. The discrepancy on sentencing for crack-cocaine
offenses (five years for possession of five grams of crack or sale of
500 grams of powder) is a notorious example. The U.S. Sentencing
Commission, which was established by Congress, declared that Congress
had made a mistake in enacting disparate sentences and recommended
that crack penalties be reduced. President Clinton and Congress
rejected the commission's recommendation. Many black politicians and
leaders, however, have spoken out on the inequities of the drug war.

- Erika Fortgang

"In the absence of a real War on Drugs and an urban policy, we have a
war on the young, vulnerable and black. Oddly, the rationale for the
disparity is to protect blacks from crack. That is racial
paternalism. What is at stake is the essence of the 1954 Supreme
Court decision - equal protection under the law."

- Rev. Jesse Jackson Sr. President, Rainbow/PUSH Coalition.

"Our drug policy has become a tale of two cities or, more accurately,
a tale of two classes - rich and poor."

- Rep. Donald Payne, D-N.J

"It is not about being soft on crime. It is not about condoning drugs.
It is about being able to look our children in the face and say: 'There
is fairness in our system of justice. There is fairness in our laws.'"

- Rep. Melvin Watt, D-N.C.

"Cocaine and crack cannot be separated. The right thing to do would
be to treat both of these lethal drugs under the same mode. The
problem that we have in our society today is we misidentify drugs, we
confuse the scene, and we have so many powerful burdens and powerful
penalties that no one really understands it."

- Rep. James Traficant, D-Ohio

"Maintaining the sentencing disparity fuels the belief that our
criminal-justice system is inherently unfair and racially unjust. Our
judicial system must be fair if we ever expect it to earn the trust
of our citizens. There is no such thing as a 'little justice.'"

- Rep. Maxine Waters, D-Calif.

Sources: The Drug Policy Foundation and the Congressional Black

Scientists See New Link To Cocaine Addiction ('Associated Press' Article
In 'Oakland Tribune' Doesn't Even Bother To Name Two Research Reports
Supposedly Released Wednesday Showing That Laboratory Mice Missing
One Of Their Serotonin Receptors Are More Vulnerable To Cocaine Addiction,
Suggesting The Importance Of Serotonin As A Factor In The Addiction Process)

Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 16:06:53 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Scientists See New Link To Cocaine Addiction
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Gerald Sutliff 
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: Oakland Tribune (also The Arugs, The Review, The Herald
and Times Star)
Contact: triblet@angnewspapers.com
Author: Associated Press


LOS ANGELES -- A chemical messenger called serotonin is turning out to be a
bigger player in cocaine addiction than previously thought, according to
two studies that could help researchers find new approaches to treating and
preventing drug abuse.

The studies released Wednesday looked at the roles of dopamine and
serotonin in laboratory mice that pressed levers to get doses of cocaine.

Researchers long have held that increases in the brain of dopamine - a
chemical associated with movement, thought, motivation and pleasure -
produce some of the euphoria and addictive effects of cocaine.

Serotonin - involved in emotions, mood, and probably sleep and aggression -
was thought to play some role in achieving a high. But the new studies show
it provides an important component to how vulnerable an animal - or human
may be.

'We used to have a religion called the dopamine religion that said that you
could explain anything solely on the basis of dopamine," said Alan I.
Leshner, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, which funded
one of the studies.

The new results suggest "we must pay more attention to serotonin than we
have," Leshner said. "That opens a new line of thinking because we know
serotonin is important in many other mood states, like depression."

Work led by Rene Hen at Columbla University and Beatriz Rocha at the
University of North Texas found that specially bred mice lacking a gene
involved in the brain's response to serotonin were more motivated to take
cocaine than normal mice. They were also more sensitive to the drug's

"It's a really major discovery," said Francis White, who chairs the
department of cellular and molecular pharmacology at the Finch University
of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School.

White said he was struck by how mice missing one of their serotonin
receptors - even II they were never given cocaine - showed "changes in the
brain that we see in a normal animal (repeatedly) given ... cocaine." Those
chemical changes made the mutant mouse even more vulnerable to cocaine
addiction and therefore underscore the importance of serotonin to the
addiction process, he said.

The mutant mice also showed an increased attraction to alcohol and more
impulsiveness, a trait often associated with drug abuse.

That study, underscoring the role of genetics in addiction, appears in
today's issue of the journal Nature.

ABC Refuses To Run Ads For 'Fear And Loathing In Las Vegas'
(Filmmaker Terry Gilliam Reportedly Says His Movie Has Been Blacklisted
Due To A 'Pro-Drug' Theme)
Link to review
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 10:10:53 EDT Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org From: "Kelly T. Conlon" To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: ABC refuses to run ads for "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas" Talkers, I read a short article about Terry Gilliam complaining that ABC won't run ads for his upcoming film "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas" because of it's "pro-drug" theme. Anyone else notice this? KTC

Re - ABC Refuses To Run Ads For 'Fear And Loathing In Las Vegas'
(Monaco Correspondent Says Tickets For The Cannes Festival Screening
Are 'Nigh Impossible To Come By')

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 14:47:47 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: Peter Webster 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: Re: ABC refuses to run ads for "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas"

At 10:10 14/05/98 EDT, Kelly T. Conlon wrote:
>I read a short article about Terry Gilliam complaining that ABC won't run
>ads for his upcoming film "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas" because of it's
>"pro-drug" theme. Anyone else notice this?

The news here in the south of France, where the Cannes Film Festival is now
in progress, is that Hunter Thompson is arriving tomorrow for the screening
of *Fear and Loathing...* which is in competition tomorrow evening. Tickets
are nigh impossible to come by...Thompson has been pretty weird for some
time now, way past his prime (!) according to my informed sources, so is
unlikely to get interviewed on TV, and certainly no network would risk a
live appearance...

Peter Webster
email: vignes@monaco.mc

Drug Abuse Costs US $246 Billion A Year, Study Says
('Orange County Register' Rewrites Yesterday's Press Release
From The National Institute On Drug Abuse)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 19:14:14 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Drug Abuse Costs US $246 Billion A Year, Study Says
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: John W.Black
Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998


Abuse of Alcohol and other drugs costs the United States more than $246
billion a year, a government study published Wednesday found.

That worked out to $965 for every man, woman and child in the country, the
National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol
Abuse and Alcoholism said.

"This study confirms the enormous damage done to society by alcohol and
(other) drug-related problems," NIAAA director Dr. Enoch Gordis said in a

The $246 billion figure came from 1992, the latest year for which data were
available, the agencies said. The study estimated costs for 1995 were $276

Some of the costs of alcohol abuse included lost productivity because of
illness or early death, health-care costs, property damage and crime. For
drugs, more than half the costs stemmed from related crime.

The 1992 figures were 42 percent higher for alcohol and 50 percent higher
for drugs over 1985, the previous year for which figures were available,
even accounting for inflation and population growth.

"The magnitude of these costs underscores the need to find better ways to
prevent and treat these disorders," Gordis said.

Customs May Get $964 Million For Drug War ('Associated Press'
Says A US House Of Representatives Panel Approved A Proposal Thursday
To Increase Funding 31 Percent In Fiscal 1999, And To $1 Billion,
Or 25 Percent More In Fiscal 2000, After Republicans
Accused The Clinton Administration Of Withdrawing Its Support
Under Pressure From Labor Unions)

From: DMuscore@aol.com (DMuscore)
To: november-l@november.org (Multiple recipients of list)
Subject: Fwd: Customs May Get $964M for Drug War
Date: Thu, 14 May
Customs May Get $964M for Drug War
The Associated Press


WASHINGTON (AP) - A House panel approved a proposal Thursday to significantly
boost the drug-fighting capabilities of the U.S. Customs Service after
Republicans accused the administration of withdrawing its support under
pressure from labor unions.

The bill would provide Customs with $964 million in fiscal 1999, 31 percent
above the administration request, and $1 billion in fiscal 2000, up 25
percent, for drug and other enforcement activities.

The money would be used to hire 1,700 additional Customs personnel and buy
new land and sea drug detection equipment.

The Ways and Means Committee approved the measure 29-0, but only after
Republicans, and several Democrats, sharply criticized the administration for
backing off a recent endorsement of the legislation.

``It's an outrage, a tragedy, that you have been put here in a sniveling
way,'' Rep. Nancy Johnson, R-Conn., said to Customs representatives at the
hearing. ``That the administration cannot speak honestly is simply a shame.''

``They're choosing labor union arguments over keeping drugs out of this
country,'' said Rep. Bill Thomas, R-Calif.

Customs officials indicated support for the legislation at a subcommittee
meeting on Tuesday. But after that, questions apparently arose over provisions
that could affect the collective bargaining powers of Customs employees.

The bill, sponsored by Rep. Philip Crane, R-Ill., gives the treasury
secretary future power to transfer 5 percent of Customs officers every year to
better meet new trafficking patterns and root out corruption.

It also gives the Customs commissioner the authority to unilaterally impose a
labor agreement if a dispute can't be settled in 90 days and the impasse has
an adverse impact on interdiction efforts.

Republicans cited a dispute in which Customs and employees have haggled for
nearly four years over a management attempt to establish a 4 a.m.-to-noon
shift at Miami's airport, a time period when many flights arrive from Latin

Customs, in a statement Thursday said it ``deeply appreciates the efforts of
both Chairman Crane and Congressman (Bob) Matsui to provide us with the
additional resources and technology to combat drug smuggling and improve our
border operations.''

But at the hearing, Customs officials would neither support the bill nor
discuss what problems they might have with it. ``There has been no position
taken by the administration with respect to this bill,'' said acting assistant
commissioner for field operations Albert Tennant.

Democrats urged that the labor provisions be stricken or changed, saying they
set a dangerous precedent under which government managers could unilaterally
break contracts with employees. ``This is going to really demoralize the whole
issue of labor-management relationships when it comes to the interdiction of
drugs,'' said Matsui, D-Calif.

Matsui's amendment to eliminate the labor provisions was defeated by voice.

AP-NY-05-14-98 1833EDT

Copyright 1998 The Associated Press. The information contained in the AP
news report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or otherwise
distributed without prior written authority of The Associated Press.

Casual Smokers Complicate Addiction Theories ('Washington Post' Article
Syndicated In 'Seattle Times' Notes About 18 Percent
Of The Estimated 45 Million Tobacco Users In The United States
Don't Demonstrate Addictive Behavior And Can 'Take It Or Leave It')

Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 16:06:53 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Casual Smokers Complicate Addiction Theories
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: John Smith
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: Seattle-Times (WA)
Contact: opinion@seatimes.com
Website: http://seattletimes.com/
Author: John Schwartz and Leef Smith, The Washington Post
Link to related article
CASUAL SMOKERS COMPLICATE ADDICTION THEORIES Peter Dubose Jr. hates smoking - just ask him. "I think it's foul," says Dubose, a 28-year-old marketing manager from Bethesda, Md. "It's disgusting." So why is he smoking that cigarette? "I can't understand my own actions," he says, except to say he feels a powerful hankering for a smoke whenever he's in a bar. He buys a pack - he doesn't want to bum from friends - but "I throw the cigarettes away the next morning. The next time, I buy another pack." Dubose is a "social smoker," the sort of person many folks have trouble believing exists. After all, tobacco experts and public-health advocates have asserted for more than a decade that nicotine is at least as addictive as cocaine and heroin, and that kind of addiction is commonly seen as an icy death-grip that never lets you go. In fact, according to official government statistics in recent years, there are plenty of occasional smokers. David Mendez, an assistant professor of public health at the University of Michigan, was analyzing smoking statistics from surveys conducted for the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with his computer last spring when he noticed that the percentage of people who said they smoke, but not on a daily basis, made up 18 percent of the country's estimated 45 million smokers. "I had no idea of what to expect," Mendez said, "but my impression was that it would have been in the range of 5, 6, 7, 10 percent at most. No more than that. I was surprised." The Nature Of Addiction The notion that there are so many smokers who can take it or leave it raises questions about the nature of addiction and suggests to some researchers that U.S. smoking patterns could be shifting. The new data emerged from a change in the way the CDC collects information about smoking. Before 1992, the National Health Interview Survey asked people whether they had ever smoked 100 cigarettes in their lives and whether they still smoked at the time of the survey. In 1992, the CDC made a more subtle distinction in the second question, asking whether those who had smoked still smoked regularly, less than once a day or not at all. "It's like we developed a new microscope or something so we could see things we'd never seen before," said Gary Giovino, the chief epidemiologist for the CDC's Office on Smoking and Health. Because the new question has been used only since 1992, those statistics cannot show whether occasional smokers constitute a growing trend. But some researchers think that is the case. Changing attitudes toward smoking do appear to be driving smokers to light up less often, said Kenneth Warner, a researcher at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. "Many of them have decided they're not going to stand out on the window ledge in the dead of winter." Social Behavior Some younger people - who make up a large percentage of the sometime-smoking crowd, according to CDC estimates - could be seeing smoking not a "daily behavior but a social behavior you did with friends, as drinking," Warner said. That's certainly when Monique Apter, 31, lights up. "I smoke when I drink," she says, puffing away at an Arlington, Va., bar. "I'm not really a smoker. I just like having something in my mouth." Over by the pool tables at the same bar, Walter Teal, 35, has a cigarette dangling rakishly from his lips as he sets up a bank shot. He could work his way through half a pack whenever he was out with friends. But he began to worry the habit might hurt his chances of meeting an ardently nonsmoking Ms. Right, so he quit earlier this year. Every woman he has dated since then is a social smoker. So he is smoking again. "If you haven't smoked and then kiss someone who is smoking, it's `yuck!' The best way to beat that is to have a cigarette," he said, adding: "People will think up all kinds of excuses for a cig, won't they?" To understand how a supposedly addictive substance could have so many users who can walk away, it is important to look at addiction - as the term is used within the scientific community. No substance, apparently, addicts everyone. Even among those who become addicted, the amount of discomfort that accompanies quitting varies from person to person. Ten percent to 15 percent of heroin and cocaine users, for example, can simply drop their habit, never seeming to become addicted. Only about 15 percent of those who drink alcohol become addicted. People addicted to heroin and, later, scientists studying them, called these non-addicts "chippers." Saul Shiffman, a psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh, first applied the notion of chipping to smokers in the late 1980s. "I was estimating about 5 percent, but it was a very crude estimate," Shiffman said. "Whether it has risen or I was just too conservative, I don't know - since it really was a guess more than data." The fact that some people are not addicted does not diminish the hold of addiction on the rest of the smokers, Shiffman said. "We've got to realize that the stranglehold is real - but it's not universal." Teal and his fellow chippers aside, however, nicotine consistently ranks as one of the toughest addictions to break. Seventy percent of smokers tell pollsters they would like to quit but have been unable to do so. According to a 1995 CDC survey comparing tobacco's physiological pull with that of illegal drugs, cigarette smokers were more than twice as likely as users of marijuana, cocaine or alcohol to report being unable to cut down. Although Warner notes "there's no threshold under which there's no risk" of getting lung cancer, heart disease or any of the other myriad ailments linked to the tobacco habit and recommends that any smoker try to quit, he acknowledges the risk associated with smoking a cigarette every day or so "is minimal compared to someone who smokes 30 cigarettes a day." `There's No Safe Level' Public-health officials bristle at the thought that anyone might cautiously recommend reducing the habit as opposed to kicking it outright. "Any tobacco use increases the risk above no tobacco use," said Donald Sharp, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC's Office on Smoking and Health. "That's our take-home message: There's no safe level of tobacco use." How much risk occasional smokers face - or the effect of social smoking on the estimated $50 billion in smoking-related health costs - remains unclear. No study has examined the risk of smoking a few cigarettes a day or less, Sharp said, because the number of smokers with such light smoking habits was thought to be too small to provide reliable data. So in studies, occasional smokers are lumped in with people who smoke 10 cigarettes or fewer each day. At that level, a male smoker's risk of getting lung cancer is 80 percent higher than a male nonsmoker's. For reasons not yet fully understood, a female smoker's lung cancer risk is higher, about five times the risk for smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes each day compared with the cancer risk for nonsmokers. The average smoker bears a 23-fold increase in cancer risk, and heavy smokers can increase their risk by 50 times or more. David Burns, a professor of medicine at the University of California at San Diego who has studied the effects of low-level smoking and secondhand cigarette smoke, said a person who picks up a cigarette only a few times a year would certainly have a risk "too small to be biologically meaningful." But he noted the fivefold risk for women who smoke 10 cigarettes a day or fewer was roughly equivalent to the risk of cancer for asbestos workers. "Do you know anybody who would say, `I just spray asbestos without any protection once or twice a week. It's not really a problem for me.' "

US Embassies Told Not To Push Tobacco ('The San Francisco Examiner'
Cites An Article In 'The Wall Street Journal' Saying The US State Department
Has Barred Its Embassies Worldwide From Helping US Tobacco Companies
Sell Their Products Overseas)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 21:10:27 EDT
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: Gerald Sutliff (gsutliff@dnai.com)
Subject: U.S. embassies told not to push tobacco
Source: SF Examiner, 5-14-98, Page C-24 (Business section)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
From: Jerry Sutliff

NEW YORK -- The U.S. State Department has barred its embassies worldwide
from helping U.S. tobacco companies sell their products overseas, according
to a published report Thursday.

The Wall Street Journal said it had obtained a copy of the order, contained
in a cable sent in February, and it instructs embassies not to promote the
sale or export of tobacco or tobacco products overseas. This policy
contrasts sharply with the 1980s and early 1990s. when U.S. diplomats
championed tobacco as a U.S.e export,o the newspaper said.

The cable, dated Feb. 14, also directs U.S. diplomatic posts to support,
rather than challenge, local anti-smoking laws and regulations that may
reduce U.S. tobacco company sales, so long as they are applied 

US Embassies To Stop Promoting Tobacco ('Reuters' And 'Los Angeles Times'
Version In 'Seattle Times')

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 17:43:59 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: U.S. Embassies to Stop Promoting Tobacco
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: John Smith
Source: Seattle Times (WA)
Contact: opinion@seatimes.com
Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Reuters and Los Angeles Times


NEW YORK - The State Department has barred its embassies worldwide from
helping American tobacco companies sell their products overseas, the Wall
Street Journal reported today.

The paper said it obtained a copy of the order, contained in a cable sent
in February, that instructs embassies not to promote the sale or export of
tobacco products overseas. This treatment contrasts sharply with the 1980s
and early 1990s, when U.S. diplomats championed tobacco as a U.S. export,
the newspaper said.

The cable also directs U.S. diplomatic posts to support, rather than
challenge, local anti-smoking laws and regulations that may reduce U.S.
tobacco-company sales, as long as they are applied "in a nondiscriminatory
manner to both imported and domestic tobacco."

Until now, there have been no written rules telling U.S. diplomats overseas
how to handle tobacco companies on issues ranging from sales promotion to
trade cases.

The move comes as members of Congress debate a bill that would impose
billions of dollars in fees on the tobacco industry and use the money to
pay state Medicaid costs of illnesses related to smoking and for
anti-smoking campaigns.

Today, the bill went to the Senate Finance Committee, which has sharply
criticized some of the measure's key provisions and has suggested that it
might add tax cuts and additional spending programs to the plan.

Congratulations To Bill Kaufmann (Letter To Editor Of 'Calgary Sun'
Praises Its Columnist's Stand Against Drug Prohibition)

Resent-Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 08:47:08 -0700 (PDT)
From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: PUB LTE: Congratulations to Bill Kaufmann
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 08:42:34 -0700
Lines: 14
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: Calgary Sun
Contact: callet@sunpub.com
Pubdate: May 14, 1998
Editor's note - Parenthetical comments are the newspaper's.

CONGRATULATIONS to Bill Kaufmann on a fine piece of journalism. His
May 11 column "War on drugs disastrous failure," deserves applause for
exploring the myths of the war on (some) drugs as well as the unholy
inertia opposing change.


(Clearly the current war on drugs isn't working.)

Stay Away From Marijuana, Bill (Another Letter To The Editor
Of 'The Calgary Sun' In Support Of Columnist Bill Kaufmann
Blames The United States' Inability To End Prohibition
On Corrupt Politicians)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: LTE: Stay away from marijuana, Bill
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 08:48:01 -0700
Lines: 24
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: Calgary Sun
Contact: callet@sunpub.com
Pubdate: May 14, 1998

TWO OSTENSIBLY unrelated items in the Sun on May 11 got me thinking.
One was Charlton Heston here in Calgary "putting in a plug" for the
NRA. The other was Bill Kaufmann's excellent column about the failed
war on drugs. The U.S. is a unique place where anyone, including
children, can get hold of enough guns to kill a dozen people at once.
It is also one of the few places where someone can get a life sentence
for growing marijuana. Equal opportunity!

Kaufmann wonders why the U.S. is happy to have its own children die of
overdose and drug-related violence. One word, Bill: Corruption. There is
no way the huge amount of drugs and dollars could flow without police,
judges and politicians being paid off. By busting poor saps who aren't
well-connected, the war on drugs will continue. Heston should clean up
his own country before telling Canada what to do. And Bill, stay away
from the marijuana. It can lead to worse things -- like drinking.

Paul Hindson

(We'll raise our glass to that.)

Murder Victim `Girl Next Door' Who Battled Drugs ('Halifax Daily News'
Fails To Note The Murdered Halifax Prostitute With A History
Of Crack Cocaine Abuse Might Have Received More Help
If It Weren't For Prohibition)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Murder victim `girl next door' who battled drugs
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 08:44:04 -0700
Lines: 81
Source: Halifax Daily News
Contact: letterstoeditor@hfxnews.southam.ca

Thursday, May 14, 1998

Murder victim `girl next door' who battled drugs

By Brendan Elliott -- The Daily News

Metro's latest murder victim was a prostitute who had a
"girl-next-door" personality when she wasn't strung out on crack

Former neighbors of 27-year-old Christine Marjorie McClean described
the attractive, slender woman with sandy-blond, shoulder-length hair
as friendly and jovial. But drugs transformed her.

"When she was on crack, there wasn't anything - and I mean anything -
she wouldn't do for a hit," said Albert MacLennan, who lived in the
unit beside the one McClean rented last year in a Gottingen Street
apartment building.

Last September, McClean moved to an apartment in Mulgrave Park at 5261
Richmond St.

McClean's body was found Monday afternoon by a truck driver in the
Cherry Brook area. Police say the body had been there "more than two
days," lying on the ground just inside the tree-line.

The last reported sighting of the Halifax native to the Cole Harbour
RCMP detachment was Easter Sunday. "Our major-crime unit received a
tip (yesterday) that she may have been seen in Halifax on April 12,"
said Cpl. Carl Hubley.

He said a preliminary autopsy has determined the cause of death, but
it is being kept confidential. He said leads are slowly coming in but
police still don't have a suspect.

Police spent yesterday going through McClean's Mulgrave Park home.

When McClean lived on Gottingen Street, MacLennan said he and McClean
regularly gossiped in the Ahern Manor ninth-floor hallway. He said
when she was on drugs, she frequently showed up at his door, begging
for cigarettes.

"Her eyes would be glazed over, and you could barely make sense of
what she was saying," said MacLennan.

He said McClean, whose eight-year-old daughter Justine lives with
foster parents, made a valiant effort to dry out, just months before
her death. "Her death a real damn shame, because when she was dry, she
was an innocent, girl-next-door kind of person."

The dead woman's brother, Dan McClean, said his sister was "a special
person" who didn't have a mean bone in her body.

While she didn't have custody of her daughter, Dan McClean said the
mother and daughter were close. "Christine always stayed in touch with
her. There was a lot of love between them," he said.

Another neighbor, who would only identify herself as Colleen, said
McClean appeared to have finally put the pieces of her troubled life
back together.

"Once she moved to Mulgrave Park, she got a job at the post office,
and was trying to prove to Children's Aid that she could be a fit
mother. She really wanted her daughter back and was trying to stay
clean to do it," she said.

Colleen revealed McClean had been a prostitute, but didn't frequent
the downtown stroll often.

"She had her own regular clientele who would call her," she said.

A part-time hooker herself, Colleen said McClean had undergone an
out-of-province drug-treatment program. "When she wasn't on drugs, she
was a happy-go-lucky kind of girl," Colleen said.

Provincial court records indicate McClean had been in and out of
courtrooms over the past 31/2 years, mostly for theft and
possession-of-stolen-property offences.

Return Of A Prodigal Son (A Former Tory In Quebec
Writes In Montreal's 'Hour' Magazine That He Is Ready To Rejoin The Party
Now That Tory Leader Dalton Camp Has Come Out In Favor
Of 'Legalising' Marijuana)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Marijuana legalisation (fwd)
Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 13:24:17 -0700
Lines: 152

Return of a Prodigal Son

by Charlie McKenzie

HOUR Magazine (Montréal) 05/14/98

* * *

"Not a partisan cry but a national need."

Rt. Hon. John George Diefenbaker

Dalton Camp has a plan to end the decades-old cold war
between the generations and restore public confidence in our
judicial and political institutions, but there's a catch: first,
we have to elect him Prime Minister.

No one in their right mind wants peace at any price --
neither do I -- still, the thought of putting all our eggs in
Dalton's basket isn't as crazy as it sounds, considering that we
have to start somewhere.

For the future's sake, I'm ready to swallow my pride, bury
my hatchets and end thirty-odd years exile in the political
wilderness - mostly wasted on the outer edges of the lunatic fringe
- to return to my Tory roots and elect Dalton Camp as leader because
we finally agree on something: it's time we legalise marijuana.

This is no ordinary leap of faith or half-cocked roll of the dice:
Dalton and I go back to the antediluvian age, long before many of
today's enlightened electors were old enough to vote; when a giant
ego with piercing eyes and a voice of thunder named John George
Diefenbaker walked the earth.

Back in the autumn of 1966, I was a Tory foot soldier, a
naïve neophyte fresh from six years of military service, obviously
over and out of my head. I joined the party as a favour to a
friend; Dick Thrasher, then PC National Director and rose quickly
through the ranks of our constituency association.

Dalton Camp was party president and principle architect of a
controversial campaign for a leadership review. Diefenbaker and his
followers saw this as a threat to the Chief's personal fiefdom; he
alone had brought our party in from the wilderness; he alone could
lead. Thus, the battle lines were drawn, red vs. blue, rural vs.
urban, Tory vs. Tory.

To red-Tories, still diapered in ideological infancy, Camp
was a pragmatic prophet, doing what had to be done. But he was
Brutus to my Caesar and when it came time to stand up and be
counted, I proudly stood to the left of John Diefenbaker.*

Things turned ugly at the Château Laurier on the night of
November 16 at our annual convention. To this day, whenever some
bush-league, Pequiste whines on about "the night of the knives," to
describe the humiliation when their delegates overslept and missed a
constitutional photo-op, I manage a smile to stifle my yawn. That
might wash a few brains in the Saguenay, but it is far from the real

The original Night of the Knives was a very painful,
political bloodbath and those of us who were there have the mental
scars to prove it.

Tensions mounted throughout the day as cantankerous
delegates drifted in and out of various, nefarious 'hospitality
suites' where whiskey flowed like water and the water looked
suspiciously like gin. Late that afternoon, I witnessed young Brian
Mulroney shepherd some intemperate rowdies - none of whom had
delegate credentials - into the front rows of the auditorium where
the Chief was to address us and the nation, that night.

Diefenbaker and his entourage arrived at 8:30 only to find
the room filled with Mulroney's drunks and Camp followers.
Sequestered in the CBC broadcast booth with former cabinet minister,
Alvin Hamilton, I saw my fellow loyalists forced into the corridors,
leaving our Chief unprotected, vulnerable to attack.

For a slow tortuous hour, I could barely watch as he was
jeered instead of cheered and booed instead of praised by many of
those he had raised personally from the depths of obscurity to the
pinnacles of power. His best lines were received, not with
customary guffaws and partisan laughter, but ominous silence
instead. Dick Spencer, Dief's long time friend and point man, later
likened it to "the stillness at the foot of the gallows after all
the hate has been spent."

That night, Diefenbaker and his disciples were
metaphorically ambushed, cut to shreds, torn to pieces, then spit
upon and humiliated by our very own species as a shocked nation
looked on in vivid black and white.

You can look it up.

Camp carried the convention by 62 votes, thus ending the
Diefenbaker era, but I didn't stick around for the finalé. Fed up
with the whole travesty, the following day I packed my wounded
psyche and fled to the political wilderness.
Weeks later, fate found me fiscally distressed and politically
spent, a soul beneficiary of a compassionate NDP bag lady with
liberal tendencies and a dime bag of pot. Once she turned me on,
there was no turning back.

The years passed and the wounds healed. Camp and I went our
separate ways and our paths never again crossed.

A wordsmith of some calibre, Dalton went on to become one of
our more respected political commentators. A few years ago, he
became Canada's oldest transplant recipient when he received the
heart of teenage girl, (which may account for some of his
contemporary views).

I came to Québec and found réfuge in the Rhinos.

At first, I performed simple janitorial chores around their
hindquarters, but when 'Chef-fondateur,' Jacques Ferron, heard my
woeful tale of Tory treachery, he taught me how to laugh and made me

Today, I'm happy to say that I am where I am - back inside
the PC Party - thanks to Brian Mulroney. In 1993, his government
introduced an economic 'means' test to the Canada Elections Act
which effectively killed off the Parti Rhinocéros, making me a free
agent once again.

I saw the light in Dalton's camp during the recent winter

"I'd rather grow pot than tobacco," I heard him say on a
Newsworld telecast, responding to the fiasco in Nagano. "Our
marijuana laws are made up of humbug and hypocrisy; it's a stupid,
dumb law and we ought to get rid of it."

Surprised, stupefied and further intrigued, I went to the
Internet where I found my old adversary had written this for the
Halifax Daily News:

"The end result (of the marijuana laws) has been a
generational cold war of the young against all authority and an
awesome expenditure in futility and frustration by their elders,
trapped halfway between morality, hypocrisy and memory loss."
I couldn't have said it better.

Complimenting Dalton's view is the fact that courts in both
Ontario and BC have recently ruled that Canada's pot laws are a sick
racist joke. The question of legalisation, however, belongs in the
political arena. Politicians created the mess, they say, let them
clean it up.

Times and circumstances change. My old Chief opposed
legalising pot so that relationship was predestined to self-destruct
eventually. But perhaps now, in this age of self-styled messiahs
(e.g., Preston Manning), and media-trumpeted 'saviours,' (e.g., Jean
Charest), there may be room for a prodigal son. Time will tell and we shall

In the closing moments of his Newsworld interview,* Dalton was asked
something that has been on the mind of Canada's 4.5 million criminal
cannabis consumers for decades: "When might we have a government
that would legalise marijuana?"

He replied with a chuckle and a Cheshire grin, "As soon as I
become Prime Minister."

Diefenbaker might disagree - that's what he did best -- but I've
had a philosophical change of heart. I think Dalton Camp would make
a splendid Tory leader and a great Prime Minister. Call it a pipe
dream, but like Dalton, I believe legalising marijuana will not only
restore the public's faith and confidence, it could open the door to
peace-talks with the generations of our time.

				- 30 -

* Anne Petrie, TalkTV, CBC Newsworld, February 23, 1998.

Are There Real Uses For Cannabis? (A Physician's Letter To The Editor
Of Britain's 'Times' Notes 'The British Medical Journal' Recently Said
A Committee Of Experts To Be Headed By Sir William Asscher Had Been Set Up
To Study The Role Of Cannabis And Its Derivatives In Medicine -
And Mentions Evidence From Italy That Raw Cannabis
Is Already Being Used There As A Popular Treatment For Psychiatric Disorders)

Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 03:17:29 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: UK: OPED: Are There Real Uses For Cannabis?
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Martin Cooke
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May, 1998
Source: Times The (UK)
Contact: letters@the-times.co.uk
Website: http://www.the-times.co.uk/
Author: Dr. Thomas Stuttaford


LAST year the British Medical Association recommended against the use of
cannabis as medication but suggested that its derivatives, the cannabinoids,
should be more thoroughly investigated.

There is evidence that many of these derivatives are remarkably safe and
might be more effective than several remedies at present in use to treat,
for instance, the spasms experienced in multiple sclerosis.

The British Medical Journal has recently reported that a committee of
experts, to be headed by Sir William Asscher, has now been set up to study
the role of cannabis and its derivatives in medicine. The same edition of
the BMJ covered the result of random drug tests performed on recruits being
called up for National Service in Italy.

The survey found that in the group examined 133 were positive for cannabis,
but not for other drugs. Sixty-four per cent of those that were cannabis
positive had evidence of psychiatric disorders and the likelihood of them
having a psychiatric condition was proportional to the amount of the drug
they had taken in the past.

A recent correspondent to The Times wrote that in the early 19th century
French psychiatrists took cannabis when they wanted to understand the world
from a perspective of their psychotic patients, as the symptoms it induced
proved to be an early experimental model for schizophrenia.

The writer, as an experiment, had tried cannabis and experienced a psychotic
reaction in which he thought others were controlling his thoughts. He also
had a quite unprovoked flashback three days later.

Call For Increase In Price Of Drink And Cigarettes ('Irish Times'
Says The Southern Health Board Has Suggested Prices Should Be Increased
For Everyone In Order To Cut Consumption By Some)

From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: "MN" 
Subject: MN: Ireland: Call For Increase In Price Of Drink And Cigarettes
Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 12:59:33 -0500
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Martin Cooke 
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Source: Irish Times (Ireland)
Contact: lettersed@irish-times.ie
Author: Barry Roche


The price of cigarettes and alcohol should be increased significantly to
reduce consumption at younger ages, and consideration should be given to
increasing the minimum legal age for sale of alcohol to 21 years, health
experts recommended yesterday.

The proposals from the Southern Health Board came after a new survey by the
board in Cork and Kerry showed that almost half of those under the legal age
of 18 are drinking alcohol.

The survey on smoking, alcohol and drug abuse also found that almost one in
five people had taken illegal drugs at some stage in their life while 7 per
cent had taken drugs in the past year and 4 per cent in the last month.

The survey, carried out by the board's public health medicine specialist, Dr
Tim Jackson, said the main drugs used were cannabis, hallucinogens and
stimulants, but heroin was scarcely detected and there was almost no
injecting drug use.

Although opiate use was minimal, this could change rapidly in the current
climate of widespread drug tolerance, Dr Jackson warned, adding that
one-fifth of respondents believe cannabis should be at least partly

The survey showed that drug use was highest among those aged 20-24.

"The drug user in this survey tends to be young, male, from urban areas, is
also a smoker or drinker and has smoked or drunk from an earlier age than
non-drug-users," said Dr Jackson in the report.

"Part-time employment, high frequency of pub and disco attendance and low
frequency of attendance at church are associated with increased drug use.
Recent and current drug use are highest at younger ages and fall to almost
nil over age 35 years."

The survey also found that drug use occurred in all areas and was not
significantly higher in deprived areas, although men in Cork city under the
age of 35 showed almost 40 per cent lifetime use and 20 per cent use in the
past year.

"Drug use showed a strong association with current smoking and alcohol use.
Smokers and drinkers showed drug use of up to three times that of those who
did not smoke or drink," Dr Jackson observed.

The survey also examined attitudes towards drug use and found that cannabis
was seen as the least harmful and most used drug. The survey also found that
alcohol was the dominant drug of misuse in terms of prevalence and problem
use, with almost 8 per cent of men reporting problem/ dependent drinking,
with the figure rising to 13 per cent among the 20-24 age group.

"Such high levels at that young age group have serious implications," Dr
Jackson said, adding that the survey also found 50 per cent of boys and 20
per cent of girls below the legal age were current drinkers.

The survey also found that a quarter of men drank in excess of the
recognised guideline of 21 units per a week, while some 78 per cent of
people - 82 per cent of men and 75 per cent of women - drank alcohol. The
highest level of drinking was among 20- to 24-year-olds.

Almost two-thirds of people had smoked at some stage in their lives, while
38 per cent were currently smoking. Numbers of smokers in women were almost
equal to men, while boys began smoking more than a year earlier than girls
and smoked more cigarettes a day.

The Southern Health Board is earmarking an additional £400,000 to combat
substance abuse, with a special emphasis on improving child self-reliance
and delaying the age of experimentation, particularly with alcohol and

In Land Of Champagne And Croissants, Pills Are King
('San Francisco Chronicle' Notes The Average Annual Expenditure
For Legal Drugs In France Is The Greatest On Earth,
At More Than $300 Per Person, With The United States A Close Second
At $290 - US Suppliers Aggressively Feed The French Habit,
And Increasingly Drugs Are Being Shipped Illegally To Europe
From The United States)

Date: Thu, 14 May 1998 17:28:15 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: France: In Land of Champagne and Croissants, Pills are King
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Pubdate: Thu, 14 May 1998
Author: Frank Viviano, Chronicle Staff Writer


French lead the world in use of medications

On Easter Sunday, when Marie-Claude Monnet began slurring her words after a
single glass of wine and fell asleep midway through the holiday roast lamb,
the Monnet family realized that it had a problem.

Her daughter Jeanne found more than 100 open boxes of tranquilizers,
narcotic painkillers and antibiotics in the 79-year-old woman's Paris
apartment. ``We had to face the facts,'' Jeanne said. ``Maman is a
droguee'' -- ``a junkie.''

The family's name has been changed, at their request. But the details are
all too real. In a nation that has become the runaway world leader in
pill-popping, Marie-Claude Monnet's pharmaceutical hoard is as typically
French as a well-stocked wine cellar. With less than 1 percent of the
world's population, France now accounts for almost 10 percent of all
expenditures on drugs worldwide.

In 1995, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
reported that the average citizen of France purchased 52 containers of
medication -- more than the total combined figure for the United States,
Great Britain, Germany and Italy.

The average French woman in Madame Monnet's age group took home 99
containers of medication, while the average 80-year-old man purchased 91.

French doctors ``prescribe four times more than the British, Irish,
Italians or Greeks, and six times more than Danish, Belgian and German
doctors,'' said pharmaceutical researcher Berthod Wurmser, an expert on
European health issues.

According to the pharmaceutical industry's own figures, purchases of
medications in France rose by 518 percent between 1970 and 1995.

A similar jump has been registered in the United States, where the national
medication bill soared from less than $10 billion in 1970 to nearly $50
billion in 1995. But adjusted for purchasing power parity, French annual
drug spending per person still remains No. 1 on Earth, at more than $300,
with the United States a close second at $290.

Lest Americans feel smug, they might take note of the fact that U.S.
suppliers aggressively feed the French habit. Marketed and purchased on the
Internet, increasing numbers of drugs are being shipped illegally to Europe
from the United States, postal authorities say.

But the main sources remain overwhelmingly French. In 1991, a government
report found that almost a third of French women were being prescribed
tranquilizers or anti-depressants at every doctor's visit. By 1996, 30
percent of all women over 60 were regular consumers of such drugs, as were
57 percent of the unemployed.

In one extreme case in central France, a doctor prescribed 38 separate
medications for the same patient. In another, a retiree was found to be
taking 116 pills per day.

``If more than three chemical compounds are ingested by a patient, it is
almost impossible to predict what the effects of their interactions might
be,'' warns Dr. Jean- Pierre Poullier, director of health policy studies at
the Paris-based OECD.

Like the family of Madame Monnet, France knows it has a serious problem.
But solving it, as one pharmacologist put it, ``would require a cultural

As in the United States, the problem stems from a complex series of
relationships between doctors, patients, the pharmaceutical industry and
the larger medical system that unites them.

It is also a classic example of a once-model social welfare program that
has defied the best of intentions and wandered into disaster.

A nonscientific survey of experts on both sides of the Atlantic found
universal agreement that loopholes in the world's most comprehensive
government-subsidized health care system are chiefly responsible for the
catastrophic explosion in drug use.

``Catastrophe'' is no exaggeration. France ``holds the world record for
deaths due to medication,'' notes Wurmser. Its prescription drug-related
mortality rate is 10 times higher than in neighboring countries and an
astounding 20-to-50 times higher for those older than 75.

Put simply, drug prices are kept so low that pharmaceutical manufacturers
must sell enormous amounts of their products to fund research and

In the United States and Great Britain, the annual profit margin of drug
manufacturers is nearly 20 percent. By contrast, French firms average just
over 3 percent, according to Professor Denis Richard, chief of
pharmacological services at the Henri-Laborit Medical School in Poitiers.

``In France, the government controls drug prices, and the pharmaceutical
industry can't do much about its income except to emphasize volume,'' says
the OECD'S Dr. Poullier.

``French (drug) prices have long been less than 50 percent of the
corresponding German prices,'' notes Dr. Anne-Laurence Le Faou, author of a
book on the economics of public health in Europe.

Pharmaceuticals are the only sector of French industry in which prices are
set by the state, a policy that involves 80 percent of all medications on
the market.

To achieve volume sales, the $20 billion-a-year French pharmaceutical
industry runs giant marketing campaigns, papering city walls with posters
for drugs and inflating mass-circulation magazines with slick full-page
ads. It besieges doctors with more than 17,000 sales representatives.

The costs are effectively passed on to the government.

National health insurance covers 99 percent of the French public. Patients
are directly reimbursed for 65 percent of most drug purchases, and 100
percent for medications regarded as indispensable for the treatment of
serious illness.

Much of the remaining cost is absorbed by ``la mutuelle,'' a supplementary
private insurance policy, usually paid for by employers, that covers 87
percent of the population.

``For individuals, there are no financial inhibitions on consumption,''
said Professor Mike Dixon of the University of South Carolina, who spent a
year in Paris researching comparative levels of pharmaceutical use.

The result of the trade-off between controlled retail prices and high sales
volume, however, is heavy public debt. French households spent 126 billion
francs on drugs in 1995 (about $24.7 billion). In comparison, household
expenditures on wine and all alcoholic beverages was 89 billion francs
($17.5 billion).

Medication expenditures helped push the nation's total health bill from 4.2
percent of GDP in 1960 to 10.2 percent in 1994, a level exceeded worldwide
only by the 14.5 percent outlay in the United States.

Health care costs accounted for two-thirds of France's $10.1 billion social
welfare shortfall in 1996, a deficit that threatens the entire system with

``What you see in France is a textbook study of a regulatory environment
and its implications,'' said Dixon.

What you also see, Poullier adds, is ``a demonstration of the principle
that medicine is not a science, it is an art -- an art that draws on the
specific peculiarities of a specific culture.''

Few health care professionals have come to understand that principle more
intimately than Anne Pietrasik, a nurse, author and medical interpreter who
has worked with dozens of the world's top pharmaceutical researchers.

Trained in Britain and in France, Pietrasik has served as an intensive care
nurse for the terminally ill in both countries, and as research assistant
to an experimental pharmacologist with offices in California and Paris.

``French people,'' she says, ``have a deep and abiding faith in the
`baguette magique' -- a magic wand -- that can cure any ill with the
ingestion of the `right' pill.''

Indeed, adds Dr. Poullier, ``the French believe that a doctor is no good if
they come away from an examination without a long list of prescriptions.''

There can be ``tremendous variation in cultural assumptions like these,''
he observes.

``Americans are prone to think `surgery' when they fall seriously ill, far
more often than in other nations. For the Dutch, a good doctor is one who
does not load them down with prescriptions, even though Holland is just 300
kilometers (180 miles) from France.''

In the transaction between overprescribing French physicians and their
overconsuming clients, Pietrasik agrees, the problem cuts both ways. ``The
doctor responds to a demand, the insistence of a patient who is always
determined to find that baguette magique.''

It is precisely such determination that fueled Marie-Claude Monnet's
formidable acquisition of drugs.

Troubled by acute asthma and unable to face the rigors of aging after a
lifetime of frenetic activity as a self-employed businesswoman and single
parent, ``Maman is sure that she can find a pill that will give her back
the energy she had a decade ago,'' says Jeanne, ``if only she searches hard

The search took her along another well-traveled road in the French health
care system, a journey from clinic to clinic in quest of a cooperative
doctor. Sometimes, says Jeanne, who found wads of appointment slips mixed
in with her mother's drugs, ``she saw as many as two different doctors a
day, every day of the week.''

As with medications, there is little financial disincentive limiting
doctors' appointments in France. Enrollees in the national health care
system can go to any doctor they choose. They are reimbursed for between 70
percent and 100 percent of the fee.

Increasingly confused and already subject to memory loss, Madame Monnet
took to starting several prescriptions at once on her own, then terminating
some before their intended completion date while refilling others.

Convinced that her breathing difficulties were a result of ``all these
infections,'' as she vaguely told her daughter, she persuaded doctors to
prescribe antibiotics for winter colds -- a dangerous abuse of drugs that
have no effect on common colds or viruses.

``To prescribe a nearly useless medication each day for 20 percent of all
patients, even at a moderate per-unit cost, is to divert 5 or 6 billion
francs per year from public resources that might bring appreciable health
gains to the public if that sum was more effectively used,'' concluded a
1996 government report.

Madame Monnet had no trouble filling her endless prescriptions. Within half
a mile of her apartment on the southern edge of Paris there are more than
200 pharmacies. ``They outnumber cafes and grocery stores,'' notes Jeanne.

Across France, there are nearly 53,000 pharmacies, 107.5 per 100,000
people, almost five times the proportion elsewhere in Europe. For
politicians, any legislation aimed at reducing this number would risk the
backlash of a lobby that counts 220,000 pharmacists and drug industry
employees -- and fiercely defends its interests.

``Medication is habitually the favorite target, the troublemaker, the mangy
cur that brings us problems,'' says Professor Jacques Dangoumou, president
of the Administrative Council of the French Medication Agency, a
counterpart to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

``Everyone has the idea that too much (medication) is consumed in France,
which is undoubtedly true. But there are also caricatures: every time
health expenses are discussed (in the media), the illustration shows a
little fellow or a little lady with a bag full of drugs.''

Yet the illustration is perilously close to the truth, according to the
pharmaceutical industry's own figures.

The situation can be described as nothing less than ``the medication of
existence,'' says Professor Edouard Zarifian, a leading French health

CHART: DRUGSTORE JUNKIES -- Containers of prescribed medication sold
annually per person in 1995: . France 52 Italy 21.1 Germany 13.5 United
Kingdom 9.3 United States 6.1

Prescription drug consumption per 1,000 persons per day (``defined daily

Weekly Action Report On Drug Policies, Year 4, Number 10
(Summary For Activists Of International Drug Policy News,
From CORA In Italy)

From: cora.belgique@agora.stm.it
Comments: Authenticated sender is (cora.belgique@agora.stm.it)
To: "CORAFax -EN-" (cora.news@agora.it)
Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 13:08:39 +0000
Subject: CORAFax 10 (EN)
Sender: owner-hemp@efn.org

Year 4 #10, May 14 1998


Weekly Action Report on Drug Policies
Edited by the CORA - Radical Antiprohibitionist Coordination,
federated to - TRP-Transnational Radical Party (NGO, consultive
status, I) - The Global Coalition for Alternatives to the Drug War


director: Vincenzo Donvito All rights reserved







The first two days will be devoted to congress works. On the 7th, eve of the
Conference on Drugs, congress attendees will demonstrate in front of the UN.
For further information contact Roberto Spagnoli, at 39-6-689.791, fax
688.05.396 mailto:r.spagnoli@agora.stm.it



On the eighth of May members of the CORA and of the TRP who gave life
to the civil disobedience demonstration of last 12 November were
questioned in the police headquarters of Rome. The press deserted the
event in spite of the presence of two Europarliamentaries and various
French and Belgian citizens, all of whom were involved in the



The Resolution on Communications of the Commission, known as the
Pirker Report, on control of new synthetic drugs ('Designer
Drugs'),has been approved by the European Parliament and Council in
Strasbourg. Europarlamentaries Dupuis and Dell'Alba (ARE group) have
started procedures for deposit of radical amendments. Object of the
report is to criminalize millions of synthetic drug consumers inside
the E.U.




000020 08/05/98

In 1997 the use of cannabis has gone up by 15% amongst sixteen year
olds and under in relation to 1996, while during the same period
deaths for overdose have diminished by 41,98%. These figures have been
elaborated by Octris.


000013 11/05/98

During extremely discreet political missions representatives of CDU
and CSU parties have gone to visit centres for controlled distribution
of heroin in Zurich and Basel, and are convinced about the opportunity
of adopting the same measures also in Germany. Only after elections,
of course...


000014 06/05/98

Heavy drug consumers are a total of 100000. 45000 of these are treated
with subutex and 6000 with methadone. The jury of the 'Conference De
Consensus' says that apart from harm reduction there is no real project
that goes in the direction of zero drug consumption.


000023 13/05/98

From an interview with the Minister of Health Bernard Kouchner on the
polemics about treatments with Subutex: 'It is less harmful than
heroin; there is an overdose risk if it is associated with alcohol;
doctors and pharmacists have to be more careful in its use and
diversify treatments, using also Methadone.


000021 11/05/98

The Court of Cassation confirms the non-punishability of chronic drug
addicts, as already established by the Constitutional Court.An addict
who had killed his wife has been acquitted by the The Court of
Cassation on the basis of article 95 of the criminal code which
recognizes chronic drug addicts as being partially or totally


000017 07/05/98

The majority parties in parliament are in disagreement on
depenalizing drug consumption as foreseen by a decree that is being
debated in Senate. The Partito Popolare is heavily against such a
proposal, considering it a surrender in the war against drugs.


000018 06/05/98
E.U. / GB

Within a month special courts for drugs will be instituted which, as
already happens in the United States, will have to judge drug
consumers involved in crimes. This is what 'The Substance Measure
Treatment and Enforcement Programme' (STEP), a creation of anti-drug
'tzar' Keith Hellawell, forsees.


000022 12/05/98

The ex opium tycoon, Lo-Hsing-han is officially a respectable and
successful car dealer. But for the USA his wealth is clearly the sign
of a system which is economically deeply founded on recycling of drug
traffic money and in which the military forces incourage investments
of such money in their own projects.


000019 07/05/98

After 60 years of prohibition Canada has legalized cultivation of
hemp, thus breaking an old North American taboo. The USA are
skeptical, even though it is only hemp for industrial use that is
being considered.


000015 10/05/98

With signs that say 'coca o muerte' peasants are protesting against
the decision taken by the government to send 3000 soldiers to destroy
coca plantations. In April, during riots, 9 people were killed.


000024 12/05/98

Clinton is launching a new 'International Strategy Against Crime'
which hits four targets: drug traffic, smuggling of weapons for mass
destruction, exporting of scientific know-how to countries considered
at risk and women and children traffic.


000016 07/05/98

Economical development must concile an effective war against drugs
with protection of human rights and survival of former drug
cultivators. It is the opinion of minister Spranger. Since 1989
Germany has set aside Dm 400 million to destroy drug cultivations and
favour alternative types of agriculture.



ITALY- 'Does it annoy you if I smoke?' is the cover title of 'Sette',
a weekly magazine sold together with the Corriere della Sera. The
issue contains poll results and articles on the depenalization of
hashish and marijuana in Italy.

ITALY- 'Putting out the joint' is the title of a poll research
commissioned by newspapers La Nazione, Il Resto del Carlino and Il
Giorno. The results are: 76% of their readers are against depenalizing
use of light drugs, while 26% are in favour.

CANADA- The newspapaer 'Toronto Star' has compared the opinions of 27
political leaders, from Pino Arlacchi to the Radical Transnational
Party, on the 'War on Drugs'.

ITALY- 'Liberi per Vivere' is the title of a demonstration that will
take place in Rome on th 23d of May. It is organized by five
communities that work in the reintegration of drug-attics,and on the
occasion of U.N.'s June Conference it intends to support the policy of
reducing drug demand and offer.

WORLD- 6th, 7th and 8th of June will be the '1998 Global days against
the Drug War'. Anti-prohibitionist initiatives will take place in
various parts of the world.

GREAT BRITAIN- The closing day of the 'Sheffield Cannabis Awareness
Week' will include balloons, ice creams and cigarettes...rolled with
cannabis, of course.

TCHECK REPUBLIC- The "Antiprohibicni liga" has been founded in Prague.
Mailto: antiprohibicni@post.cz

USA- A world-wide archive of articles about drug policies is available
on the web, also translated into English.

BELGIUM- Associations CCLA and DEBED are organizing for the 6th of
June the "Day Against the War on Drugs"




Federated with the Transnational Radical Party NGO
with category I consultative status at the UN






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