Portland NORML News - Friday, July 3, 1998

NORML Weekly News (House Approves Spending Program
To Encourage Drug Testing For Small Businesses; Medical Marijuana
Distribution Bill Defeated In State Assembly; Hemp Organization Issues Report
To Counter White House Misinformation Campaign; 29th Annual Rally, March,
And Concert To End Hemp Prohibition Will Take Place In Washington, DC,
On July 4)

From: NORMLFNDTN@aol.com
Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 11:05:28 EDT
Subject: NORML WPR 7/2/98 (II)

The NORML Foundation Weekly Press Release

1001 Connecticut Ave., NW
Ste. 710
Washington, DC 20036
202-483-8751 (p)
202-483-0057 (f)

July 3, 1998


House Approves Spending Program To Encourage Drug Testing For Small

July 2, 1998, Washington, D.C.: The House overwhelmingly approved
legislation last week encouraging small businesses to implement drug
testing programs. The bill, H.R. 3853, provides grants to non-profit
advocacy organizations promoting drug-free workplaces, and encourages
states to offer financial incentive programs to encourage businesses to
adopt drug testing procedures.

"The passage of this legislation needlessly jeopardizes the privacy
rights of approximately 50 percent of the nation's workforce," said
attorney Tanya Kangas of The NORML Foundation. "Drug testing,
particularly urinalysis, is an intrusive search that lacks the ability to
determine impairment while on the job. In addition, these procedures
unfairly target marijuana smokers who may test positive for days or even
weeks after the euphoric effects of the drug have worn off."

Ninety-two percent of companies that test for drugs use urine testing,
according to the American Management Association. Many of these are
large companies that accept federal contracts and are therefore required
to drug test employees under the Federal Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988.
Urine tests detect the presence of non-psychoactive metabolites that are
indicative of past use of certain licit and illicit drugs. A positive
test result, even when confirmed, does not indicate drug abuse or
addiction, recency, frequency, or amount of drug use, or impairment.

"It is unfair to force workers who are not even suspected of using
drugs, and whose job performance is satisfactory, to 'prove' their
innocence through a degrading and uncertain procedure that violates
personal privacy," declared the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in
a released statement opposing suspicionless drug testing. "Such test are
unnecessary because they cannot detect impairment and, thus, in no way
enhance an employer's ability to evaluate or predict job performance."

Kangas added that the legislation demands taxpayers to foot the bill
on a procedure that is neither necessary nor favored by a majority of

The House passed the measure by a vote of 402 to 9.

For more information, please contact either Tanya Kangas or Paul
Armentano of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751.


Medical Marijuana Distribution Bill Defeated In State Assembly

July 2, 1998, Sacramento, CA: Legislation seeking to authorize local
governments to establish medical marijuana distribution programs fell two
votes shy of passage in the Assembly Health Committee Tuesday.

California NORML Coordinator Dale Gieringer criticized the bill's
defeat. "This proposal offered a comprehensive, realistic solution to
the short-term medical marijuana distribution problem," he said.

Senate Bill 1887, introduced by Sen. John Vasconcellos (D-Santa
Clara), was a response to a mandate in Proposition 215 calling on the
government to "implement a plan to provide for the safe and affordable
distribution to all patients in medical need." The measure sought to
make use of an untested provision in the federal Controlled Substances
Act that immunizes local officials who comply with local drug laws from
federal sanctions.

The most vocal opposition to the bill came from a spokesman for
Attorney General's Dan Lungren's office who warned that passing the
measure would legalize cannabis buyers' clubs. Lungren has waged legal
battles against the state's medical marijuana dispensaries since 1996.

The bill also called on the federal government to reschedule marijuana
as a legal medicine. "There is widespread consensus among physicians,
law enforcement, patients, providers, and other stakeholders that the
most effective solution [to the question of medical marijuana
distribution] is for the federal government to reschedule marijuana so
that it can be prescribed under the same strict protocols as morphine and
cocaine," it stated.

Voting on the bill followed party lines, but abstention by moderate
Democrats left the measure without majority support.

"It is a shame that almost two years after the passage of Proposition
215, the California Legislature continues to stall any efforts to
implement a medical marijuana distribution system called for by a
majority of state voters," NORML Executive Director R. Keith Stroup said.

For more information, please contact either Dale Gieringer of
California NORML @ (415) 563-5858 or Keith Stroup of NORML @ (202)


Hemp Organization Issues Report To Counter White House Misinformation

July 2, 1998, Madison, WI: Hemp grown for industrial purposes
presents no threat to public safety and is readily distinguishable from
marijuana, according to a white paper issued by the North American
Industrial Hemp Council (NAIHC). The report, written by plant breeding
expert Dr. David West, provides a factual basis to counter common myths
and misconceptions about the plant.

"No member of the vegetable kingdom has ever been more misunderstood
than hemp," said West. "The drug enforcement agencies, by disseminating
false information, have created a mythology about Cannabis sativa that
ill serves the nation, its farmers, and its industry. ... This paper is
intended to ... offer scientific evidence so that farmers, policy makers,
manufacturers, and the general public can distinguish between myth and

The report discounts theories that hemp contains the necessary
percentage of THC, the compound in marijuana that gives the plant its
euphoric effects, to get users intoxicated. "The THC levels in hemp are
so low that no one could get high from smoking it," the report concluded.
"Moreover, hemp contains a relatively high percentage of another
cannabinoid, CBD, that actually blocks the marijuana high. Hemp, as it
turns out, is not only not marijuana, it could be called

The report also counters the belief that regulating hemp cultivation
would burden local police forces. "In twenty-nine countries where hemp
is grown as an agricultural crop, the police have experienced no such
burdens," the author found. It further stated that none of the major
hemp-growing and exporting nations have ever been identified by the
United States as a drug exporting nation.

David Morris, Vice Chair of the NAIHC, said the report is necessary to
counter the "remarkable barrage of falsehoods and half-truths" issued by
the White House Office of Drug Control Policy and the Drug Enforcement

"It is time for us as a nation to step back, take a deep breath, and
revisit the facts," he said.

The report, entitled Hemp & Marijuana: Myths and Realities, may be
ordered on-line from the NAIHC at: http://www.naihc.org.

For more information on hemp, please contact either Allen St. Pierre or
Paul Armentano of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751.



				- END -

OCTA Ends Drive Short By 3,169 Signatures (Paul Stanford, A Chief Petitioner
For The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act, Notes The Initiative Campaign Has Failed
A Second Time - The Third Time's A Charm)

Sender: stanford@crrh.org
Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 15:09:15 -0700
From: "D. Paul Stanford" (stanford@crrh.org)
Subject: OCTA ends drive short by 3,169 signatures of minimum
To: "CRRH list" (octa99@crrh.org)

The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act (OCTA) petition fell short by 3,169 signatures
of the minimum required number of signatures we needed to turn in to the
state. We have 70,092 signatures and we needed 73,261 registered Oregon
voters' signatures. The final number of signatures available at the
deadline to turn in was 70,092. OCTA really needed a buffer of 25 to 30
percent more signatures than the minimum requirement. Our goal was 105,000,
so we would have a significant buffer to ensure qualification. So close and
yet so far.

I would like to thank all of you out there who have helped the Oregon
Cannabis Tax Act over the last two Oregon election cycles. Since 1995, we
have gathered over 125,000 signatures on OCTA in total (57,000 in 1996,
70,000 for 1998 as of yesterday.) I note that this is more than any other
grass-roots organization in the world as done in the past dozen years (not
counting the Soros funded, professional campaigns for medical marijuana.) I
know we have done a great job with very little funding. We sucessfully
coordinated a paid petition drive in Oregon from March until this week,
though we were paying less per signature than any other petition and had
the stressful job of raising money to continue it as we went. Our heartfelt
thanks goes out to each and every person who circulated and signed the OCTA
petition and to our donors who helped financed our work. We have created an
effective political organization, CRRH, that will continue to grow and make
a real difference in stopping the civil war we know as the War on Drugs. We
have put our message out here in Oregon and on the Internet, educating an
untold number. I believe we have a lot to be proud of. However, there is
still more to do.

The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act (OMMA) has announced that they turned in
97,721 signatures and hopefully it will qualify for a vote this November.
The state will announce whether the OMMA qualifies no later than July 17th.
Congratulations to all the activists and donors who worked to help advance
medical marijuana in Oregon and elsewhere! Polls show that medical
marijuana begins with over 70 percent support here in Oregon. We support
the various state groups who are working for medical marijuana, and we hope
that the national group, Americans for Medical Rights (AMR in Santa Monica,
CA), can parley these state victories into successful legislation in the
federal congress to protect medical marijuana patients and spread the truth
about cannabis.

We already have qualified a referendum in Oregon for a vote to stop our
legislature's misguided attempt to recriminalize simple possession of small
amounts of marijuana. This is Oregon's Ballot Measure 57, which will be
voted on November 3, 1998. We are working together to form a coalition to
stop the recim with several other groups, tenatively called the "Just Say
No to Measure 57" committee. The coalition currently includes the American
Anti-prohibition League, the Libertarian Party of Oregon and us, Campaign
for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp (CRRH,) and we invite other
groups to join. We are working to urge all Oregonians to vote no on Measure

We will be conducting a voter registration drive to activate and mobilize
our supporters to vote this November. We need to be certain that we defeat
Ballot Measure 57 and pass the medical marijuana bill by the highest
margins possible. We urge all to get involved in the effort to defeat
Measure 57, stop the legislature's attempt to further punish adult
marijuana users, and to help pass the OMMA so people with illnesses that
can be treated with cannabis can get the medicine they need.

In terms of our group, CRRH, we are now also working toward 1999 and 2000,
and we will put comprehensive initiatives on the ballot in Oregon and other
states which will regulate and tax the sale of marijuana to adults, allow
doctors to prescribe untaxed marijuana through pharmacies and allow farmers
and industry to benefit from the unregulated production of industrial hemp.
We now have funding to put our proposal up for a vote in Oregon and other
states, though this came in just a little too late to help us in the last
stage of the OCTA petition drive. We invite all interested parties to work
together with us to restore and regulate cannabis through both petitioning
for a direct vote by the people and lobbying elected officials. We are
actively seeking consensus among various groups on a state by state basis
to put "Cannabis Tax Acts" on several statewide ballots over the next
election cycle. We urge your support for CRRH's work to comprehensively
reform marijuana laws, restore hemp and stop punishing, prosecuting and
persecuting adult marijuana users. If you are interested in advancing a CTA
in your state, please contact us.

Our web site (www.crrh.org) is undergoing a spectacular redesign. A prevue
is viewable at www.crrh.org/index_new.html, and includes two interactive
games and two web greeting card services. The games are "Hemp Jeopardy," a
trivia game, and "Hemp: an Interactive Education," a game which shows the
products and benefits from cannabis. The greeting cards are "Dancing
Cannabis," so you can send funny and amusing cards with animatyed graphics
to your friends, and another set of greeting cards called "Hemp Facts," so
you can send political and educational messages with graphics to your
elected officials and others. Our Hemp TV site continues to grow, with
hours of content and over 100 videos currently linked from our web video
server. Hemp TV is also listed by "Timecast" as one of the 600 top news
sites on the web, right up there with ABC News, CNN and MSNBC. Our "Hemp
News" archive of text news goes back to 1992 and is recognized as one of
the first internet e-magazines. We will be introducing an extensive line of
hemp products on our new merchandise web pages, which will help generate
funds for our work. We think our new web site redesign will be widely
recognized as one of the most advanced, interactive and content-laden web
sites in the world, and we think this will win numerous awards and advance
our cause. The new web site will replace the old one soon, and all these
new features should be up and running within a month or so.

Please donate to CRRH to help support our work and services. We are
immediately launching a voter registration drive here in Oregon, paying
activists to register voters and build our database to mobilize our
support. Every dollar contributed allows us to register and database 4 more
people, and we will continue to contact them and get them involved in the
political system to protect our rights. Our group already has a database of
17,000 supporters, and we will database recent information directly from
our OCTA petitions too. Please help support our work. We have a secure
internet credit card donation site with encryption so others can't access
your information at https://www.webcom.com/terrakor/octa.htm and linked
from http://www.crrh.org/credit_cards.html. You can use the postal
service to mail contributions to the address below. We will continue until
we win and cannabis is legally sold to adults.

Thanks again! We shall overcome someday.

Yours truly,
D. Paul Stanford

We are working to regulate and tax adult marijuana sales, allow doctors to
prescribe cannabis and allow the unregulated production of industrial hemp!

*Campaign for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp*
CRRH ; P.O. Box 86741 ; Portland, OR 97286
Phone:(503) 235-4606 Fax:(503) 235-0120 Web: http://www.crrh.org/

Lebanon Farm Raided For Marijuana (The Salem, Oregon, 'Statesman Journal'
Notes The Valley Interagency Narcotics Team Busted A Couple Near Lebanon,
Oregon, With 40 Plants Throughout Their 20-Acre Property, Seizing Marijuana,
Weapons, Three Children And 11 Dogs)

Date: Sat, 04 Jul 1998 04:19:05 -0700
From: Paul Freedom (nepal@teleport.com)
Organization: Oregon Libertarian Patriots
To: Cannabis Patriots (cannabis-patriots-l@teleport.com)
Sender: owner-cannabis-patriots-l@teleport.com


by Janet Davies

Statesman Journal
Salem, Oregon

LEBANON, OREGON--- Police raided a Lebanon farm on Thursday and seized
marijuana, weapons, three children and 11 dogs.

Arrested were Michael G. Melbye, 43, and Paula L. Hill, 26.

Melbye was charged with manufacture and possession of marijuana, child
neglect and animal neglect.

Hill was charged with child neglect and animal neglect.

The Valley Interagency Narcotics Team served a search warrant at 8:45 a.m.
at their 20-acre property at 30400 Townsend Road.

Officers said they found 40 marijuana plants, some growing among trees and
shrubbery, throughout the acreage. Others were growing in plastic containers
in a small camper near the house.


I guess they now consider growing hemp to be dangerous to your animals.


Doonesbury (Garry Trudeau's Syndicated Cartoon, The Fifth In A Series
On Medical Marijuana)


The Trip ('LA Weekly' Recounts The Experimental Psychiatric Use Of LSD
Between 1954 And 1962 By Cary Grant And Hundreds Of Other Patients
Under The Care Of Dr. Oscar Janiger - Now, Proponents Of Scientific Research
With Psychedelics Are Pinning Their Hopes On A Follow-Up Study
On The Original Subjects, To Be Completed Later This Year
By The Multidisciplinary Association For Psychedelic Studies)

From: "Todd McCormick" (todd@a-vision.com)
Subject: Cary Grant on acid, and other stories...
Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 13:43:13 -0700


The Trip

Between 1954 and 1962, before most
Americans had heard of LSD,
psychiatrist Oscar Janiger
administered it to Cary Grant and
more than 900 others. Now,
proponents of scientific research
with psychedelics are pinning their
hopes on a new follow-up study of
Janiger's experiment.


The Trip

Cary Grant on acid, and other stories from the LSD Studies of Dr. Oscar

One morning in April 1962, Cary Grant swallowed four tiny blue pills of
lysergic acid diethylamide - LSD. Incredibly, it was the 58-year-old actor's
72nd acid trip under the supervision of a psychiatrist. Grant relaxed on a
plush couch and sipped coffee as the drug began to take effect. During the
five-hour session, his running commentary was captured on a small tape
recorder for later transcription: "I was noting the growing intensity of
light in the room," he recalled at one point, "and at short intervals as I
shut my eyes, visions appeared to me. I seemed to be in a world of healthy,
chubby little babies' legs and diapers, and smeared blood, a sort of general
menstrual activity taking place. It did not repel me as such thoughts used

Hardly the suave repartee associated with the star of His Girl Friday and
North by Northwest. But as the aging movie idol had already stated in bold
public endorsements of the experimental drug, LSD had a way of stripping
away cultivated veneers and forcing one to confront unguarded, often
unpleasant, emotions. Grant was grateful for his LSD "therapy" - over the
course of a decade, he'd drop acid more than 100 times. Among other
benefits, he credited LSD with helping him control his drinking and come to
terms with unresolved conflicts about his parents.

"When I first began experimentation," he said on that sunny spring morning,
"the drug seemed to loosen deeper fears, as sleep does a nightmare. I had
horrifying experiences as participant and spectator, but, with each session,
became happier, both while experiencing the drug and in periods between . .
. I feel better and feel certain there is curative power in the drug

Grant was just one of hundreds of citizens in the Los Angeles region who
participated during the 1950s and early 1960s in unprecedented academic
studies of the then-novel pharmaceutical. In just a few short years, of
course, LSD would become a chemical taboo, the notorious "hippie
psychedelic" vilified by the media, criminalized in every state, classified
by the FDA as a Schedule I drug of no medical value and banned globally by
international treaty. But before most Americans had heard of lysergic acid
diethylamide, here in the shadow of the Hollywood Hills students,
professionals, clergymen, writers, artists and celebrities enthusiastically
turned on, tuned in and didn't drop out.

"It was a time in the world when scientific research with psychedelic drugs
was perfectly acceptable," recalls Dr. Oscar Janiger, the psychiatrist who
administered LSD to Cary Grant and more than 900 others in the longest
ongoing experiment with LSD on human subjects in a nonclinical environment.

Flash forward 35 years to a very different time in a very different world:
In many ways, science has finally caught up with LSD. Given recent advances
in our understanding of neurochemistry - the complex chemical pathways that
drive human thought, emotions and behavior - many researchers believe that
LSD could become a valuable tool in further unraveling the mysteries of the
human brain. What's more, they say, the drug's startling, if
underappreciated, efficacy in the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction
and a whole range of psychiatric disorders begs for renewed research. Yet
after decades in legal limbo, LSD remains a sociopolitical pariah. Though
research on animals has continued, little more than a dozen human subjects
have participated in studies since the late '60s, and no new research has
been published since the early '70s.

Some of LSD's latter-day defenders now believe that for acid science to move
forward, acid must first be rehabilitated in the public mind. And they're
pinning their hopes on a new follow-up study of Janiger's classic
experiment, conducted between 1954 and 1962. By interviewing the people who
participated in the original study (many of whom are now in their 60s, 70s
and 80s), researchers hope to show that, by and large, few of the original
human guinea pigs suffered negative long-term effects as a result of their
LSD dosings. And - shocking as it may sound - many may have benefited from
the experience.

The prime force behind the follow-up study, to be completed later this year,
is the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), a
nonprofit research and advocacy group that has lobbied the FDA to approve
medical studies of marijuana, MDMA and LSD. Funded via academic grants and
the support of its 1,600 members, who include a number of prominent research
scientists, the North Carolina-based organization describes its purpose as
"working to assist psychedelic researchers around the world [to] design,
obtain governmental approval, fund, conduct and report on psychedelic
research in humans."

"Janiger's study was crucially important," says Rick Doblin, a
Harvard-trained social scientist and founder of MAPS, "because it was work
trying to describe what LSD does in a neutral, noncontroversial context, in
relatively healthy nonpatients."

Other studies conducted worldwide before the ban tended to focus on the use
of LSD in treating disorders such as chronic alcoholism, sexual neuroses,
criminal psychopathology, phobias, depressive states and compulsive
syndromes. But Janiger's subjects were average, middle-to-upper-class,
healthy adults with no pre-existing mental or physical problems. As Doblin
puts it: "The subjects of Janiger's experiment break all the stereotypes
about LSD users, since they are now in their 60s or older and took LSD
before it was controversial. So the followup study is like a time capsule
back to an era before the drug war. And it gives us a view of what LSD
research could be again, if we can get past the biases and just see this
drug more unemotionally, as a tool."

Janiger's study is also a time capsule back to a unique moment in the
cultural history of Southern California. Long before the acid underground
surfaced in San Francisco as the vanguard of the hippie movement, Los
Angeles was an intellectual hub for psychedelic research, and its acid
salons drew adventurous celebrities from Anais Nin to Jack Nicholson, Aldous
Huxley to Andre Previn. Those were heady days . . . in more than one sense.
As Cary Grant rhapsodized about LSD's revolutionary potential that spring
morning in Janiger's office, everyone could benefit from a good dosing.
"Just a few healthy magnums of LSD in the Beverly Hills reservoir . . ."


"[The doctor] had suggested that I listen to some music while the drug was
still effective. I am a composer and pianist, and I have never before or
since been so strongly affected by music. I listened to recordings of some
Brahms, Mozart and Walton, and was moved to tears almost immediately . . . I
then played the piano for approximately 40 minutes. I felt that I played
extremely well and possibly with more musical insight than before. I played
among other things a Chopin Fantasia which I had not looked at since my
student days, and remembered it perfectly and without flaws. A few days
after the experiment I again attempted to play this piece and found that I
had retained it completely. I would sometime be interested in repeating the
experiment and recording some improvisations while under the influence of
the pills." - Andre Previn


When acid guru Timothy Leary first met Oscar Janiger in 1962, he described
his far less flamboyant colleague as a "powerhouse" of "solid athletic
build, gray hair, strong tanned face, merry eyes." That description more or
less holds true today, although age has inevitably softened the formerly
athletic build and given the dean of Los Angeles LSD research a certain
gnomish aspect. This afternoon he and his wife, Kathleen Delaney, are
lunching in their comfortable book-lined home in Santa Monica Canyon with a
clutch of Hollywood screenwriters who hope to parlay the social history of
LSD into a feature film. (In fact, the annals of acid contain all the
dramatic convolutions of a major Oliver Stone production, from hallucinatory
visions to throbbing acid rock to a surfeit of government conspiracy,
including the CIA's infamous and highly illegal attempts to use LSD as a
mind-control drug on unsuspecting U.S. citizens.) After dessert - alas, no
electric Kool-Aid, but rather a Trader Joe's lemon torte - the Hollywood
hopefuls take their leave, and Janiger retires to his study, where he
sketches the broad outlines of his famous research.

To ensure the comfort of his subjects during their LSD excursions, Janiger
had rented a small house in the mid-Wilshire district. In one room he set up
his regular psychiatric practice. In an adjacent room, furnished with a
couch, a bed and a swanky hi-fi system, he conducted his LSD study. In the
enclosed back yard, he installed a garden, to give his experimental trippers
a safe outdoor haven to explore.

"So many of the studies prior to mine were done in hospital rooms,
restricted environments," Janiger recalls, "and I thought that my study
might be benefited by a naturalistic environment."

Though Janiger held an associate professorship in the Psychology Department
at the California College of Medicine (later to become the University of
California at Irvine), he funded the study himself by charging a $20 fee for
the experience. Sandoz Laboratories, the Swiss pharmaceutical company that
"discovered" LSD, supplied the drug free of charge. In return, Janiger
agreed to keep Sandoz informed about the results of his experiments. Unlike
many other researchers and major universities, he never accepted funding -
covert or overt - from the CIA or the military.

Janiger's research would represent a significant departure from the orthodox
thinking about LSD. Up until then, most academics had classified the drug as
a "psychotomimetic" agent - a substance that produces a state of temporary
insanity; if LSD could create dissociative states that mirrored
schizophrenia, the thinking went, the drug was ideally suited to the study
of the chemical and biological causes of mental illness. The CIA and the
military had their own ideas about LSD: They hoped to exploit the drug's
disorienting effects for the purpose of nonlethal warfare.

"My goal was simply to find out what LSD does to people under uniform
conditions," Janiger says, especially how it changes perception and
personality. Over the course of a decade, he would also study a number of
related issues, including the drug's effect on artistic creativity -
incidentally, a subject explored by Janiger's cousin, the Beat poet Allen

Janiger's approach to LSD research was influenced by his own experience with
the drug. It was in early 1954 that he had first tried acid, procured
legally from Sandoz Laboratories by a friend. "That first experience shook
me up completely," Janiger recalls. "It was extraordinary - so powerful and
so interesting. I was of course struck by how LSD works to change your
reality around. From a psychiatric point of view, it was a marvelous
instrument to learn more about the mind."

Each of Janiger's volunteers was pre-screened for obvious mental or physical
disturbances. If they passed that initial test, they were given LSD in the
morning and allowed to do whatever they wanted for the rest of the day -
listen to music, walk in the garden, draw or paint, et cetera. A designated
"babysitter" was a constant but unobtrusive presence, there to see to a
subject's physical comfort. (It was sometimes necessary to remind a subject
to use the bathroom. Even urbane Cary Grant once defecated in his pants
during an LSD session.) Typically, the babysitter was also an acid veteran
who knew how to talk a disturbed subject down from a bad trip, which was
rarely necessary, according to Janiger.

At the end of the experience - and sometimes during - Janiger's subjects
were provided with a tape recorder or stenographer so that they could record
their impressions while the images were still fresh in their minds. Later,
they were asked to fill out a questionnaire that contained queries such as
"What single event or insight, if any, during the LSD experience would you
consider to have been of the greatest meaning to you?" and "What changes, if
any, have taken place in your sense of values . . . "

Janiger broke these reports down into a series of descriptive statements
about the experience. Those "descriptors" common to all of the subjects'
experiences, then, could be seen as defining the LSD state. "Processing this
data was laborious work," he says. "We had no computers." Nevertheless, by
the end of the study, Janiger was able to distill the quintessential LSD
experience: The drug altered the user's perception of time; it came in
waves; it made colors seem more intense; it induced the sensation that all
elements of the world were organically connected in some way.

"That, to me, was a very nice piece of business," says Janiger, "because it
clarified a great many things in my own mind. I began to see what I think is
the core of the LSD experience - the state of the experience as opposed to
the content of the experience. Up until then, that distinction had never
been made with LSD. Some people said LSD was a religious experience, or a
birth experience. But that was the content of their experience. For others
it might not be either of those things."


"I was opened up to the beauty in people who had never seemed beautiful
before. The next morning at the Pancake House, I walked up and bowed to four
nuns. I had never spoken to nuns before - I couldn't penetrate their cloak
of reverence. I walked up to them, and loved them, and they were sure I
owned the place, and gave me their orders for breakfast. When the waiter
came and I sat down at my table, it shook them. But I spoke to them again
and told them I saw them as Sisters of Beauty. They tittered and giggled and
blushed, well-pleased." - Beat comedian Lord Buckley


Lysergic acid diethylamide had been around since 1938, when Dr. Albert
Hofmann serendipitously formulated the first dose at Sandoz. Hofmann was
experimenting with derivatives of ergot, a rye fungus, in an attempt to
develop a circulatory stimulant. Instead, what he discovered in his 25th
attempt (the official name of the drug would become LSD-25) was a substance
of extremely peculiar qualities.

The story of the first acid trip ever is now famous: Hofmann unknowingly
absorbed the experimental compound through his fingers. "As I lay in a dazed
condition with eyes closed," he would recall, "there surged up from me a
succession of fantastic, rapidly changing imagery of a striking reality and
depth, alternating with a vivid, kaleidoscopic display of colors." Two days
later, Hofmann deliberately swallowed a miniscule 250 micrograms (a
millionth of an ounce), which launched him on an even more dramatic head
trip. "I had great difficulty in speaking coherently," he'd later say of
that session. He managed to ride his bicycle home, but was soon enduring the
world's first bad trip, wondering if he was going insane: "I thought I had
died. My 'ego' was suspended somewhere in space, and I saw my body lying
dead on the sofa."

Hofmann survived the ordeal, and soon returned to the realm of pleasant
hallucinations. So began the era of academic experimentation with the
unusual compound.

By 1965, researchers had published more than 2,000 papers describing the
treatment of 30,000 to 40,000 patients with psychedelic drugs, including
mescaline and psilocybin, but mostly with LSD. Among the more stunning
results were studies in which LSD was given in high doses to children
suffering from schizophrenia and autism. One such study reported that for a
group of young autistic children with speech difficulties, "the vocabularies
of several of the children increased after LSD." What's more, "several
seemed to be attempting to form words or watched adults carefully as they
spoke; many seemed to comprehend speech for the first time." The autistic
children all "appeared flushed, bright-eyed and unusually interested in the

Even more dramatic were the successes during the 1950s and 1960s in treating
chronic alcoholics at Hollywood Hospital in British Columbia and at Spring
Grove State Hospital in Baltimore. After ingesting relatively large doses of
LSD (up to 800 micrograms, in some cases) and undergoing directed therapy,
about half of all patients "were able to remain sober or to drink much
less," according to pioneers Bernard Aaronson and Humphry Osmond (who coined
the word "psychedelic") in their book Psychedelics (1970). Often after only
one dose patients remained totally abstinent. "This seems to be a universal
statistic for LSD therapy," they reported.

Exactly how LSD worked for alcoholics, heroin addicts and schizophrenic
children remains something of a mystery. One school of thought advanced the
theory that a "peak" LSD experience can be as nerve-rattling as a case of
the delerium tremens, which many reformed alcoholics cite as the nadir
before they decided to stop boozing. Others noted that patients weren't
likely to experience a dramatic recovery unless the LSD experience was
guided by a skilled therapist.

In fact, to this day scientists know little about how LSD interacts with the
human brain on a neurological level. The ban on human research with LSD is
partly to blame. But beyond that, LSD operates in mysterious ways. The drug
remains in the brain for a relatively short period, disappearing at about
the time the mental light show begins. This short half-life of the drug
suggests that the hours of hallucinations and consciousness-warping
experienced by acid eaters is due not to the drug itself, but to some
little-understood neurochemical chain of events unleashed by LSD.

Research on animals has suggested that LSD stimulates the serotonin
receptors of the brain - the same neurological connections that Prozac and
other new antidepressant drugs zero in on. "Why a drug that stimulates a
serotonin receptor should effect changes in consciousness and perception is
the thing that we don't actually know," says David Nichols, founder of the
Heffter Research Institute, a nonprofit group that funds and conducts
clinical studies of psychedelic substances.

"One could look at LSD as having an action somewhat like an antidepressant,"
says Richard Yensen, a pioneering LSD researcher and psychologist who
successfully treated alcoholics at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center,
on the grounds of Spring Grove State Hospital. But, he adds, "LSD belongs to
a unique family of drugs that are first and foremost sensitive to the way
they are given. And the mechanism of cure has not to do with whether the
person got the drug or not, but with whether the person had a transcendental
experience with the drug."

After decades of experimentation - clinical and otherwise - it's clear that
LSD's effect on individuals varies hugely. A person's response depends not
only on his or her mental state or "set," but also on a multitude of other
factors, including the setting in which the drug is taken, the influence of
others in the room and even the prevailing cultural climate. For instance,
during the late 1960s, after the frenzy of hyperbolic media reports on the
dangers of LSD, the numbers of illegal users experiencing the proverbial
"bad trip" multiplied. Many observers suspected a direct relationship
between the upswing in "bummers" and the surge of acid scare stories. (The
fact that the doses available then were often more than twice as high as
today's street-grade hits may also account for the higher incidence of bad

Undoubtedly, LSD's mercurial nature has a lot to do with why it became so
controversial so quickly, and why it was never fully accepted as a worthy
addition to the store of mainstream pharmacopoeia.


I thought I was the quickest the quickest the quickest mind alive and the
quickest with words but words cannot catch up with these changes, these
changes are beyond words, beyond words, beyond words. While I repeated these
words I felt the waves of pleasure like those of the most acute pleasure of
lovemaking . . . I felt the impossibility to tell the secret of life because
the secret of life was metamorphosis, transmutation, and it happened too
quickly, too subtly." - Anais Nin


"I never saw my work as being therapeutic," Janiger says, "but in the course
of the study we made some ancillary discoveries." One such discovery
involved a painfully shy firefighter. "Although he was a very pleasant,
intelligent man," says Janiger, "he was extremely shy and sort of a shut-in
personality. He could never mix with people because there was a terrible
barrier, an inhibition about being in spontaneous social gatherings."
Janiger gave the man "minimal doses" of LSD for a period of several months.
By the end of that period, "his personality had changed markedly." Says
Janiger, "He became very affable and quite a man of public affairs, going
out and talking to people." Even after he stopped taking LSD, he remained

Intrigued by the firefighter's transformation, Janiger sought out a pair of
identical twins to see if LSD might affect their personalities in different
ways. "After three years of looking," he says, "we found two 19-year-old
girls who dressed alike, went everywhere together, very closely identified.
One was engaged but didn't want to get married until the other one was
engaged." The young women agreed to participate, and they were taken to
separate rooms and given identical doses of LSD. Separated, "they had
totally different reactions," says Janiger, which seemed to confirm the
importance of set and setting on an individual's experience. "From that
point," says Janiger, "their lives parted dramatically. One got married and
moved away. I kept a correspondence with them, so I have a history of this
very interesting phenomenon."

Janiger also experimented with LSD's effects on pain dissociation, a common
symptom of mental illness. Would LSD produce in users a similar state? "We
did an experiment where a fellow had his tooth pulled while under LSD, but
without any other anesthetic," Janiger recalls. A dentist at UCLA pulled the
tooth and the subject didn't flinch, didn't protest, didn't so much as
blink. Then the dentist touched the exposed nerve ending, and still the
subject remained calm and conversant. According to Janiger, the
flabbergasted dentist exclaimed, "In all my years of dentistry, I've never
been able to touch a naked nerve without a person going to pieces."

"I had the choice of doing a lot of little experiments like that," says
Janiger. "I knew that the days of LSD research would eventually come to an
end. The burden of riches was so great, I wanted to open up as many new
possibilities as I could."

Perhaps the most interesting side experiment evolved from the fact that
Janiger's volunteers tended to reflect the cultural foment of Los Angeles.
After artists began to ask for drawing materials during their sessions, he
decided to launch a special study of LSD's influence on creativity. He gave
70 professional artists LSD and asked each of them to create two renderings
of a common reference object, a Hopi Indian kachina doll that he had in his
office. The first rendering would be done before taking LSD, the second
while under acid's influence. The results were dramatic.

"To the artist," says Janiger, "the drawings done under the influence of LSD
were very important. Who knows if they were better or worse? But I couldn't
deny the artists their own experience. They'd say, 'This is something I've
been trying to do for years, a way of looking at this thing.' I said, 'I'm
not gonna argue.' And there wasn't a single artist who didn't think they had
had some kind of revelation."

The very same kachina doll sits today on the mantle in Janiger's living
room, under a particularly stunning framed pair of before-and-after
renderings of it. Painted by Fortune illustrator Frank Murdoch, the picture
on the left is of draftsmanlike quality, a perfect "representational" image.
Its acid-inspired twin couldn't be more different - awhirl with color and
asplash with motion, its planes and curves lurching in multiple directions.
But it is recognizably the same kachina doll. And if anything, its colors
more accurately capture the doll's brilliant hues. (Janiger has saved all
the pieces from the study, consistently declining offers from the artists to
buy back their work. Several years ago, he mounted a successful gallery
exhibition of the acid art.)

The data from the art study are particularly rich, says Janiger. "It remains
for someone highly gifted as an artistic critic and interpreter to take that
material and develop a theory in terms of perception and the creative and
artistic processes. And that opens up the whole issue of whether or not
drugs fire up your imagination in terms of writing and poetry."

After taking LSD at Janiger's office, the writer Anais Nin developed her own
theory about the drug's effect on the creative impulse. She later
incorporated her rough notes, which Janiger has saved in his plenary files,
into an essay included in The Diary of Anais Nin. "I could find correlations
[to the LSD imagery] all through my writing," she wrote, "find the sources
of the images in past dreams, in reading, in memories of travel, in actual
experience, such as the one I had once in Paris when I was so exalted by
life that I felt I was not touching the ground, I felt I was sliding a few
inches away from the sidewalk. Therefore, I felt, the chemical did not
reveal an unknown world. What it did was to shut out the quotidian world as
an interference and leave you alone with your dreams and fantasies and
memories. In this way it made it easier to gain access to the subconscious

Though she never admitted it publicly, Nin's access to her inner life was
dramatically augmented by LSD. According to author and screenwriter Gavin
Lambert - who was referred to Janiger by Nin - she privately confessed that
her acid trip was traumatic. "For Anais," says Lambert, "it was a disaster.
On LSD the world seemed to her terrifying. This, to me, was extremely
interesting, because Anais Nin's life was a high-wire act of lies. She had
two husbands - was bigamously married - and neither of them knew about the
other. And I think that her whole high-wire act became very naked to her
under LSD, and she couldn't take it. She was a creature of such artifice,
and then suddenly the artifice was stripped away."

Many of Janiger's subjects were interested in using LSD to catalyze the kind
of mystical experience that Aldous Huxley, Hollywood's most famous British
literary expatriate, had written about in The Doors of Perception. But as
Janiger and so many others would discover, LSD was difficult to control. At
one point, Janiger invited a group of Unitarian ministers to drop acid.
Several were disappointed when the drug produced peculiar aural and visual
effects, but nothing of deeper spiritual significance.

In the wake of his first session with LSD in Janiger's office, philosopher
Alan Watts compared his trip somewhat unfavorably to the rare mystical
experiences he had undergone earlier in his life. Those events, which
weren't catalyzed by drugs, "just didn't feel like the LSD experience," he
wrote. "They were very much more convincing. They seemed to be more a matter
of insight than perception. They changed the meaning of experience rather
than experience, and although modification of pure meaning was so much a
part of LSD, it didn't happen in the same way. LSD seemed to complicate
meaning rather than simplify it. It gave the sense of indescribable
complexity rather than indescribable simplicity. For this reason it did not
seem to be a particularly liberating experience. It was fascinating rather
than illuminating, and felt more like the statement of a complex problem
than its solution."

I began to experience very strong feelings of sensuality in and around my
belly and the inside of my thighs. Needless to say, the feelings were
extremely pleasurable, but unlike the usual sexual excitement, I didn't feel
the need for gratification . . .


"During this period, I decided that, since I was feeling so sensual, I should
fabricate sexual fantasies to synchronize with my feelings but was not very
successful. I tried to imagine "M" making love to me but that seemed to put
a damper on things, so, as a last resort, I tried to imagine Doctor K.
kissing my vagina and making love to it. He looked about one foot tall and
his body appeared to be in the form of a square with round corners! . . . As
he went to kiss me, his tongue started to grow until it seemed to be eight
feet long. I tried to stop this unpleasant image but couldn't do so." -Rita


Soon after Janiger opened his office to experimental trippers, word of mouth
prompted an unending stream of volunteers. Many of those eagerly rapping on
Janiger's door had already read The Doors of Perception, which dealt with
Huxley's experiences with another hallucinogen, mescaline. Others had fallen
under the spell of acid proselyte Timothy Leary, who was rapidly becoming
LSD's loudest and most reckless cheerleader, urging a new generation of
hipsters to "turn on, tune in and drop out." Still other seekers had picked
up on the Beat poets' positive vibe about psychotropic drugs. And the
Hollywood grapevine had hipped the show-biz community to the fact that
Janiger's office was where it was at.

"It was a mystery to me how the word got around so fast," says Janiger.
"People were calling all the time. From everywhere. It spread geometrically.
People would tell their friends and then those friends would tell their
friends. Consequently, we got a good sample, and we chose people to fill out
the demographic picture of our scheme. Still, it took a certain kind of
person, I imagine, to be curious or interested enough."

To be sure, Janiger wasn't the only researcher dispensing experimental acid
in the Los Angeles region. Some professional shrinks were already using LSD
in their practices; Cary Grant took his first five dozen or so trips in the
offices of Drs. Arthur Chandler and Mortimer Hartmann. At UCLA, psychiatrist
Sydney Cohen was conducting his own LSD studies. It was Cohen who turned on
Henry Luce, the consummate Cold Warrior and president of Time-Life. Cohen
also gave LSD to Luce's gadabout wife, Claire Boothe Luce. The Luces took
half a dozen trips during the late 1950s and early 1960s, and Henry claimed
that on one such magical mystery tour he had chatted up God on a golf
course. Claire thought that LSD was well and good for the elite, but
definitely not indicated for the hoi polloi: "We wouldn't want everyone
doing too much of a good thing," she sniffed.

By the late 1950s, a salon of psychedelic dilettantes had sprung up around
Oscar Janiger. Everyone called him Oz, and as the custodian of this
fantastic and surreal drug, he was a bit of a wizard. Janiger referred to
the group, which met informally to talk about their acid experiences, as the
"consciousness clan." Among the regulars were British expatriates Huxley,
philosopher Gerald Heard and novelist Christopher Isherwood; Cohen and other
UCLA faculty members; Anais Nin, Alan Watts and the occasional Hollywood
celebrity. The evenings, Janiger says, were "rife with accounts and stories
of what this substance was doing and what it could do."

Southern California was rapidly becoming a locus of the psychedelic
movement, matched in energy only by academic enclaves in British Columbia
and along the East Coast, where Leary, with the backing of Billy Hitchcock,
an adventurous heir of the Mellon fortune, had established a boisterous
colony of self-dosing higher-consciousness seekers at a posh New York
estate. Janiger kept a much lower profile, and worried - correctly, it would
turn out - that Leary's brand of in-your-face publicity would spur the
government to move against LSD. Still, he welcomed a number of high-profile
personages into his hi-fi trip room.

James Coburn took 200 micrograms of LSD on December 10, 1959 - his first
trip. In his paperwork, he gave his reason for volunteering: "to gauge
present consciousness (where I am to where I can possibly go)." Now 69 and
still acting, Coburn looks back fondly on his session with Janiger. "It was
phenomenal," he says. "I loved it. LSD really woke me up to seeing the world
with a depth of objectivity. Even though it was a subjective experience, it
opened your mind to seeing things in new ways, in a new depth." Coburn also
credits his LSD session with helping him occupationally. "One of the great
things about LSD is that it does stimulate your imagination. And it frees
you from fears of certain kinds."

Another celeb who tried LSD as part of Janiger's experiment was a
25-year-old Jack Nicholson, who listed his occupation as "actor" and took
his first trip (a dose of 150 micrograms) in Janiger's office on May 29,
1962. Nicholson would later incorporate his experiences into his script for
The Trip, a 1967 low-budget film about an intense LSD session starring Peter
Fonda and Dennis Hopper, another volunteer in Janiger's study.

Hopper, Fonda and Nicholson would team up again in 1969 on Easy Rider, with
Hopper directing. It became the seminal film in the "New Hollywood"
movement, which rejected traditional studio notions about content, style and
production in favor of the edgy visions of its auteurs. Obviously, Hopper
and company were channeling other, nonchemical, influences, including the
work of French New Wave directors, but Easy Rider's then-revolutionary
style - the jump cuts, time shifts, flash forwards, flashbacks, jerky
hand-held cameras, fractured narrative and improvised acting - can also be
seen as a cinematic translation of the psychedelic experience. "LSD did
create a frame of mind that fractured experience," says Peter Biskind,
author of Easy Riders, Raging Bulls (1998), which chronicles the rise and
fall of the drug-fueled New Hollywood. "And that LSD experience had an
effect on films like Easy Rider and [the Nicholson-penned Monkees movie]
Head, which are essentially experimental movies."


"This is civilization," [my driver] remarks as we enter the Miracle Mile. I
nod, laughing, muttering. "Idiots! Jesus! Shit!" It seems to me the streets
are full of women - mainly ugly, middle-aged women carrying crumpled
shopping bags. "Look at them, hurrying to get across before the light
changes to green - don't they realize how unimportant that is?" Lots of
dummies in shop windows. I am struck by the similarity of the passersby and
these dummies. "Really, there isn't much difference. In fact, these people
are all becoming dummies." Noticing more billboards, I elaborate. "These
little people erect dummies and huge images of themselves, which grin down
at them and tell them to smoke cigarettes and drink drinks and eat foods
they are already eating. They erect these effigies of themselves to reassure
themselves they should do what they're already doing." - Author-
screenwriter Gavin Lambert


Celebrities notwithstanding, the vast majority of Janiger's volunteers were
average citizens. Which has made tracking them down for the followup study a
challenge - complicated by the fact that many have already died. With the
help of a private detective and lots of Internet searching, MAPS has to date
located and interviewed 40 of Janiger's original subjects who are still
living in the Los Angeles area. Janiger would like to double that number
before next fall.

According to Kate Chapman, the MAPS researcher who conducted the interviews,
most of the subjects "had a positive experience, with no long-term harm."
One exception was a man who had "a bad, bad, bad trip, and would even say
that it was psychologically damaging." In his essay written shortly after
his LSD session, says Chapman, this man described "an awful account of how
some intensely repressed psychosexual problems surfaced to the conscious
front under the influence."

"In a way," says Rick Doblin of MAPS, "you hope to find nobody like that,
but the fact that we did find something negative and are willing to report
it will hopefully add credibility to the study. We're trying to develop
guidelines for future research, so what this tells us is that LSD shouldn't
be given in research unless there is someone with therapeutic skill

The volunteers I spoke to all had good things, or at least neutral things,
to say about their LSD experiences. Zale Parry is a still-fetching
65-year-old woman who played a major role in L.A.'s early acid days. She now
lives in the San Fernando Valley, and jokes that her neighbors would
probably be shocked to learn that she was once something of an acid queen.
No doubt they would also be shocked to learn that the vibrant
impressionistic painting of a wild artichoke in bloom that hangs on the wall
above her sofa was rendered by one of Janiger's acid-tripping artists.

Parry's late husband, Parry Bivens, a pioneer scuba diver, inventor, medical
doctor, chemist and drug experimenter, is the man who introduced Janiger to
LSD, after obtaining a mail-order supply from Sandoz Laboratories. According
to his widow, he also had the distinction of being the first person on the
West Coast to synthesize mescaline in a garage lab - "It was pure satin,"
she says knowingly.

An accomplished pioneer diver in her own right, Parry graced the cover of
Sports Illustrated in 1955 and worked as an actress and underwater stunt
double in Hollywood, standing in for Sophia Loren and co-starring with Lloyd
Bridges in TV's Sea Hunt. She describes her two dozen acid sessions of the
mid-1950s as "happy trips - joyful." She credits LSD with helping her to
appreciate the intricacies and interconnectedness and beauty of life in the
"underwater world." After her first several sessions, she became a volunteer
babysitter for Janiger's subjects. She hasn't taken any drugs since then,
and feels no need to try LSD again.

Sixty-nine-year-old Loring Ware says that his six to eight doses of LSD in
Janiger's office opened his eyes to "the world around me, but with some of
the veils taken away that I didn't even know were there." Before those
experiences, Ware was following what he felt to be an uninspiring career
path as a technical illustrator. "LSD made me less happy with my job," he
says. "I recognized the essential meaninglessness of my job." Subsequently,
Ware switched careers and became a radio announcer. Though he hasn't had
much experience with other drugs - other than "a little pot in the 1960s" -
he believes that LSD "should be incorporated into some kind of rite of
passage for young people, so they enter into adulthood with an understanding
of the broadness of life, instead of becoming little cogs in a machine."

Ernest Pipes, 71, was one of eight Unitarian ministers who dropped acid in
Janiger's office one day in the late 1950s. Now retired and living in Santa
Monica Canyon, not far from Janiger's house, Pipes says he was disappointed
with his trip only because it was not a transcendent experience. "As it
turned out," he recalls, "each of us had a very different experience - some
went very deeply into a state of transcendent ecstasy, others did not. I had
an intensified aural and visual experience, but I was unable to surrender
fully to the effects of the drug in that setting." Pausing a moment, he
adds, "But I have always regretted that I was not transported more
effectively into altered states of consciousness, and thus enabled to be in
touch with other dimensions of reality."

Pipes and his colleagues had eagerly accepted Janiger's invitation to
participate in the study. "We, as clergy, knew that one's inner life can be
altered through music and liturgy and devotional reading, a beautiful sunset
or a nature walk. So when it became possible for us to experiment, we
thought that professionally we were obliged to do it." Though Pipes has
never tried other drugs, he says wistfully, "I've always wanted to try it
again. Wouldn't it be great, in the proper set and setting, to have an
inward journey?"


"An inclination to "break wind" was inhibited by the fear that it might turn
into a multi-dimensional faux pas, reverberating uncontrollably through this
Riemannian cosmos!" - Philosopher Alan Watts


By the early 1960s, it was apparent that the era of inward journeys - or at
least legal ones - was fast approaching an end. LSD had seeped into the
underground youth culture, and the forces of prohibition were already in
play. Long before LSD was outlawed, Sandoz, under international pressure,
cut off researchers' access to the drug.

And what of LSD's reputed perils? "A lot of the so-called dangers were
hyperbole exaggerated by the press and misunderstood by science," says
Ronald Siegel, who has studied psychopharmacological agents at UCLA for
nearly 30 years. The claim that LSD causes genetic damage, for one, turned
out to be inaccurate. "In fact," Siegel continues, "the drug does not
present a lot of toxic dangers to individuals, simply because the dose that
turns them on and the dose that kills them are so far apart. No one has ever
died from a direct toxic overdose of LSD.

"There are psychological problems for many people," Siegel says, "but by and
large LSD has been tolerated very well. And one of the examples of that is
the fact that more people are using LSD today in the United States than ever
before in our history, and there are fewer problems than ever before."

According to Janiger, researchers themselves are partly responsible for the
drug's fall from grace. "LSD didn't pan out as an acceptable therapeutic
drug for one reason," he says. "Researchers didn't realize the explosive
nature of the drug. You can't manipulate it as skillfully as you would like.
It's like atomic energy - it's relatively easy to make a bomb, but much
harder to safely drive an engine and make light. And with LSD, we didn't
have the chance to experiment and fully establish how to make it do
positive, useful things."

So acid has continued to hang in limbo. Says Siegel: "Because LSD carries
with it so much political baggage, it has become extremely difficult to
generate approval for new studies."

For researchers hoping to resume LSD studies with human subjects, progress
on the regulatory front has been excruciatingly slow. Since the early 1970s,
only a dozen or so people have participated in FDA-sanctioned studies, and
those were continuations of projects approved before the ban. Last year,
Baltimore psychologist Richard Yensen was ready to administer 499 doses of
LSD to down-and-out alcoholics and drug addicts in a resumption of his work
begun in the early '60s at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. But
early this year, the FDA put the study on "clinical hold," demanding that
Yensen revise his research and safety protocols. Yensen says he has no idea
why the FDA suddenly hit the brakes, but he suspects that a recent Esquire
magazine story publicizing his obscure research spooked government

Other planned research projects with hallucinogens have hit similar
regulatory obstacles. For now, at least, says Siegel, "Psychedelics are more
useful as a basic research tool than as an applied medical tool. And because
of that, hallucinogens have very limited appeal to government agencies to
foster further research."

Some critics of psychedelic science argue that LSD's would-be rehabilitators
are really mounting a crypto-legalization campaign. Rick Doblin of MAPS
denies that charge, at least in the sense that he's lobbying for LSD to be
sold over the counter like cigarettes and alcohol. Yet he asserts that "the
ultimate goal is to have legal access to LSD, more likely than not in
specially licensed centers to specially licensed therapists."

Janiger also envisions a place for LSD in our culture. He would like to see
studies of LSD and other psychedelics "become fair-minded and at parity with
other kinds of research," and the fruits of such research applied to
"acceptable social and medical uses." He cites the Eleusinian Mysteries of
ancient Greece as a model for LSD's potential place in our own society. For
nearly 2,000 years, the Greeks participated in an annual ritual in the city
of Eleusis, 22 kilometers west of Athens. In the secret ceremony,
participants from all walks of life (Plato and Aristophanes, as well as
slaves) imbibed a sacred drink called "kykeon" and then proceeded to
experience what one ancient author described as "ineffable visions" that
were "new, astonishing, inaccessible to rational cognition." Says Janiger,
"Those who underwent the mysteries came out at the other side, the sages
tell us, as changed people who saw the world differently." In short, the
Golden Age of Greece may have also been a very psychedelic age.

If Janiger's own experiments in Los Angeles resembled a kind of modern-day
Eleusinian Mystery, that was no accident. "The discussions I had with Huxley
and Watts and the others in those early years," he says, "really centered
around the way our culture might institutionalize LSD, and it would be very
much like the Greek model."

Clearly, Janiger isn't advocating "legalization" in a simplistic sense. He
is talking about the kind of self-transformation that leads to larger
cultural transformations. And for that reason, his vision may ultimately be
even more radical than the notion of over-the-counter psychedelics. But what
a long, strange trip it was for about 2,000 years in ancient Greece. And
what a short, strange trip it was for about a decade in Los Angeles.

MAPS is still searching for people who participated in Dr. Oscar Janiger's
LSD study. The MAPS contact number is (704) 334-1798. You can find more
information about MAPS on its Internet Web site, http://www.maps.org.

Questions or comments?
Email letters to the editor: letters@laweekly.com
Copyright (c) 1998, Los Angeles Weekly, Inc. All rights reserved.

Viagra Online (A Staff Editorial In 'The San Francisco Chronicle'
Says Federal And State Officials Should Crack Down On The Internet Pharmacy
The Newspaper Wrote About Yesterday That Sells Pfizer's New Impotence Pill
With A 'Physician Review' Instead Of A Traditional Prescription)

Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 10:19:40 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Viagra Online
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998


THANKFUL AS many men may be by the easy availability of Viagra over the
Internet, federal and state officials should waste no time in cracking down
on companies that sell the drug without requiring traditional

Chronicle science writer Carl T. Hall reported that one of the companies
peddling the exceedingly popular anti-impotence pill as well as other
prescription medicines on the Internet required only a short,
customer-completed ``medical history'' form.

The form is sent to the drug distributor along with money for the pills and
a $50 ``physician review'' fee. The ``review'' physician neither talks to
nor examines the hopeful buyer. That lack of contact between doctor and
patient is in disturbing contravention to the time-honored practice of
pairing doctor knowledge of a patient with a prescription for that patient.

Most prescribed drugs are not available over the counter for a good reason.
They may have side effects that require an evaluation of appropriateness on
a case-by-case basis. Viagra has been linked to 174 reports of side effects
and 31 deaths, although, as Hall reported, it is not clear whether the drug
itself or underlying health problems were to blame. While serious questions
still exist about the safety of a drug, as they do with Viagra, it is
extremely irresponsible to allow the medicine to be distributed through the
mails as if the pills were M&M's.

With every passing day, the public witnesses both the good and ill that
comes from the Internet marvel. The disclosure that scores of men are
essentially writing their own prescriptions to get a potentially dangerous
drug is an illustration of the Internet used for ill.

1998 San Francisco Chronicle Page A26

Wage, Marijuana, Abortion Initiatives May Make Ballot ('The Seattle Times'
Says The Initiative 692 Campaign To Legalize Marijuana For Medical Purposes
Delivered An Estimated 245,000 Signatures To The Washington
Secretary Of State's Office In Olympia Yesterday, Far More Than The Required
179,248 Valid Signatures Needed To Get The Issue Before Voters In November)

Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:44:06 -0700
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US WA: Wage, Marijuana, Abortion
Initiatives May Make Ballot
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
Newshawk: John Smith
Source: Seattle Times (WA)
Contact: opinion@seatimes.com
Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/
Pubdate: Fri, 03 July 1998
Author: Jim Lynch, Seattle Times Olympia bureau


OLYMPIA - Citizen initiatives to raise the minimum wage, ban late-term
abortions and allow the medicinal use of marijuana appear to have collected
enough signatures to qualify for the November ballot.

The campaign to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes was the last to
deliver petitions to the Capitol before yesterday's deadline, unloading an
estimated 245,000 signatures at the secretary of state's office.

The proposal, Initiative 692, is a streamlined version of last year's
I-685, which voters rejected. This year's model allows marijuana use by
patients with certain terminal or debilitating conditions such as cancer,
AIDS or glaucoma.

The campaign appears to have collected far more than the required 179,248
valid signatures needed to get the issue before voters. The state usually
disqualifies no more than 15 percent of petition signatures.

While sponsors of I-692 paid workers to gather petition signatures, the
other two measures relied on vast networks of volunteer signature

I-694 would ban so-called partial-birth abortions late in pregnancy, making
it a felony to kill a fetus "in the process of birth" unless it is deemed
the only way to save the mother.

The campaign delivered about 225,000 signatures to the Capitol on Wednesday.

I-688 would raise the minimum wage in Washington from $4.90 an hour to
$5.70 in 1999 and to $6.50 an hour in 2000, after which it would rise with

The campaign, sponsored by the state Labor Council, collected an estimated
284,000 signatures.

Six other initiative campaigns failed to rally enough support by
yesterday's deadline. A move to eliminate the state's vehicle excise tax
may have come the closest. The campaign reported that it had gathered more
than 164,000 signatures, but conceded defeat yesterday.

David Brine, spokesman for the secretary of state, said the office will
start verifying the signatures soon, beginning with the minimum-wage

The final tally of valid signatures for the minimum-wage campaign is
expected by about July 20, he said, with the results of the two other
initiatives coming later this summer.

Man Gets 29 Years In Slaying Of Pierce Deputy ('The Seattle Times'
Says Brian Eggleston Was Sentenced To 29 Years In Prison Yesterday
For Fatally Shooting Pierce County, Washington, Sheriff's Deputy
John Bananola During An October 1995 Marijuana Raid - The Sentence
Will Run In Addition To A 20-Year Sentence Eggleston Was Given Earlier
For The Assault On Another Deputy - Eggleston's Family And Friends
Maintain He Only Acted In Self Defense)
Link to earlier story
Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:42:19 -0700 To: mapnews@mapinc.org From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US WA: Man Gets 29 Years in Slaying of Pierce Deputy Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: opinion@seatimes.com Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 July 1998 Author: Nancy Bartley, Seattle Times South bureau MAN GETS 29 YEARS IN SLAYING OF PIERCE DEPUTY Two-and-a-half years of anguish finally has come to a close for the family and friends of slain Pierce County Sheriff's Deputy John Bananola. In a packed Pierce County Superior Courtroom yesterday, Brian Eggleston, a former Tacoma bartender, was sentenced to 29 years in prison for fatally shooting Bananola during an October 1995 drug raid. As Judge Leonard Kruse of Kitsap County handed down the sentence - which will run in addition to a 20-year sentence Eggleston was earlier given for the assault on another deputy - Bananola family members and friends sighed with relief. Meanwhile, Eggleston's family and friends, who maintained he had only acted in self defense, cried and hugged each other. For Brooke Bananola, John Bananola's 16-year-old daughter, the sentencing means a new chapter in life. In a prepared statement read by her mother, Gloria Manning, she told the court that after her father's murder she was hospitalized for an eating disorder and eventually lost her will to live. "I was dead inside," she wrote. "There will forever be a hole in my heart where his love used to be." Eggleston expressed his regret for the killing and insisting he never knew Bananola was a sheriff's deputy when he fired the gun. His defense attorneys contended he thought he was shooting intruders. "If there is a genesis to this (crime), it's drugs and handguns," Kruse said as he sentenced Eggleston. Kruse said he found the case more disturbing than any he had experienced in his 40 years of practicing law. Because Bananola had been a Pierce County courtroom guard before joining the Sheriff's Department, Kruse was brought in from Kitsap County to sentence Eggleston, avoiding a conflict of interest. In May, a jury convicted Eggleston of second-degree murder in his second trial for the shooting death of Bananola. The first jury last year deadlocked 10-2 in favor of conviction. That jury, however, did find Eggleston guilty of selling and possessing drugs, and of assault for shooting Deputy Warren Dogeagle during the raid. According to authorities, the deputies raided Eggleston's home in East Tacoma because sheriff's officials had acquired evidence that he sold marijuana. Prosecutors have contended that Eggleston was furious at seeing his narcotics business coming to an end and that he chased Bananola down a hallway, shooting him. But relatives and supporters have portrayed Eggleston as a gentle man and loyal friend who had always respected the law. His lawyer argued at trial that Eggleston was groggy with sleep when deputies burst into the house and that he instinctively fired at them to protect his home, not knowing they were police officers. Eggleston was shot in the chest and groin during the raid. Before the sentencing, Linda Eggleston, Brian's mother, thanked her son, saying his action during the raid saved her life and protected their home.

November Ballot Has 15 Measures ('The Arizona Republic' Notes State Voters
In November Will Cast Ballots Again On Medical Marijuana, As Well As
The Voter Protection Act, Which Will Restrict The Legislature From Amending
Initiatives Approved By Voters, As Happened With Proposition 200)

From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: "MN" (mapnews@mapinc.org)
Subject: MN: US: AZ: Nov. Ballot Has 15 Measures
Date: Sun, 5 Jul 1998 00:00:37 -0500
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998
Source: Arizona Republic (AZ)
Contact: comments@www.azcentral.com
Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/
Author: Hal Mattern


Cockfighting ban, Lottery fate, medicinal marijuana at issue

By Hal Mattern The Arizona Republic July 3, 1998

When Arizona voters go to the polls in November, they'll be asked to do more
than choose their favorite candidates for state and federal offices.

They also will be asked to ban cockfighting, open primary elections to
members of all political parties, and make it harder for the Legislature to
amend future citizen initiatives.

Voters also will have the chance to decide the fate of the Arizona Lottery,
to approve the allocation of $220 million in state funding to buy vacant
land for preservation, and, for the second time, to authorize doctors to
prescribe marijuana to critically ill patients.

Those are some of the initiatives and referendums that are expected to be
included as propositions on the Nov. 3 general election ballot. Several
others, including proposals to restrict urban growth and to eliminate sales,
property and income taxes in Arizona, failed to attract the needed support
to make the ballot.

"We're going to have 15 measures on the ballot," said Jessica Funkhouser,
state elections director. "That's a lot of issues. It might make (voters)
more interested in the election."

As of the 5 p.m. Thursday deadline, petition signatures had been filed with
the Secretary of State's Office for five citizen initiatives. Such
initiatives allow voters to place proposals directly on the ballot,
bypassing the Legislature.

There also will be two citizen referendums - measures passed by the
Legislature but referred to the ballot by voters for changes - and several
proposals referred to the ballot by lawmakers.

Backers of the citizen initiatives had to file at least 112,961 signatures
from registered voters to qualify for the ballot. Initiatives calling for
constitutional amendments need at least 15 percent of qualified electors -
169,442 signatures - to qualify for the ballot.

It will take more than a month for the signatures to be verified by state
and county officials.

One of the most significant of the citizen initiatives likely to be on the
ballot deals with initiatives themselves. The Voter Protection Act seeks to
amend the state constitution to restrict the Legislature from amending
initiatives already approved by voters. Backers submitted 245,000

The Voter Protection Act, backed by Attorney General Grant Woods and
Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, would require at least a three-fourths
vote of the Legislature to amend initiatives passed by voters. It also would
prohibit the governor from vetoing such measures.

"This is about opening up government," said Richard Mahoney, a former
Democratic secretary of state and chairman of the initiative drive. "We got
245,000 signatures because people couldn't believe the Legislature was
trying to do these things."

Support for the initiative stems from anger over changes made by the
Legislature to voter-approved initiatives. The most striking example
involved a medical-marijuana initiative passed by voters in 1996 but gutted
by lawmakers in 1997.

Lawmakers, meanwhile, have launched a counterattack, placing their own less
restrictive measure on the ballot.

The Legislature also has placed an open-primary measure on the ballot to
compete with a citizen initiative backed by Woods and Paul Johnson, the
Democratic candidate for governor. Their proposal would amend the
constitution to allow registered voters to cast ballots in primary elections
for any candidate, regardless of party affiliation.

"The current system is rigged for the people who created the system," Woods,
a Republican, said Thursday as backers filed 230,000 petition signatures.

"The big loser is the average person who is not on the extreme right or the
extreme left, who finds himself shut out," he said.

But Mike Hellon, chairman of the Arizona Republican Party, said the
initiative would "wreak havoc on Arizona's electoral process and double
costs of elections. Candidates will be forced to raise more campaign funds,
empowering special-interest groups to a greater degree."

Hellon urged voters instead to support the Legislature's open-primary
measure, which would allow voters registered as independents, those with no
party preference or those from minor parties not represented on the ballot
to vote in a primary election of their choice.

Johnson said that by placing the two competing measures on the ballot,
lawmakers are trying to confuse voters so that neither side's proposals will

"What they want to do is split the 'yes' votes," he said. "Hopefully, the
public will recognize what they are trying to do."

Legalized Pot Backers Raise Good Points, But . . . ('Arizona Republic'
Columnist Steve Wilson Defends Cannabis Prohibition)

Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 12:24:41 -0400
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US AZ: Legalized Pot Backers Raise Good Points, But . . .
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: The Arizona Republic (AZ)
Contact: Opinions@pni.com
Webform: http://www.azcentral.com/opinions/letter.shtml
Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/
Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998
Columnist: Steve Wilson steve.wilson@pni.com


They've called me brain-washed, illogical, a government stooge, dumber than
dirt, squarer than Al Gore, and a fenderhead.

Twice I've wondered in print whether legalized marijuana would be a good
thing, twice concluded it wouldn't, and both times been stoned, so to
speak, by readers.

Charming people, these pot proponents.

They've raised some good points just the same. Such as:

Statistics indicating that marijuana leads to harder drugs are dubious. I
wrote that more than 90 percent of hard-drug users report that pot was
their first drug.

Robert H. Doherty ridiculed the logic:

"I would bet that at least 99 percent of all heroin users started out with
peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. "Does that make them 'gateway'

I'll concede that the 90 percent figure proves nothing, but I don't think
the correlation is meaningless. Some connection can exist between hard and
soft drugs without a cause-effect relationship.

If marijuana is a gateway drug, it's largely because most users buy it from
drug pushers. The dealers have an economic incentive to sell their
customers harder, more addictive drugs. After one illegal drug is bought,
buying another is easier. If a gateway exists, it's created by
criminalizing marijuana, not its effects. Many opponents of legalization

Any link between pot and heroin has more to do with personality type than
with the drugs. A lot of people who use drugs have more sensation-seeking,
risk-taking personalities than non-users. It's predictable that many would
try more than one drug. But that doesn't mean that marijuana leads to
heroin, and the fact remains that the vast majority of pot-smokers don't go
on to hard drugs.

The costs of keeping pot illegal probably exceed the costs of legalization.
Take the expense of locking up pot-smokers, add the costs of lost jobs,
broken homes and turning productive citizens into criminals, and the price
of keeping cannabis against the law is enormous, wrote Rodney Smith of
Bullhead City.

Fair enough, but there are other costs to consider. If marijuana were
legalized, use by teenagers would likely increase. A study of high-school
seniors last year found that 5.8 percent were regular marijuana users,
compared with 3.9 percent who regularly consumed alcohol. Removing
penalties for smoking pot would probably push under-age usage higher.

Alcohol is a more addictive drug than marijuana and causes far more harm. I
agree. Alcohol is more widely abused and socially destructive than marijuana.

For better or worse, though, it's long been a part of American culture.
Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 was a failed experiment.

But the nation's acceptance of alcohol doesn't make the case for legalizing
more mind-altering drugs. Making marijuana legal would surely increase the
country's total drug use. Would the country be in better shape if more
drugs were consumed by adults and teens? I don't think so.

If legalizing pot is such a bad idea, why has it worked in the Netherlands?

Marijuana remains illegal there, but Dutch authorities have allowed limited
buying and selling since 1976. Fans of legalization say Dutch acceptance
shows that more good than harm comes of it.

That's debatable. Usage didn't change much in the early years before pot
was sold openly in coffee shops. Once that happened in the '80s, the
percentage of 18-year-olds who tried it climbed from 15 percent to near 50

The country subsequently reduced the number of coffee shops that could sell
it and the amount that can be purchased at one time. Not everyone likes the
easy access. A 1996 poll found that 75 percent of the Dutch considered
their drug policies too lax.

I agree with my critics that U.S. law comes down too hard on pot. They
haven't pulled me across the legalization line, though. Marijuana use by
teenagers has doubled in the past few years, and easier availability would
feed the trend.

Call me a fenderhead, but I'll prefer peanut butter and jelly to a joint
any day.

Peaceful Protest Criticizes Drug War ('The Dallas Morning News'
Covers A Demonstration Wednesday In Dallas Sponsored By
The Drug Policy Forum Of Texas Protesting The 25th Anniversary
Of The Drug Enforcement Administration)

Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 06:47:27 -0400
To: DrugSense News Service (mapnews@mapinc.org)
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US TX: Peaceful Protest Criticizes Drug War
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Larry Nickerson
Source: Dallas Morning News
Contact: letterstoeditor@dallasnews.com
Website: http://www.dallasnews.com
Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998
Section: Metropolitan section, page 26A
Editor's note: The Drug Policy Forum of Texas was able to put together this
excellent media event in part because of their effective use of the
internet. The Forum has an excellent active email discussion list which
facilitates publicity and coordination of events like this. DrugSense
supports similar private email lists on its list server for a growing
number of states. Contact Mark Greer (MGreer@mapinc.org) if you are
interested in starting a list for your state. The DPFT website is at:


U.S. Policies Fuel Profits For Dealers, Says Group Outside DEA's Office

As protests go, it was more jovial than most.

Seven members of a group that opposes drug laws "celebrated" the 25th
anniversary of the Drug Enforcement Administration on Wednesday by
declaring war against the war on drugs.

Members of the Drug Policy Forum of Texas arrived shortly after 8 a.m. and
set up on the median in front of the DEA's Dallas field division on Regal
Row between Stemmons Freeway and Harry Hines.

Armed with placards -- including "Stop the Drug War" and "War is Bad
Domestic Policy" -- the small band of protesters spent 90 minutes catching
the eye of motorists, a few of whom honked in support and most of whom
slowed in confusion.

"We're trying to generate awareness that what we're doing with drugs is not
working," said Bob Ramsey of Irving, an executive board member of the
Houston-based Drug Policy Forum. "We're just trying to open the debate."

Forum members say state and federal governments are wasting their time
trying to stop the flow of drugs. They see the DEA -- created by executive
order July 1, 1973 -- as the embodiment of all that is wrong about the war
on drugs.

"In the early '70s, we had a lot less drug use," said Rolf Ernst of Frisco,
another Forum member. "Criminalization creates a profit motive for criminals."

The protestors mocked drug policies by serving Coke -- as in cola -- and
poppy-seed cake at the "party". As Dallas police cars cruised by and a DEA
security guard tugged on a cigar and kept a watchful eye, the protest
remained peaceful, with only a handful of people stopping to see what the
signs were about.

The cake was barely touched.

Despite what anyone may think, Drug Policy Forum members say their stand
should not be confused with condoning drug use.

"We discourage the use of drugs by controlling the supply," said Robert F.
"Colonel" Mason, a Lewisville writer. "We have to make drugs legal to do

About 9:30 a.m., the group strolled past the security guard to present the
card and cake. For the occasion, Mr. Mason penned a poem, which concludes:
"They'll toast 25 years with booze, cigs and mirth, while the rest of us
mourn at the DEA's birth."

DEA officials courteously accepted the gifts, and the protesters left
quietly. As soon as they were out of earshot, DEA employees erupted in

"What are you going to do? You can't get excited over this," said Hulio
Machado, special agent in charge of the Dallas office. "They're good people
. . . What you had is people voicing their opinions."

Time Arrives For Changes In Drug Lifer Law (Three Letters To The Editor
Of 'The Detroit News' About Drug Policy, The First Two Of Which Praise
The Michigan House Of Representatives For Voting 77-26 In Favor Of Reforming
Michigan's Harsh Mandatory Minimum Sentence For Drug Offenders,
And Urge The State Senate To Approve The Bill)

Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 05:34:02 -0700
To: mattalk@islandnet.com
From: Pat Dolan (pdolan@intergate.bc.ca)
Subject: Time arrives for changes in drug lifer law
Newshawk:Pat Dolan
Source: Detroit News
PubDate: July 03 1998
Section: EdPage
Contact: letters@detnews.com
Website: http://detnews.com

Friday, July 3, 1998


Time arrives for changes in drug lifer law

The Michigan House of Representatives deserves high praise for its vote on
June 24 passing a bill that substantially reforms the "650 lifer law"
("House follows Senate's lead, eases drug lifer law penalties," June 25).
The revision would allow parole eligibility after 15 years rather than
require those convicted of possession with intent to deliver cocaine or
heroin in an amount over 650 grams to spend their entire life in prison
without the possibility for parole.

The fact that the drug law needed to be rewritten has been recognized from
nearly every corner for several years. Just this spring, former Gov.
William Milliken declared that signing the law was one of his biggest
regrets. Until now, however, lawmakers have been slow to address the
problem because of concern about being viewed as "soft on drugs." In the
meantime, able-bodied and nonviolent first offenders have been wasting away
in our prisons and adding an unnecessary burden to the state budget.

The 77-26 vote in favor of reforming the law shows bipartisan recognition
that we made a mistake that must be corrected. Although the state Senate
has approved a moderate reform, many of the Senate provisions are
unworkable. The House bill does not address every concern, but it is
clearly an improvement.

Senate Judiciary Chairman William Van Regenmorter and the Senate leadership
should move swiftly and adopt the House version of the drug reform bill so
it can be signed into law.

Douglas R. Mullkoff
Criminal Defense Attorneys of Michigan


It is so obvious after 20 years of having the worst law in the nation (the
"650 lifer law") that we need to change our "hang 'em" approach. This
inhumane law has made a mockery out of the justice system in Michigan.
Never mind about human rights violations in China or Sudan; let's check out
our own back yard.

Judges should have discretion, and the Legislature must not continue to
overburden the system with inflexible mandatory sentences. Politicians must
stop defying reality by prescribing more of the medicine that hasn't worked.

Michelle Melchert
River Rouge


Hidden agenda

How does "Big Tobacco" hold our children's lives? If advertising is the
culprit, why would we not take responsibility and instruct our children
that not all we see in the media reflects reality; that there are
consequences when smoking is used for social acceptance or relaxation.

There is a hidden agenda from the initiators of legislation that claims to
do justice for the innocent - in this case it's children. It is acquiring
additional revenue for an already bloated bureaucracy.

Smoking may not be right for everyone. However, the choice to do so is. And
with this goes responsibility for accepting the choices we make and not
looking to place blame elsewhere when the ills you've heard about come to

And please don't argue that hospitals are filled with lung patients on
Medicare who are consuming my tax dollars. It was not the intention of our
Founding Fathers to encourage legislation simply because our free choice
may not have been wise.

We should oppose the tobacco industry and perhaps fight their media blitz -
but not legislate our choices.

Daniel Geminick

Copyright 1998, The Detroit News
We welcome your comments.
E-mail us at letters@detnews.com

Re - Opiates For The Masses (A Letter To The Editor
Of 'The Wall Street Journal' From Two Physicians
Responds To The Letter Opposing Heroin Maintenance
Written By Notorious Prohibitionist Dr. Sally Satel,
Saying It Demonstrates 'Her Lack Of Medical Ethics,
Compassion And Professional Expertise')

From: Rgbakan@aol.com
Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 16:43:24 EDT
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net, november-l@november.org
Subject: HT: Response- Sally Satel's letter in Wall St J.- BRAVO!
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net
Date: Fri, 12 Jun 1998 07:27:25 EDT
Errors-To: manager@drcnet.org
Reply-To: vignes@monaco.mc
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: Peter Webster (vignes@monaco.mc)
To: Multiple recipients of list (drctalk@drcnet.org)
Subject: Response to Sally Satel's letter in Wall St Journal - BRAVO!!

Letter to the Editor Forwarded from:

From: Andrew Byrne (ajbyrne@ozemail.com.au)
To: "Webster, Peter" (vignes@monaco.mc)
Subject: Re: Shinderman and Haemmig's response to Sally Satel's WSJ letter
attacking heroin maintenance - BRAVO!!

Dear ...,

This letter (below) is beautifully written and apposite. I hope that it is
not too long for the WSJ to print ... but everything in it needed to be
said. I too read the article, cringing all the way through it that it was a
fellow physician writing, and clearly out of a depth of ignorance in the
subject. She clutched at any slight deviation from perfection in the
heroin trial and made it into some travesty, ignoring the broad benefits
in most areas.

Best wishes,

Andrew Byrne ..

PS: Of the 1000-odd patients, there were some deaths as I recall, but none
from administered heroin.

Dr Andrew Byrne,
General Practitioner, Drug and Alcohol,
75 Redfern Street,
New South Wales, 2016,
Tel (61 - 2) 9319 5524 Fax 9318 0631
Email ajbyrne@ozemail.com.au

author of: "Methadone in the Treatment of
Narcotic Addiction" and "Addict in the Family".


In "Opiates for the Masses," a WSJ letter to the editor, Sally Satel writes
yet another article demonstrating her lack of medical ethics, compassion
and professional expertise regarding the disease of addiction and the human
beings that are its victims. It is alarming to see that she is identified as
an M.D., affiliated with Yale. Her willingness to commit to print her
uninformed opinions and conjecture regarding the efforts of serious
governmental public health initiatives by the Swiss and others should
be an embarrassment to her colleagues.

The eagerness of the Wall Street Journal to publish them puts their
editorial judgment on a par with Jerry Springer's. The Swiss had more
than 50% of their heroin addicts in treatment (compared with 15% in the
US) before they considered ways of reaching those unable to benefit from
existing alternatives. To this end they instituted the Heroin Maintenance
Trials, which are subject of Satel's article. In the article she distorts both
the facts regarding the trials and the concept of "harm reduction."

At the very least, a physician is bound to a practice which reduces
mortality, illness and suffering, while inflicting no harm. Her mindless
approach to the subject of heroin maintenance suggests that she thinks
addicts are discouraged from using heroin by "consequences." If she
read the DSM -IV which defines the disease, she would learn that pursuit
of a drug or behavior in spite of dire consequences is the nature of
addiction. If she read the synthesis report on the Swiss Heroin Trials,
she would learn that this intervention reduced disease, diminished
mental and physical suffering and resulted a lower death from overdose
rate, "zero," to be precise, more than any other known treatment. What
Dr.Satel seems to advocate is death, suffering, disease and punishment for
addicts who do not respond to currently available treatments.

Satel is misinformed or lying when claims that there were extraordinary
expenses and supportive services associated with heroin maintenance
treatment. What is true is that there were extraordinary economic benefits
derived from it. The net saving was $10,786 per year per patient. In any
event, what does Satel think so terrible about saving the lives and
improving the health of severely deteriorated addicts who were not
served by any other therapy, if it had cost few more francs? Treating
advanced disease is usually expensive.

To be fair, some of what Satel says are not lies, but half-truths. Criticisms
about lack of randomization and not having control groups fall into this
category. It becomes unethical to randomize patients into a treatment that
they repeatedly fail, in any trial which has life and death outcomes. This
was the case in these studies. This study took only patients with the most
severe mental, socioeconomic and physical problems, more than 50% of
whom had been failed by methadone maintenance, previously. While she
complains of there being no control group the truth is that a methadone
cohort is being studied for comparison, with results soon to be released.
It was unethical, for the Swiss, to create a more exact control group, after
their experience with these very ill patients to be retained in other

Her criticisms related to addicts being unreliable when reporting their
drug abuse or criminality when in maintenance treatment demonstrate
her prejudices toward addicts and unfamiliarity with clinical literature
which proves just the opposite: such self report is extremely reliable.
Apart from this, the Swiss report clearly states that estimates of
decreased criminality were derived from police and judicial records.
Her lack of understanding of addicts is underscored by implications
that the addicts pursuit of heroin and its ingestion are pleasurable
and self indulgent. At this stage of the disease, every medical expert in
addiction knows, heroin is nothing more than medication.

Her suggestion that nothing is demanded of the patients in return for the
"free drugs" is obscene in its implication. What is it that she thinks that
these desperately ill and penniless people should contribute? They did pay
fees for treatment, in all cases. The patients were required to present
themselves up to three times a day, 7 days a week, forfeit their driving
privileges, and take part in the research interviews, as well.

She quotes Kleiman, allegedly, saying patients would purposely fail in less
restrictive treatment in order to get heroin. This fantasy demonstrates
total lack of familiarity with the criteria which apply to entrance into
heroin maintenance, "failed treatment" being neither necessary nor

Finally, from our advice is that Dr. Satel restrict her professional
activities to reading on these subjects, evaluating the heroin patients
and programs, on site, and restraining herself from writing, until she
has done so.

Robert Haemmig, M.D., Medical Director,
Integrated Drug Services of University Psychiatric Services
Bern, Switzerland (Bernese heroin maintenance program) tel 41 31 632 4611

Marc Shinderman, M.D., Center for Addictive Problems, Chicago, IL
Mshinder@ix,netcom.com tel 312 266 0404

Two Amish Men Enter Their Pleas In Drug Case (A 'New York Times' Article
In 'The Orange County Register' Says The First Two Members Of Pennsylvania's
Amish Community To Be Arrested For Involvement With Cocaine
And Methamphetamine Were Arraigned Thursday Along With Eight Members
And Associates Of The Pagans Motorcycle Gang)
Link to earlier story
Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:46:56 -0700 To: mapnews@mapinc.org From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US PA: Two Amish Men Enter Their Pleas In Drug Case Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John W.Black Source: Orange County Register (CA) Contact: letters@link.freedom.com Website: http://www.ocregister.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 Author: Michael Janofsky-The New York Times TWO AMISH MEN ENTER THEIR PLEAS IN DRUG CASE Modern society with all its ills may have finally caught up with the community, invading its simple ways. PHILADELPHIA - At a glance, they looked little different from any other defendants indicted on illegal-drug charges. Standing before Judge Jay Waldman at their arraignment in U.S. District Court on Thursday morning, the two men with the same name looked frightened, anxious, perhaps even a little embarrassed. Actually, Abner King Stoltzfus, 23, and Abner Stoltzfus, 24, who are not related, are anomalies in the federal criminal-justice system. Authorities here say they are the first two members of Pennsylvania's Amish Community to be arrested for involvement with cocaine and methamphetamine. Along with eight members and associates of a motorcycle gang known as the Pagans, the Stoltzfuses were indicted after a five-year investigation in Lancaster County, and they now face charges that could bring them a mandatory minimum of 10 years in prison. Nine of the defendants, including the Amish men, pleaded not guilty; a 10th defendant, Natalie King, is to be arraigned next week. As Waldman explained the procedure to each of the Stoltzfuses, seven of their relatives and close friends - all dressed in typical Amish wear - sat silently in the third row of the courtroom, hiding their somber faces from courtroom artists in accordance with their belief that it is a sin of vanity to have your likeness reproduced. For generations, the Amish have lived lives different yet not entirely apart from mainstream America. In their eastern Pennsylvania communities of Gap, Intercourse, Paradise and other small towns, they work as farmers,craftsmen and small-business owners who have raised families under the strictures of their church and the quaint ways of a bygone era: They eschew such basic conveniences as electricity and travel in horse-drawn buggies. In many ways, they have been poster people for all that America cherishes: strong family values, accountability, responsibility, a deep faith in God. But in recent years, suburban sprawl westward from Philadelphia has invaded their turf. Though it has brought new jobs at a time when fewer Amish are tending to farms that are generations old, it has also brought them wider exposure to commercial America and some of its unsavory elements. Were it only alcohol involved in charges against them, the levels of surprise and bewilderment among the Amish might not have been so high. Typically, Amish teen-agers are permitted several years of discovery outside the traditions of family and church to help them decide whether they want to re-enter their church and community for the rest of their lives. Often during that period, known as timeout, the youths join groups that meet in social settings the Amish call hoedowns, where taboo activities like drinking, smoking and driving cars are common. "Times are a-changing," Robert Ham, who has been the police chief for 28 years in Strasburg, a Lancaster County town of 3,000, said in an interview earlier this week. "Their young folks get out into the world. They believe in sowing their wild oats while they're young."

Aging `Hippie' Jailed For Cultivating Pot (A Typically Biased Article
In Ontario's 'London Free Press' Notes A 60-Year-Old Man
Got 90 Days For Growing 10 Plants In His Backyard And Basement)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Canada: Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating pot
Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 09:42:14 -0700
Lines: 38
Source: London Free Press
Contact: letters@lfpress.com
Author: Don Murray -- Free Press Court Reporter
Pubdate: July 3, 1998
Author: By Don Murray -- Free Press Court Reporter


A 60-year-old "hippie who hasn't grown up yet" was sentenced to 90
days in jail yesterday for growing pot in his back yard.

Joseph J. Dabros has a history of marijuana use, said his lawyer Don
Crawford, and "at this age is still dabbling . . . I guess old habits
die hard."

Dabros pleaded guilty earlier in Ontario Court, general division to
cultivation of marijuana and simple possession.

On Aug. 8, 1996, police found 10 plants worth about $2,500 in the
back yard and basement of the London home Dabros shares with his
elderly mother.

Crawford told Justice John Desotti that his client comes from a good
family and is above average in intelligence. One family member is a
general in the Canadian Armed Forces.

Dabros, however, is content to live on the rent from farm land he
owns and, in a few years, will be collecting old age security, said
the lawyer.

He said Dabros is almost "more of a nuisance" to police than a law
enforcement problem.

Desotti accepted the joint sentencing submission by Crawford and
federal prosecutor Dave Rocliffe and a smiling, cheerful Dabros was
led away to serve his time.

Copyright (c) 1998 The London Free Press

Re - Aging `Hippie' Jailed For Cultivating Pot (A Letter Sent To The Editor
Of 'The London Free Press' Alludes To Cannabis's Low Toxicity
Compared To Alcohol And Valium)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Sent: Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating pot
Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 10:31:25 -0700
Lines: 11

To the editor,

Concerning the 60-year-old man sentenced to 90 days in jail for growing 10
cannabis plants in his back yard, (Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating
pot, July 3), I feel safer already. Perhaps some time in jail will teach
the old hippie to drink or use Valium.

Matthew M. Elrod
4493 [No Thru] Rd.
Victoria, B.C.
Phone: 250-[867-5309]
Email: creator@islandnet.com

Cop Used Bait In Drug Bust ('The Hamilton Spectator' Says A Halton, Ontario,
Police Officer Who Posed As A High School Student To Entrap Other Students
In A Drug Sting Baited His Trap By Illegally Selling Cigarettes To Teens
At Discount Prices)
Link to earlier story
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) To: "MN" (mapnews@mapinc.org) Subject: MN: Canada: Cop Used Bait In Drug Bust Date: Sun, 5 Jul 1998 00:01:54 -0500 Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org Pubdate: Fri 03 Jul 1998 Source: Hamilton Spectator (Canada) Contact: letters@spectator.southam.ca Website: http://www.southam.com/hamiltonspectator/ Author: Andrew Dreschel COP USED BAIT IN DRUG BUST A Halton police officer who posed as a high school student to buy drugs baited the trap by selling reputedly contraband cigarettes to teens at discount prices. And in doing so he probably broke the law by pedaling smokes to minors. To gain the trust of teens and to enhance his undercover image, Constable Rui Freitas presented the cut-rate cigarettes to students as stolen property. They weren't. The smokes were bought and paid for by police as part of a two-month sting operation at General Wolfe High School in Oakville, which recently resulted in drug-trafficking charges against 13 youths. Eleven of the accused were charged under the Young Offenders Act. Police say they don't know for certain if any of those charged bought butts from the officer or if he sold them to other underage kids. But it seems likely that's what happened. ``I think there's a good possibility that he may have done that but I'm sure it was unwittingly,'' said Detective Inspector John van der Lelie, who approved the covert operation. ``He would have sold cigarettes to pretty well anybody who approached him.'' It is illegal to sell or provide tobacco to someone under 19 in Ontario. ``Our official position is we would not encourage the officer to violate the law,'' said van der Lelie. ``And I'm sure the officer didn't intentionally sell quasi-stolen cigarettes to anybody that appeared to be under the age of 19.'' Be that as it may, this new information casts further doubts on an already ethically dubious operation that involved officially sanctioned spying and lying in an educational setting. Police acknowledge the cigarette scam has them walking a thin line legally, but they stand by the controversial investigation -- even though the street value of the marijuana, hashish and magic mushrooms seized was only about $1,000. ``Clearly we're on the edge on this and I'll accept responsibility for that, but that's the nature of the beast,'' said van der Lelie. He says the cigarettes were sold at knock-down prices because that's what happens with stolen property, and the undercover cop needed to convince students he was a bad guy so he could more easily infiltrate the school's drug culture. ``We have a police officer who's trying to act like a youngster and participate in all the activities that youngsters do,'' said van der Lelie. ``The undercover officer wasn't perpetuating the use of cigarettes by minors. He's giving cigarettes to people who are probably already smoking.'' Presumably, the actual facts of the matter will emerge in court. In the meantime, the public is left pondering the irony of a police force selling a highly addictive legal substance to catch kids who are in possession of illegal drugs. Unlike cigarettes, the types of drugs that were netted in the busts do not appear to induce dependence in most users, according to the Addiction Research Foundation. General Wolfe principal Tom Adams, who okayed the clandestine operation in his school, wasn't aware that police were selling cigarettes to students and likely breaking the law while doing so. ``I don't support anybody breaking the law,'' he said. Adams said it's a complex situation and he declined further comment until he had spoken to police. In a further irony, the revelation comes on the heels of a private member's bill by Oakville Tory MPP Terence Young proposing to make it illegal for anyone under 19 to possess tobacco in school. Young's bill also targets drugs and alcohol, but it's his idea of making unlit cigarettes an illegal substance in schools that has sparked controversy. Young, stung by criticism and claiming his bill has been misrepresented by the media, refused to comment on the appropriateness of police selling cigarettes to kids. But the tactic obviously has sent police skidding down a very slippery slope. It looks as if the war against drugs has enlisted deadly tobacco as an ally. As a commander, van der Lelie deserves credit for standing by his officer and shouldering responsibility for his actions. But given the public hue and cry against smoking, particularly by teens, the black and white presumptions the investigation was based upon have suddenly turned startlingly piebald.

Tired Tactics Won't Stop Kids From Lighting Up (A Letter To The Editor
Of 'The Toronto Star' Protests Ontario Legislation
That Would Mandate Suspensions For Student Tobacco Consumers -
'If Keeping Drug Users From Participating In Society Worked,
We Would Have Licked The Adult Drug Problem Already, Right?')

Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 15:39:51 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Canada: PUB LTE: Tired Tactics Won't Stop Kids
From Lighting Up
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Dave Haans
Pubdate: Fri, 3 Jun 1998
Source: Toronto Star (Canada)
Page: A23
Contact: lettertoed@thestar.com
Website: http://www.thestar.com/


Re Student smokers face suspension (June 19)

Tory MPP Terence Young's Zero Tolerance for Substance Abuse Act, which
passed second reading recently, promotes segregating and suspending
students who are caught with a mere unlit cigarette.

If keeping drug users from participating in society worked, we would have
licked the adult drug problem already, right?


We've used this tactic for 90 years now, and the harm resulting from
alcohol, tobacco and other drug use continues unabated.

Young's bill is also a boon to schoolyard bullies, who will undoubtedly
welcome the chance to see a fellow student suspended merely by dropping an
unlit cigarette into his or her knapsack.

Perhaps Young could take a cue from his fellow Tory MPPs, Helen Johns and
Ernie Hardeman.

They recently called for changes to the existing Tobacco Control Act,
simply because the act of barring tobacco use by students on school
property has driven smoking students to loiter in neighborhoods surrounding
their schools.

It has also has the unfortunate effect of leaving students open to
increased drug use off school grounds, where they can't be monitored in any

For some reason, Young would seem to want to increase these negative
effects, adding these on top of the rise in drug use and youth crime that
will surely come as schools' extracurricular activities are curtailed due
to lack of funding.

It's sad that Young only wants to punish Ontario's youth, rather than look
at ways to help them through the so-called best years of their lives.

Dave Haans Toronto

Iran Sets Fire To 51 Tonnes Of Illegal Drugs ('Reuters'
Notes Iranian Officials On Thursday Torched A Pile Of Heroin And Opium
Valued At $700 Million, Supposed To Be Equal To One Year's Consumption
In Britain, Italy And France Combined - Decades Of Prohibition In Iran
Have Produced A Rising Rate Of Heroin Use, With Up To A Million Addicts
In The Country Of 60 Million People)

Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 18:39:40 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Iran: WIRE: Iran Sets Fire To 51 Tonnes Of Illegal Drugs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: DRUGNEWS@aol.com (by way of Richard Lake )
Source: Reuters
Pubdate: 3 Jul 1998


TEHRAN, July 2 (Reuters) - Iranian officials on Thursday torched 51 tonnes
of heroin and opium, enough to supply markets in Britain, Italy and France
for more than a year.

An archer shot a flaming arrow into a pyre of drugs soaked in petrol,
sending plumes of black smoke billowing over the northern Tehran hillside
as the Islamic republic marked the U.N.'s international day against drug
abuse and trafficking.

``We have come together...to eliminate such a scourge from human society,''
President Mohammad Khatami told a crowd of anti-drugs police, invited
guests and foreign diplomats shortly before the bonfire was ignited.

``Narcotic drugs and their prevalence in societies are the crucial factors
stupefying the mind and wisdom and threatening the health of mankind and
represent an obstacle to independence and development,'' Khatami said.

He said Iran was dedicated to combating drug smugglers, in particular
traffickers plying routes between cultivation centres of Afghanistan to
markets in Western Europe.

Iranian officials say the fight against drug trafficking has claimed the
lives of more than 2,300 agents in the last 20 years. They put the cost of
enforcement, including treatment of addicts, at $560 million in the last
Iranian year, which ended in March.

Earlier, the head of the United Nations anti-drug effort, Pino Arlacchi,
praised Iran's efforts and said other regional states must follow suit.

``Iran has set a striking example for others to follow,'' Arlacchi said.
``With this bonfire, the destruction of 51 tonnes of drugs, the region and
the world are a little safer.''

He put the value of the narcotics to be destroyed at $700 million and
estimated the quantity as one year's consumption in Britain, Italy and
France combined. U.N. officials estimate Iran accounts for about 85 percent
of opium and 30 percent of all heroin and morphine seizures.

``It is my opinion that Iran is shouldering too big a portion of the
burden...Others in the region need to do more,'' Arlacchi said.

Iran is a key transit route for smugglers from Afghanistan and Pakistan,
the so-called Golden Crescent, to Europe and the oil-rich Gulf states.
Iranian police seized 195 tonnes of drugs in 1997.

Domestic drug use is also on the rise, with up to a million addicts in the
country of 60 million people.



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