------------------------------------------------------------------- NORML Weekly News (House Approves Spending Program To Encourage Drug Testing For Small Businesses; Medical Marijuana Distribution Bill Defeated In State Assembly; Hemp Organization Issues Report To Counter White House Misinformation Campaign; 29th Annual Rally, March, And Concert To End Hemp Prohibition Will Take Place In Washington, DC, On July 4) From: NORMLFNDTN@aol.com Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 11:05:28 EDT Subject: NORML WPR 7/2/98 (II) The NORML Foundation Weekly Press Release 1001 Connecticut Ave., NW Ste. 710 Washington, DC 20036 202-483-8751 (p) 202-483-0057 (f) www.norml.org email@example.com July 3, 1998 *** House Approves Spending Program To Encourage Drug Testing For Small Businesses July 2, 1998, Washington, D.C.: The House overwhelmingly approved legislation last week encouraging small businesses to implement drug testing programs. The bill, H.R. 3853, provides grants to non-profit advocacy organizations promoting drug-free workplaces, and encourages states to offer financial incentive programs to encourage businesses to adopt drug testing procedures. "The passage of this legislation needlessly jeopardizes the privacy rights of approximately 50 percent of the nation's workforce," said attorney Tanya Kangas of The NORML Foundation. "Drug testing, particularly urinalysis, is an intrusive search that lacks the ability to determine impairment while on the job. In addition, these procedures unfairly target marijuana smokers who may test positive for days or even weeks after the euphoric effects of the drug have worn off." Ninety-two percent of companies that test for drugs use urine testing, according to the American Management Association. Many of these are large companies that accept federal contracts and are therefore required to drug test employees under the Federal Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988. Urine tests detect the presence of non-psychoactive metabolites that are indicative of past use of certain licit and illicit drugs. A positive test result, even when confirmed, does not indicate drug abuse or addiction, recency, frequency, or amount of drug use, or impairment. "It is unfair to force workers who are not even suspected of using drugs, and whose job performance is satisfactory, to 'prove' their innocence through a degrading and uncertain procedure that violates personal privacy," declared the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in a released statement opposing suspicionless drug testing. "Such test are unnecessary because they cannot detect impairment and, thus, in no way enhance an employer's ability to evaluate or predict job performance." Kangas added that the legislation demands taxpayers to foot the bill on a procedure that is neither necessary nor favored by a majority of Americans. The House passed the measure by a vote of 402 to 9. For more information, please contact either Tanya Kangas or Paul Armentano of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751. *** Medical Marijuana Distribution Bill Defeated In State Assembly July 2, 1998, Sacramento, CA: Legislation seeking to authorize local governments to establish medical marijuana distribution programs fell two votes shy of passage in the Assembly Health Committee Tuesday. California NORML Coordinator Dale Gieringer criticized the bill's defeat. "This proposal offered a comprehensive, realistic solution to the short-term medical marijuana distribution problem," he said. Senate Bill 1887, introduced by Sen. John Vasconcellos (D-Santa Clara), was a response to a mandate in Proposition 215 calling on the government to "implement a plan to provide for the safe and affordable distribution to all patients in medical need." The measure sought to make use of an untested provision in the federal Controlled Substances Act that immunizes local officials who comply with local drug laws from federal sanctions. The most vocal opposition to the bill came from a spokesman for Attorney General's Dan Lungren's office who warned that passing the measure would legalize cannabis buyers' clubs. Lungren has waged legal battles against the state's medical marijuana dispensaries since 1996. The bill also called on the federal government to reschedule marijuana as a legal medicine. "There is widespread consensus among physicians, law enforcement, patients, providers, and other stakeholders that the most effective solution [to the question of medical marijuana distribution] is for the federal government to reschedule marijuana so that it can be prescribed under the same strict protocols as morphine and cocaine," it stated. Voting on the bill followed party lines, but abstention by moderate Democrats left the measure without majority support. "It is a shame that almost two years after the passage of Proposition 215, the California Legislature continues to stall any efforts to implement a medical marijuana distribution system called for by a majority of state voters," NORML Executive Director R. Keith Stroup said. For more information, please contact either Dale Gieringer of California NORML @ (415) 563-5858 or Keith Stroup of NORML @ (202) 483-5500. *** Hemp Organization Issues Report To Counter White House Misinformation Campaign July 2, 1998, Madison, WI: Hemp grown for industrial purposes presents no threat to public safety and is readily distinguishable from marijuana, according to a white paper issued by the North American Industrial Hemp Council (NAIHC). The report, written by plant breeding expert Dr. David West, provides a factual basis to counter common myths and misconceptions about the plant. "No member of the vegetable kingdom has ever been more misunderstood than hemp," said West. "The drug enforcement agencies, by disseminating false information, have created a mythology about Cannabis sativa that ill serves the nation, its farmers, and its industry. ... This paper is intended to ... offer scientific evidence so that farmers, policy makers, manufacturers, and the general public can distinguish between myth and reality." The report discounts theories that hemp contains the necessary percentage of THC, the compound in marijuana that gives the plant its euphoric effects, to get users intoxicated. "The THC levels in hemp are so low that no one could get high from smoking it," the report concluded. "Moreover, hemp contains a relatively high percentage of another cannabinoid, CBD, that actually blocks the marijuana high. Hemp, as it turns out, is not only not marijuana, it could be called 'anti-marijuana.'" The report also counters the belief that regulating hemp cultivation would burden local police forces. "In twenty-nine countries where hemp is grown as an agricultural crop, the police have experienced no such burdens," the author found. It further stated that none of the major hemp-growing and exporting nations have ever been identified by the United States as a drug exporting nation. David Morris, Vice Chair of the NAIHC, said the report is necessary to counter the "remarkable barrage of falsehoods and half-truths" issued by the White House Office of Drug Control Policy and the Drug Enforcement Administration. "It is time for us as a nation to step back, take a deep breath, and revisit the facts," he said. The report, entitled Hemp & Marijuana: Myths and Realities, may be ordered on-line from the NAIHC at: http://www.naihc.org. For more information on hemp, please contact either Allen St. Pierre or Paul Armentano of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751. *** REMINDER: THE "29TH ANNUAL RALLY, MARCH, AND CONCERT TO END HEMP PROHIBITION" WILL TAKE PLACE IN WASHINGTON, D.C. ON JULY 4. JOIN THOUSANDS OF CONCERNED CITIZENS AT THE NATION'S CAPITOL. FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT THE FOURTH OF JULY HEMP COALITION @ (202) 887-5770 OR VISIT ON-LINE AT: HTTP://GEOCITIES/CAPITOLHILL/SENATE/8367/ - END -
------------------------------------------------------------------- OCTA Ends Drive Short By 3,169 Signatures (Paul Stanford, A Chief Petitioner For The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act, Notes The Initiative Campaign Has Failed A Second Time - The Third Time's A Charm) Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 15:09:15 -0700 From: "D. Paul Stanford" (email@example.com) Subject: OCTA ends drive short by 3,169 signatures of minimum To: "CRRH list" (firstname.lastname@example.org) The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act (OCTA) petition fell short by 3,169 signatures of the minimum required number of signatures we needed to turn in to the state. We have 70,092 signatures and we needed 73,261 registered Oregon voters' signatures. The final number of signatures available at the deadline to turn in was 70,092. OCTA really needed a buffer of 25 to 30 percent more signatures than the minimum requirement. Our goal was 105,000, so we would have a significant buffer to ensure qualification. So close and yet so far. I would like to thank all of you out there who have helped the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act over the last two Oregon election cycles. Since 1995, we have gathered over 125,000 signatures on OCTA in total (57,000 in 1996, 70,000 for 1998 as of yesterday.) I note that this is more than any other grass-roots organization in the world as done in the past dozen years (not counting the Soros funded, professional campaigns for medical marijuana.) I know we have done a great job with very little funding. We sucessfully coordinated a paid petition drive in Oregon from March until this week, though we were paying less per signature than any other petition and had the stressful job of raising money to continue it as we went. Our heartfelt thanks goes out to each and every person who circulated and signed the OCTA petition and to our donors who helped financed our work. We have created an effective political organization, CRRH, that will continue to grow and make a real difference in stopping the civil war we know as the War on Drugs. We have put our message out here in Oregon and on the Internet, educating an untold number. I believe we have a lot to be proud of. However, there is still more to do. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act (OMMA) has announced that they turned in 97,721 signatures and hopefully it will qualify for a vote this November. The state will announce whether the OMMA qualifies no later than July 17th. Congratulations to all the activists and donors who worked to help advance medical marijuana in Oregon and elsewhere! Polls show that medical marijuana begins with over 70 percent support here in Oregon. We support the various state groups who are working for medical marijuana, and we hope that the national group, Americans for Medical Rights (AMR in Santa Monica, CA), can parley these state victories into successful legislation in the federal congress to protect medical marijuana patients and spread the truth about cannabis. We already have qualified a referendum in Oregon for a vote to stop our legislature's misguided attempt to recriminalize simple possession of small amounts of marijuana. This is Oregon's Ballot Measure 57, which will be voted on November 3, 1998. We are working together to form a coalition to stop the recim with several other groups, tenatively called the "Just Say No to Measure 57" committee. The coalition currently includes the American Anti-prohibition League, the Libertarian Party of Oregon and us, Campaign for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp (CRRH,) and we invite other groups to join. We are working to urge all Oregonians to vote no on Measure 57. We will be conducting a voter registration drive to activate and mobilize our supporters to vote this November. We need to be certain that we defeat Ballot Measure 57 and pass the medical marijuana bill by the highest margins possible. We urge all to get involved in the effort to defeat Measure 57, stop the legislature's attempt to further punish adult marijuana users, and to help pass the OMMA so people with illnesses that can be treated with cannabis can get the medicine they need. In terms of our group, CRRH, we are now also working toward 1999 and 2000, and we will put comprehensive initiatives on the ballot in Oregon and other states which will regulate and tax the sale of marijuana to adults, allow doctors to prescribe untaxed marijuana through pharmacies and allow farmers and industry to benefit from the unregulated production of industrial hemp. We now have funding to put our proposal up for a vote in Oregon and other states, though this came in just a little too late to help us in the last stage of the OCTA petition drive. We invite all interested parties to work together with us to restore and regulate cannabis through both petitioning for a direct vote by the people and lobbying elected officials. We are actively seeking consensus among various groups on a state by state basis to put "Cannabis Tax Acts" on several statewide ballots over the next election cycle. We urge your support for CRRH's work to comprehensively reform marijuana laws, restore hemp and stop punishing, prosecuting and persecuting adult marijuana users. If you are interested in advancing a CTA in your state, please contact us. Our web site (www.crrh.org) is undergoing a spectacular redesign. A prevue is viewable at www.crrh.org/index_new.html, and includes two interactive games and two web greeting card services. The games are "Hemp Jeopardy," a trivia game, and "Hemp: an Interactive Education," a game which shows the products and benefits from cannabis. The greeting cards are "Dancing Cannabis," so you can send funny and amusing cards with animatyed graphics to your friends, and another set of greeting cards called "Hemp Facts," so you can send political and educational messages with graphics to your elected officials and others. Our Hemp TV site continues to grow, with hours of content and over 100 videos currently linked from our web video server. Hemp TV is also listed by "Timecast" as one of the 600 top news sites on the web, right up there with ABC News, CNN and MSNBC. Our "Hemp News" archive of text news goes back to 1992 and is recognized as one of the first internet e-magazines. We will be introducing an extensive line of hemp products on our new merchandise web pages, which will help generate funds for our work. We think our new web site redesign will be widely recognized as one of the most advanced, interactive and content-laden web sites in the world, and we think this will win numerous awards and advance our cause. The new web site will replace the old one soon, and all these new features should be up and running within a month or so. Please donate to CRRH to help support our work and services. We are immediately launching a voter registration drive here in Oregon, paying activists to register voters and build our database to mobilize our support. Every dollar contributed allows us to register and database 4 more people, and we will continue to contact them and get them involved in the political system to protect our rights. Our group already has a database of 17,000 supporters, and we will database recent information directly from our OCTA petitions too. Please help support our work. We have a secure internet credit card donation site with encryption so others can't access your information at https://www.webcom.com/terrakor/octa.htm and linked from http://www.crrh.org/credit_cards.html. You can use the postal service to mail contributions to the address below. We will continue until we win and cannabis is legally sold to adults. Thanks again! We shall overcome someday. Yours truly, D. Paul Stanford We are working to regulate and tax adult marijuana sales, allow doctors to prescribe cannabis and allow the unregulated production of industrial hemp! *Campaign for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp* CRRH ; P.O. Box 86741 ; Portland, OR 97286 Phone:(503) 235-4606 Fax:(503) 235-0120 Web: http://www.crrh.org/
------------------------------------------------------------------- Lebanon Farm Raided For Marijuana (The Salem, Oregon, 'Statesman Journal' Notes The Valley Interagency Narcotics Team Busted A Couple Near Lebanon, Oregon, With 40 Plants Throughout Their 20-Acre Property, Seizing Marijuana, Weapons, Three Children And 11 Dogs) Date: Sat, 04 Jul 1998 04:19:05 -0700 From: Paul Freedom (email@example.com) Organization: Oregon Libertarian Patriots To: Cannabis Patriots (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: CanPat - LEBANON FARM RAIDED FOR MARIJUANA Sender: email@example.com LEBANON FARM RAIDED FOR MARIJUANA by Janet Davies Statesman Journal Salem, Oregon 7-3-98 LEBANON, OREGON--- Police raided a Lebanon farm on Thursday and seized marijuana, weapons, three children and 11 dogs. Arrested were Michael G. Melbye, 43, and Paula L. Hill, 26. Melbye was charged with manufacture and possession of marijuana, child neglect and animal neglect. Hill was charged with child neglect and animal neglect. The Valley Interagency Narcotics Team served a search warrant at 8:45 a.m. at their 20-acre property at 30400 Townsend Road. Officers said they found 40 marijuana plants, some growing among trees and shrubbery, throughout the acreage. Others were growing in plastic containers in a small camper near the house. *** I guess they now consider growing hemp to be dangerous to your animals. Paul
------------------------------------------------------------------- Doonesbury (Garry Trudeau's Syndicated Cartoon, The Fifth In A Series On Medical Marijuana)
------------------------------------------------------------------- The Trip ('LA Weekly' Recounts The Experimental Psychiatric Use Of LSD Between 1954 And 1962 By Cary Grant And Hundreds Of Other Patients Under The Care Of Dr. Oscar Janiger - Now, Proponents Of Scientific Research With Psychedelics Are Pinning Their Hopes On A Follow-Up Study On The Original Subjects, To Be Completed Later This Year By The Multidisciplinary Association For Psychedelic Studies) From: "Todd McCormick" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Cary Grant on acid, and other stories... Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 13:43:13 -0700 http://www.laweekly.com/ The Trip Between 1954 and 1962, before most Americans had heard of LSD, psychiatrist Oscar Janiger administered it to Cary Grant and more than 900 others. Now, proponents of scientific research with psychedelics are pinning their hopes on a new follow-up study of Janiger's experiment. by JOHN WHALEN The Trip Cary Grant on acid, and other stories from the LSD Studies of Dr. Oscar Janiger One morning in April 1962, Cary Grant swallowed four tiny blue pills of lysergic acid diethylamide - LSD. Incredibly, it was the 58-year-old actor's 72nd acid trip under the supervision of a psychiatrist. Grant relaxed on a plush couch and sipped coffee as the drug began to take effect. During the five-hour session, his running commentary was captured on a small tape recorder for later transcription: "I was noting the growing intensity of light in the room," he recalled at one point, "and at short intervals as I shut my eyes, visions appeared to me. I seemed to be in a world of healthy, chubby little babies' legs and diapers, and smeared blood, a sort of general menstrual activity taking place. It did not repel me as such thoughts used to." Hardly the suave repartee associated with the star of His Girl Friday and North by Northwest. But as the aging movie idol had already stated in bold public endorsements of the experimental drug, LSD had a way of stripping away cultivated veneers and forcing one to confront unguarded, often unpleasant, emotions. Grant was grateful for his LSD "therapy" - over the course of a decade, he'd drop acid more than 100 times. Among other benefits, he credited LSD with helping him control his drinking and come to terms with unresolved conflicts about his parents. "When I first began experimentation," he said on that sunny spring morning, "the drug seemed to loosen deeper fears, as sleep does a nightmare. I had horrifying experiences as participant and spectator, but, with each session, became happier, both while experiencing the drug and in periods between . . . I feel better and feel certain there is curative power in the drug itself." Grant was just one of hundreds of citizens in the Los Angeles region who participated during the 1950s and early 1960s in unprecedented academic studies of the then-novel pharmaceutical. In just a few short years, of course, LSD would become a chemical taboo, the notorious "hippie psychedelic" vilified by the media, criminalized in every state, classified by the FDA as a Schedule I drug of no medical value and banned globally by international treaty. But before most Americans had heard of lysergic acid diethylamide, here in the shadow of the Hollywood Hills students, professionals, clergymen, writers, artists and celebrities enthusiastically turned on, tuned in and didn't drop out. "It was a time in the world when scientific research with psychedelic drugs was perfectly acceptable," recalls Dr. Oscar Janiger, the psychiatrist who administered LSD to Cary Grant and more than 900 others in the longest ongoing experiment with LSD on human subjects in a nonclinical environment. Flash forward 35 years to a very different time in a very different world: In many ways, science has finally caught up with LSD. Given recent advances in our understanding of neurochemistry - the complex chemical pathways that drive human thought, emotions and behavior - many researchers believe that LSD could become a valuable tool in further unraveling the mysteries of the human brain. What's more, they say, the drug's startling, if underappreciated, efficacy in the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction and a whole range of psychiatric disorders begs for renewed research. Yet after decades in legal limbo, LSD remains a sociopolitical pariah. Though research on animals has continued, little more than a dozen human subjects have participated in studies since the late '60s, and no new research has been published since the early '70s. Some of LSD's latter-day defenders now believe that for acid science to move forward, acid must first be rehabilitated in the public mind. And they're pinning their hopes on a new follow-up study of Janiger's classic experiment, conducted between 1954 and 1962. By interviewing the people who participated in the original study (many of whom are now in their 60s, 70s and 80s), researchers hope to show that, by and large, few of the original human guinea pigs suffered negative long-term effects as a result of their LSD dosings. And - shocking as it may sound - many may have benefited from the experience. The prime force behind the follow-up study, to be completed later this year, is the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), a nonprofit research and advocacy group that has lobbied the FDA to approve medical studies of marijuana, MDMA and LSD. Funded via academic grants and the support of its 1,600 members, who include a number of prominent research scientists, the North Carolina-based organization describes its purpose as "working to assist psychedelic researchers around the world [to] design, obtain governmental approval, fund, conduct and report on psychedelic research in humans." "Janiger's study was crucially important," says Rick Doblin, a Harvard-trained social scientist and founder of MAPS, "because it was work trying to describe what LSD does in a neutral, noncontroversial context, in relatively healthy nonpatients." Other studies conducted worldwide before the ban tended to focus on the use of LSD in treating disorders such as chronic alcoholism, sexual neuroses, criminal psychopathology, phobias, depressive states and compulsive syndromes. But Janiger's subjects were average, middle-to-upper-class, healthy adults with no pre-existing mental or physical problems. As Doblin puts it: "The subjects of Janiger's experiment break all the stereotypes about LSD users, since they are now in their 60s or older and took LSD before it was controversial. So the followup study is like a time capsule back to an era before the drug war. And it gives us a view of what LSD research could be again, if we can get past the biases and just see this drug more unemotionally, as a tool." Janiger's study is also a time capsule back to a unique moment in the cultural history of Southern California. Long before the acid underground surfaced in San Francisco as the vanguard of the hippie movement, Los Angeles was an intellectual hub for psychedelic research, and its acid salons drew adventurous celebrities from Anais Nin to Jack Nicholson, Aldous Huxley to Andre Previn. Those were heady days . . . in more than one sense. As Cary Grant rhapsodized about LSD's revolutionary potential that spring morning in Janiger's office, everyone could benefit from a good dosing. "Just a few healthy magnums of LSD in the Beverly Hills reservoir . . ." *** "[The doctor] had suggested that I listen to some music while the drug was still effective. I am a composer and pianist, and I have never before or since been so strongly affected by music. I listened to recordings of some Brahms, Mozart and Walton, and was moved to tears almost immediately . . . I then played the piano for approximately 40 minutes. I felt that I played extremely well and possibly with more musical insight than before. I played among other things a Chopin Fantasia which I had not looked at since my student days, and remembered it perfectly and without flaws. A few days after the experiment I again attempted to play this piece and found that I had retained it completely. I would sometime be interested in repeating the experiment and recording some improvisations while under the influence of the pills." - Andre Previn *** When acid guru Timothy Leary first met Oscar Janiger in 1962, he described his far less flamboyant colleague as a "powerhouse" of "solid athletic build, gray hair, strong tanned face, merry eyes." That description more or less holds true today, although age has inevitably softened the formerly athletic build and given the dean of Los Angeles LSD research a certain gnomish aspect. This afternoon he and his wife, Kathleen Delaney, are lunching in their comfortable book-lined home in Santa Monica Canyon with a clutch of Hollywood screenwriters who hope to parlay the social history of LSD into a feature film. (In fact, the annals of acid contain all the dramatic convolutions of a major Oliver Stone production, from hallucinatory visions to throbbing acid rock to a surfeit of government conspiracy, including the CIA's infamous and highly illegal attempts to use LSD as a mind-control drug on unsuspecting U.S. citizens.) After dessert - alas, no electric Kool-Aid, but rather a Trader Joe's lemon torte - the Hollywood hopefuls take their leave, and Janiger retires to his study, where he sketches the broad outlines of his famous research. To ensure the comfort of his subjects during their LSD excursions, Janiger had rented a small house in the mid-Wilshire district. In one room he set up his regular psychiatric practice. In an adjacent room, furnished with a couch, a bed and a swanky hi-fi system, he conducted his LSD study. In the enclosed back yard, he installed a garden, to give his experimental trippers a safe outdoor haven to explore. "So many of the studies prior to mine were done in hospital rooms, restricted environments," Janiger recalls, "and I thought that my study might be benefited by a naturalistic environment." Though Janiger held an associate professorship in the Psychology Department at the California College of Medicine (later to become the University of California at Irvine), he funded the study himself by charging a $20 fee for the experience. Sandoz Laboratories, the Swiss pharmaceutical company that "discovered" LSD, supplied the drug free of charge. In return, Janiger agreed to keep Sandoz informed about the results of his experiments. Unlike many other researchers and major universities, he never accepted funding - covert or overt - from the CIA or the military. Janiger's research would represent a significant departure from the orthodox thinking about LSD. Up until then, most academics had classified the drug as a "psychotomimetic" agent - a substance that produces a state of temporary insanity; if LSD could create dissociative states that mirrored schizophrenia, the thinking went, the drug was ideally suited to the study of the chemical and biological causes of mental illness. The CIA and the military had their own ideas about LSD: They hoped to exploit the drug's disorienting effects for the purpose of nonlethal warfare. "My goal was simply to find out what LSD does to people under uniform conditions," Janiger says, especially how it changes perception and personality. Over the course of a decade, he would also study a number of related issues, including the drug's effect on artistic creativity - incidentally, a subject explored by Janiger's cousin, the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg. Janiger's approach to LSD research was influenced by his own experience with the drug. It was in early 1954 that he had first tried acid, procured legally from Sandoz Laboratories by a friend. "That first experience shook me up completely," Janiger recalls. "It was extraordinary - so powerful and so interesting. I was of course struck by how LSD works to change your reality around. From a psychiatric point of view, it was a marvelous instrument to learn more about the mind." Each of Janiger's volunteers was pre-screened for obvious mental or physical disturbances. If they passed that initial test, they were given LSD in the morning and allowed to do whatever they wanted for the rest of the day - listen to music, walk in the garden, draw or paint, et cetera. A designated "babysitter" was a constant but unobtrusive presence, there to see to a subject's physical comfort. (It was sometimes necessary to remind a subject to use the bathroom. Even urbane Cary Grant once defecated in his pants during an LSD session.) Typically, the babysitter was also an acid veteran who knew how to talk a disturbed subject down from a bad trip, which was rarely necessary, according to Janiger. At the end of the experience - and sometimes during - Janiger's subjects were provided with a tape recorder or stenographer so that they could record their impressions while the images were still fresh in their minds. Later, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire that contained queries such as "What single event or insight, if any, during the LSD experience would you consider to have been of the greatest meaning to you?" and "What changes, if any, have taken place in your sense of values . . . " Janiger broke these reports down into a series of descriptive statements about the experience. Those "descriptors" common to all of the subjects' experiences, then, could be seen as defining the LSD state. "Processing this data was laborious work," he says. "We had no computers." Nevertheless, by the end of the study, Janiger was able to distill the quintessential LSD experience: The drug altered the user's perception of time; it came in waves; it made colors seem more intense; it induced the sensation that all elements of the world were organically connected in some way. "That, to me, was a very nice piece of business," says Janiger, "because it clarified a great many things in my own mind. I began to see what I think is the core of the LSD experience - the state of the experience as opposed to the content of the experience. Up until then, that distinction had never been made with LSD. Some people said LSD was a religious experience, or a birth experience. But that was the content of their experience. For others it might not be either of those things." *** "I was opened up to the beauty in people who had never seemed beautiful before. The next morning at the Pancake House, I walked up and bowed to four nuns. I had never spoken to nuns before - I couldn't penetrate their cloak of reverence. I walked up to them, and loved them, and they were sure I owned the place, and gave me their orders for breakfast. When the waiter came and I sat down at my table, it shook them. But I spoke to them again and told them I saw them as Sisters of Beauty. They tittered and giggled and blushed, well-pleased." - Beat comedian Lord Buckley *** Lysergic acid diethylamide had been around since 1938, when Dr. Albert Hofmann serendipitously formulated the first dose at Sandoz. Hofmann was experimenting with derivatives of ergot, a rye fungus, in an attempt to develop a circulatory stimulant. Instead, what he discovered in his 25th attempt (the official name of the drug would become LSD-25) was a substance of extremely peculiar qualities. The story of the first acid trip ever is now famous: Hofmann unknowingly absorbed the experimental compound through his fingers. "As I lay in a dazed condition with eyes closed," he would recall, "there surged up from me a succession of fantastic, rapidly changing imagery of a striking reality and depth, alternating with a vivid, kaleidoscopic display of colors." Two days later, Hofmann deliberately swallowed a miniscule 250 micrograms (a millionth of an ounce), which launched him on an even more dramatic head trip. "I had great difficulty in speaking coherently," he'd later say of that session. He managed to ride his bicycle home, but was soon enduring the world's first bad trip, wondering if he was going insane: "I thought I had died. My 'ego' was suspended somewhere in space, and I saw my body lying dead on the sofa." Hofmann survived the ordeal, and soon returned to the realm of pleasant hallucinations. So began the era of academic experimentation with the unusual compound. By 1965, researchers had published more than 2,000 papers describing the treatment of 30,000 to 40,000 patients with psychedelic drugs, including mescaline and psilocybin, but mostly with LSD. Among the more stunning results were studies in which LSD was given in high doses to children suffering from schizophrenia and autism. One such study reported that for a group of young autistic children with speech difficulties, "the vocabularies of several of the children increased after LSD." What's more, "several seemed to be attempting to form words or watched adults carefully as they spoke; many seemed to comprehend speech for the first time." The autistic children all "appeared flushed, bright-eyed and unusually interested in the environment." Even more dramatic were the successes during the 1950s and 1960s in treating chronic alcoholics at Hollywood Hospital in British Columbia and at Spring Grove State Hospital in Baltimore. After ingesting relatively large doses of LSD (up to 800 micrograms, in some cases) and undergoing directed therapy, about half of all patients "were able to remain sober or to drink much less," according to pioneers Bernard Aaronson and Humphry Osmond (who coined the word "psychedelic") in their book Psychedelics (1970). Often after only one dose patients remained totally abstinent. "This seems to be a universal statistic for LSD therapy," they reported. Exactly how LSD worked for alcoholics, heroin addicts and schizophrenic children remains something of a mystery. One school of thought advanced the theory that a "peak" LSD experience can be as nerve-rattling as a case of the delerium tremens, which many reformed alcoholics cite as the nadir before they decided to stop boozing. Others noted that patients weren't likely to experience a dramatic recovery unless the LSD experience was guided by a skilled therapist. In fact, to this day scientists know little about how LSD interacts with the human brain on a neurological level. The ban on human research with LSD is partly to blame. But beyond that, LSD operates in mysterious ways. The drug remains in the brain for a relatively short period, disappearing at about the time the mental light show begins. This short half-life of the drug suggests that the hours of hallucinations and consciousness-warping experienced by acid eaters is due not to the drug itself, but to some little-understood neurochemical chain of events unleashed by LSD. Research on animals has suggested that LSD stimulates the serotonin receptors of the brain - the same neurological connections that Prozac and other new antidepressant drugs zero in on. "Why a drug that stimulates a serotonin receptor should effect changes in consciousness and perception is the thing that we don't actually know," says David Nichols, founder of the Heffter Research Institute, a nonprofit group that funds and conducts clinical studies of psychedelic substances. "One could look at LSD as having an action somewhat like an antidepressant," says Richard Yensen, a pioneering LSD researcher and psychologist who successfully treated alcoholics at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, on the grounds of Spring Grove State Hospital. But, he adds, "LSD belongs to a unique family of drugs that are first and foremost sensitive to the way they are given. And the mechanism of cure has not to do with whether the person got the drug or not, but with whether the person had a transcendental experience with the drug." After decades of experimentation - clinical and otherwise - it's clear that LSD's effect on individuals varies hugely. A person's response depends not only on his or her mental state or "set," but also on a multitude of other factors, including the setting in which the drug is taken, the influence of others in the room and even the prevailing cultural climate. For instance, during the late 1960s, after the frenzy of hyperbolic media reports on the dangers of LSD, the numbers of illegal users experiencing the proverbial "bad trip" multiplied. Many observers suspected a direct relationship between the upswing in "bummers" and the surge of acid scare stories. (The fact that the doses available then were often more than twice as high as today's street-grade hits may also account for the higher incidence of bad trips.) Undoubtedly, LSD's mercurial nature has a lot to do with why it became so controversial so quickly, and why it was never fully accepted as a worthy addition to the store of mainstream pharmacopoeia. *** I thought I was the quickest the quickest the quickest mind alive and the quickest with words but words cannot catch up with these changes, these changes are beyond words, beyond words, beyond words. While I repeated these words I felt the waves of pleasure like those of the most acute pleasure of lovemaking . . . I felt the impossibility to tell the secret of life because the secret of life was metamorphosis, transmutation, and it happened too quickly, too subtly." - Anais Nin *** "I never saw my work as being therapeutic," Janiger says, "but in the course of the study we made some ancillary discoveries." One such discovery involved a painfully shy firefighter. "Although he was a very pleasant, intelligent man," says Janiger, "he was extremely shy and sort of a shut-in personality. He could never mix with people because there was a terrible barrier, an inhibition about being in spontaneous social gatherings." Janiger gave the man "minimal doses" of LSD for a period of several months. By the end of that period, "his personality had changed markedly." Says Janiger, "He became very affable and quite a man of public affairs, going out and talking to people." Even after he stopped taking LSD, he remained extroverted. Intrigued by the firefighter's transformation, Janiger sought out a pair of identical twins to see if LSD might affect their personalities in different ways. "After three years of looking," he says, "we found two 19-year-old girls who dressed alike, went everywhere together, very closely identified. One was engaged but didn't want to get married until the other one was engaged." The young women agreed to participate, and they were taken to separate rooms and given identical doses of LSD. Separated, "they had totally different reactions," says Janiger, which seemed to confirm the importance of set and setting on an individual's experience. "From that point," says Janiger, "their lives parted dramatically. One got married and moved away. I kept a correspondence with them, so I have a history of this very interesting phenomenon." Janiger also experimented with LSD's effects on pain dissociation, a common symptom of mental illness. Would LSD produce in users a similar state? "We did an experiment where a fellow had his tooth pulled while under LSD, but without any other anesthetic," Janiger recalls. A dentist at UCLA pulled the tooth and the subject didn't flinch, didn't protest, didn't so much as blink. Then the dentist touched the exposed nerve ending, and still the subject remained calm and conversant. According to Janiger, the flabbergasted dentist exclaimed, "In all my years of dentistry, I've never been able to touch a naked nerve without a person going to pieces." "I had the choice of doing a lot of little experiments like that," says Janiger. "I knew that the days of LSD research would eventually come to an end. The burden of riches was so great, I wanted to open up as many new possibilities as I could." Perhaps the most interesting side experiment evolved from the fact that Janiger's volunteers tended to reflect the cultural foment of Los Angeles. After artists began to ask for drawing materials during their sessions, he decided to launch a special study of LSD's influence on creativity. He gave 70 professional artists LSD and asked each of them to create two renderings of a common reference object, a Hopi Indian kachina doll that he had in his office. The first rendering would be done before taking LSD, the second while under acid's influence. The results were dramatic. "To the artist," says Janiger, "the drawings done under the influence of LSD were very important. Who knows if they were better or worse? But I couldn't deny the artists their own experience. They'd say, 'This is something I've been trying to do for years, a way of looking at this thing.' I said, 'I'm not gonna argue.' And there wasn't a single artist who didn't think they had had some kind of revelation." The very same kachina doll sits today on the mantle in Janiger's living room, under a particularly stunning framed pair of before-and-after renderings of it. Painted by Fortune illustrator Frank Murdoch, the picture on the left is of draftsmanlike quality, a perfect "representational" image. Its acid-inspired twin couldn't be more different - awhirl with color and asplash with motion, its planes and curves lurching in multiple directions. But it is recognizably the same kachina doll. And if anything, its colors more accurately capture the doll's brilliant hues. (Janiger has saved all the pieces from the study, consistently declining offers from the artists to buy back their work. Several years ago, he mounted a successful gallery exhibition of the acid art.) The data from the art study are particularly rich, says Janiger. "It remains for someone highly gifted as an artistic critic and interpreter to take that material and develop a theory in terms of perception and the creative and artistic processes. And that opens up the whole issue of whether or not drugs fire up your imagination in terms of writing and poetry." After taking LSD at Janiger's office, the writer Anais Nin developed her own theory about the drug's effect on the creative impulse. She later incorporated her rough notes, which Janiger has saved in his plenary files, into an essay included in The Diary of Anais Nin. "I could find correlations [to the LSD imagery] all through my writing," she wrote, "find the sources of the images in past dreams, in reading, in memories of travel, in actual experience, such as the one I had once in Paris when I was so exalted by life that I felt I was not touching the ground, I felt I was sliding a few inches away from the sidewalk. Therefore, I felt, the chemical did not reveal an unknown world. What it did was to shut out the quotidian world as an interference and leave you alone with your dreams and fantasies and memories. In this way it made it easier to gain access to the subconscious life." Though she never admitted it publicly, Nin's access to her inner life was dramatically augmented by LSD. According to author and screenwriter Gavin Lambert - who was referred to Janiger by Nin - she privately confessed that her acid trip was traumatic. "For Anais," says Lambert, "it was a disaster. On LSD the world seemed to her terrifying. This, to me, was extremely interesting, because Anais Nin's life was a high-wire act of lies. She had two husbands - was bigamously married - and neither of them knew about the other. And I think that her whole high-wire act became very naked to her under LSD, and she couldn't take it. She was a creature of such artifice, and then suddenly the artifice was stripped away." Many of Janiger's subjects were interested in using LSD to catalyze the kind of mystical experience that Aldous Huxley, Hollywood's most famous British literary expatriate, had written about in The Doors of Perception. But as Janiger and so many others would discover, LSD was difficult to control. At one point, Janiger invited a group of Unitarian ministers to drop acid. Several were disappointed when the drug produced peculiar aural and visual effects, but nothing of deeper spiritual significance. In the wake of his first session with LSD in Janiger's office, philosopher Alan Watts compared his trip somewhat unfavorably to the rare mystical experiences he had undergone earlier in his life. Those events, which weren't catalyzed by drugs, "just didn't feel like the LSD experience," he wrote. "They were very much more convincing. They seemed to be more a matter of insight than perception. They changed the meaning of experience rather than experience, and although modification of pure meaning was so much a part of LSD, it didn't happen in the same way. LSD seemed to complicate meaning rather than simplify it. It gave the sense of indescribable complexity rather than indescribable simplicity. For this reason it did not seem to be a particularly liberating experience. It was fascinating rather than illuminating, and felt more like the statement of a complex problem than its solution." I began to experience very strong feelings of sensuality in and around my belly and the inside of my thighs. Needless to say, the feelings were extremely pleasurable, but unlike the usual sexual excitement, I didn't feel the need for gratification . . . *** "During this period, I decided that, since I was feeling so sensual, I should fabricate sexual fantasies to synchronize with my feelings but was not very successful. I tried to imagine "M" making love to me but that seemed to put a damper on things, so, as a last resort, I tried to imagine Doctor K. kissing my vagina and making love to it. He looked about one foot tall and his body appeared to be in the form of a square with round corners! . . . As he went to kiss me, his tongue started to grow until it seemed to be eight feet long. I tried to stop this unpleasant image but couldn't do so." -Rita Moreno *** Soon after Janiger opened his office to experimental trippers, word of mouth prompted an unending stream of volunteers. Many of those eagerly rapping on Janiger's door had already read The Doors of Perception, which dealt with Huxley's experiences with another hallucinogen, mescaline. Others had fallen under the spell of acid proselyte Timothy Leary, who was rapidly becoming LSD's loudest and most reckless cheerleader, urging a new generation of hipsters to "turn on, tune in and drop out." Still other seekers had picked up on the Beat poets' positive vibe about psychotropic drugs. And the Hollywood grapevine had hipped the show-biz community to the fact that Janiger's office was where it was at. "It was a mystery to me how the word got around so fast," says Janiger. "People were calling all the time. From everywhere. It spread geometrically. People would tell their friends and then those friends would tell their friends. Consequently, we got a good sample, and we chose people to fill out the demographic picture of our scheme. Still, it took a certain kind of person, I imagine, to be curious or interested enough." To be sure, Janiger wasn't the only researcher dispensing experimental acid in the Los Angeles region. Some professional shrinks were already using LSD in their practices; Cary Grant took his first five dozen or so trips in the offices of Drs. Arthur Chandler and Mortimer Hartmann. At UCLA, psychiatrist Sydney Cohen was conducting his own LSD studies. It was Cohen who turned on Henry Luce, the consummate Cold Warrior and president of Time-Life. Cohen also gave LSD to Luce's gadabout wife, Claire Boothe Luce. The Luces took half a dozen trips during the late 1950s and early 1960s, and Henry claimed that on one such magical mystery tour he had chatted up God on a golf course. Claire thought that LSD was well and good for the elite, but definitely not indicated for the hoi polloi: "We wouldn't want everyone doing too much of a good thing," she sniffed. By the late 1950s, a salon of psychedelic dilettantes had sprung up around Oscar Janiger. Everyone called him Oz, and as the custodian of this fantastic and surreal drug, he was a bit of a wizard. Janiger referred to the group, which met informally to talk about their acid experiences, as the "consciousness clan." Among the regulars were British expatriates Huxley, philosopher Gerald Heard and novelist Christopher Isherwood; Cohen and other UCLA faculty members; Anais Nin, Alan Watts and the occasional Hollywood celebrity. The evenings, Janiger says, were "rife with accounts and stories of what this substance was doing and what it could do." Southern California was rapidly becoming a locus of the psychedelic movement, matched in energy only by academic enclaves in British Columbia and along the East Coast, where Leary, with the backing of Billy Hitchcock, an adventurous heir of the Mellon fortune, had established a boisterous colony of self-dosing higher-consciousness seekers at a posh New York estate. Janiger kept a much lower profile, and worried - correctly, it would turn out - that Leary's brand of in-your-face publicity would spur the government to move against LSD. Still, he welcomed a number of high-profile personages into his hi-fi trip room. James Coburn took 200 micrograms of LSD on December 10, 1959 - his first trip. In his paperwork, he gave his reason for volunteering: "to gauge present consciousness (where I am to where I can possibly go)." Now 69 and still acting, Coburn looks back fondly on his session with Janiger. "It was phenomenal," he says. "I loved it. LSD really woke me up to seeing the world with a depth of objectivity. Even though it was a subjective experience, it opened your mind to seeing things in new ways, in a new depth." Coburn also credits his LSD session with helping him occupationally. "One of the great things about LSD is that it does stimulate your imagination. And it frees you from fears of certain kinds." Another celeb who tried LSD as part of Janiger's experiment was a 25-year-old Jack Nicholson, who listed his occupation as "actor" and took his first trip (a dose of 150 micrograms) in Janiger's office on May 29, 1962. Nicholson would later incorporate his experiences into his script for The Trip, a 1967 low-budget film about an intense LSD session starring Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper, another volunteer in Janiger's study. Hopper, Fonda and Nicholson would team up again in 1969 on Easy Rider, with Hopper directing. It became the seminal film in the "New Hollywood" movement, which rejected traditional studio notions about content, style and production in favor of the edgy visions of its auteurs. Obviously, Hopper and company were channeling other, nonchemical, influences, including the work of French New Wave directors, but Easy Rider's then-revolutionary style - the jump cuts, time shifts, flash forwards, flashbacks, jerky hand-held cameras, fractured narrative and improvised acting - can also be seen as a cinematic translation of the psychedelic experience. "LSD did create a frame of mind that fractured experience," says Peter Biskind, author of Easy Riders, Raging Bulls (1998), which chronicles the rise and fall of the drug-fueled New Hollywood. "And that LSD experience had an effect on films like Easy Rider and [the Nicholson-penned Monkees movie] Head, which are essentially experimental movies." *** "This is civilization," [my driver] remarks as we enter the Miracle Mile. I nod, laughing, muttering. "Idiots! Jesus! Shit!" It seems to me the streets are full of women - mainly ugly, middle-aged women carrying crumpled shopping bags. "Look at them, hurrying to get across before the light changes to green - don't they realize how unimportant that is?" Lots of dummies in shop windows. I am struck by the similarity of the passersby and these dummies. "Really, there isn't much difference. In fact, these people are all becoming dummies." Noticing more billboards, I elaborate. "These little people erect dummies and huge images of themselves, which grin down at them and tell them to smoke cigarettes and drink drinks and eat foods they are already eating. They erect these effigies of themselves to reassure themselves they should do what they're already doing." - Author- screenwriter Gavin Lambert *** Celebrities notwithstanding, the vast majority of Janiger's volunteers were average citizens. Which has made tracking them down for the followup study a challenge - complicated by the fact that many have already died. With the help of a private detective and lots of Internet searching, MAPS has to date located and interviewed 40 of Janiger's original subjects who are still living in the Los Angeles area. Janiger would like to double that number before next fall. According to Kate Chapman, the MAPS researcher who conducted the interviews, most of the subjects "had a positive experience, with no long-term harm." One exception was a man who had "a bad, bad, bad trip, and would even say that it was psychologically damaging." In his essay written shortly after his LSD session, says Chapman, this man described "an awful account of how some intensely repressed psychosexual problems surfaced to the conscious front under the influence." "In a way," says Rick Doblin of MAPS, "you hope to find nobody like that, but the fact that we did find something negative and are willing to report it will hopefully add credibility to the study. We're trying to develop guidelines for future research, so what this tells us is that LSD shouldn't be given in research unless there is someone with therapeutic skill present." The volunteers I spoke to all had good things, or at least neutral things, to say about their LSD experiences. Zale Parry is a still-fetching 65-year-old woman who played a major role in L.A.'s early acid days. She now lives in the San Fernando Valley, and jokes that her neighbors would probably be shocked to learn that she was once something of an acid queen. No doubt they would also be shocked to learn that the vibrant impressionistic painting of a wild artichoke in bloom that hangs on the wall above her sofa was rendered by one of Janiger's acid-tripping artists. Parry's late husband, Parry Bivens, a pioneer scuba diver, inventor, medical doctor, chemist and drug experimenter, is the man who introduced Janiger to LSD, after obtaining a mail-order supply from Sandoz Laboratories. According to his widow, he also had the distinction of being the first person on the West Coast to synthesize mescaline in a garage lab - "It was pure satin," she says knowingly. An accomplished pioneer diver in her own right, Parry graced the cover of Sports Illustrated in 1955 and worked as an actress and underwater stunt double in Hollywood, standing in for Sophia Loren and co-starring with Lloyd Bridges in TV's Sea Hunt. She describes her two dozen acid sessions of the mid-1950s as "happy trips - joyful." She credits LSD with helping her to appreciate the intricacies and interconnectedness and beauty of life in the "underwater world." After her first several sessions, she became a volunteer babysitter for Janiger's subjects. She hasn't taken any drugs since then, and feels no need to try LSD again. Sixty-nine-year-old Loring Ware says that his six to eight doses of LSD in Janiger's office opened his eyes to "the world around me, but with some of the veils taken away that I didn't even know were there." Before those experiences, Ware was following what he felt to be an uninspiring career path as a technical illustrator. "LSD made me less happy with my job," he says. "I recognized the essential meaninglessness of my job." Subsequently, Ware switched careers and became a radio announcer. Though he hasn't had much experience with other drugs - other than "a little pot in the 1960s" - he believes that LSD "should be incorporated into some kind of rite of passage for young people, so they enter into adulthood with an understanding of the broadness of life, instead of becoming little cogs in a machine." Ernest Pipes, 71, was one of eight Unitarian ministers who dropped acid in Janiger's office one day in the late 1950s. Now retired and living in Santa Monica Canyon, not far from Janiger's house, Pipes says he was disappointed with his trip only because it was not a transcendent experience. "As it turned out," he recalls, "each of us had a very different experience - some went very deeply into a state of transcendent ecstasy, others did not. I had an intensified aural and visual experience, but I was unable to surrender fully to the effects of the drug in that setting." Pausing a moment, he adds, "But I have always regretted that I was not transported more effectively into altered states of consciousness, and thus enabled to be in touch with other dimensions of reality." Pipes and his colleagues had eagerly accepted Janiger's invitation to participate in the study. "We, as clergy, knew that one's inner life can be altered through music and liturgy and devotional reading, a beautiful sunset or a nature walk. So when it became possible for us to experiment, we thought that professionally we were obliged to do it." Though Pipes has never tried other drugs, he says wistfully, "I've always wanted to try it again. Wouldn't it be great, in the proper set and setting, to have an inward journey?" *** "An inclination to "break wind" was inhibited by the fear that it might turn into a multi-dimensional faux pas, reverberating uncontrollably through this Riemannian cosmos!" - Philosopher Alan Watts *** By the early 1960s, it was apparent that the era of inward journeys - or at least legal ones - was fast approaching an end. LSD had seeped into the underground youth culture, and the forces of prohibition were already in play. Long before LSD was outlawed, Sandoz, under international pressure, cut off researchers' access to the drug. And what of LSD's reputed perils? "A lot of the so-called dangers were hyperbole exaggerated by the press and misunderstood by science," says Ronald Siegel, who has studied psychopharmacological agents at UCLA for nearly 30 years. The claim that LSD causes genetic damage, for one, turned out to be inaccurate. "In fact," Siegel continues, "the drug does not present a lot of toxic dangers to individuals, simply because the dose that turns them on and the dose that kills them are so far apart. No one has ever died from a direct toxic overdose of LSD. "There are psychological problems for many people," Siegel says, "but by and large LSD has been tolerated very well. And one of the examples of that is the fact that more people are using LSD today in the United States than ever before in our history, and there are fewer problems than ever before." According to Janiger, researchers themselves are partly responsible for the drug's fall from grace. "LSD didn't pan out as an acceptable therapeutic drug for one reason," he says. "Researchers didn't realize the explosive nature of the drug. You can't manipulate it as skillfully as you would like. It's like atomic energy - it's relatively easy to make a bomb, but much harder to safely drive an engine and make light. And with LSD, we didn't have the chance to experiment and fully establish how to make it do positive, useful things." So acid has continued to hang in limbo. Says Siegel: "Because LSD carries with it so much political baggage, it has become extremely difficult to generate approval for new studies." For researchers hoping to resume LSD studies with human subjects, progress on the regulatory front has been excruciatingly slow. Since the early 1970s, only a dozen or so people have participated in FDA-sanctioned studies, and those were continuations of projects approved before the ban. Last year, Baltimore psychologist Richard Yensen was ready to administer 499 doses of LSD to down-and-out alcoholics and drug addicts in a resumption of his work begun in the early '60s at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. But early this year, the FDA put the study on "clinical hold," demanding that Yensen revise his research and safety protocols. Yensen says he has no idea why the FDA suddenly hit the brakes, but he suspects that a recent Esquire magazine story publicizing his obscure research spooked government regulators. Other planned research projects with hallucinogens have hit similar regulatory obstacles. For now, at least, says Siegel, "Psychedelics are more useful as a basic research tool than as an applied medical tool. And because of that, hallucinogens have very limited appeal to government agencies to foster further research." Some critics of psychedelic science argue that LSD's would-be rehabilitators are really mounting a crypto-legalization campaign. Rick Doblin of MAPS denies that charge, at least in the sense that he's lobbying for LSD to be sold over the counter like cigarettes and alcohol. Yet he asserts that "the ultimate goal is to have legal access to LSD, more likely than not in specially licensed centers to specially licensed therapists." Janiger also envisions a place for LSD in our culture. He would like to see studies of LSD and other psychedelics "become fair-minded and at parity with other kinds of research," and the fruits of such research applied to "acceptable social and medical uses." He cites the Eleusinian Mysteries of ancient Greece as a model for LSD's potential place in our own society. For nearly 2,000 years, the Greeks participated in an annual ritual in the city of Eleusis, 22 kilometers west of Athens. In the secret ceremony, participants from all walks of life (Plato and Aristophanes, as well as slaves) imbibed a sacred drink called "kykeon" and then proceeded to experience what one ancient author described as "ineffable visions" that were "new, astonishing, inaccessible to rational cognition." Says Janiger, "Those who underwent the mysteries came out at the other side, the sages tell us, as changed people who saw the world differently." In short, the Golden Age of Greece may have also been a very psychedelic age. If Janiger's own experiments in Los Angeles resembled a kind of modern-day Eleusinian Mystery, that was no accident. "The discussions I had with Huxley and Watts and the others in those early years," he says, "really centered around the way our culture might institutionalize LSD, and it would be very much like the Greek model." Clearly, Janiger isn't advocating "legalization" in a simplistic sense. He is talking about the kind of self-transformation that leads to larger cultural transformations. And for that reason, his vision may ultimately be even more radical than the notion of over-the-counter psychedelics. But what a long, strange trip it was for about 2,000 years in ancient Greece. And what a short, strange trip it was for about a decade in Los Angeles. MAPS is still searching for people who participated in Dr. Oscar Janiger's LSD study. The MAPS contact number is (704) 334-1798. You can find more information about MAPS on its Internet Web site, http://www.maps.org. Questions or comments? Email letters to the editor: email@example.com Copyright (c) 1998, Los Angeles Weekly, Inc. All rights reserved.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Viagra Online (A Staff Editorial In 'The San Francisco Chronicle' Says Federal And State Officials Should Crack Down On The Internet Pharmacy The Newspaper Wrote About Yesterday That Sells Pfizer's New Impotence Pill With A 'Physician Review' Instead Of A Traditional Prescription) Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 10:19:40 -0700 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US CA: Viagra Online Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Frank S. World) Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 VIAGRA ONLINE THANKFUL AS many men may be by the easy availability of Viagra over the Internet, federal and state officials should waste no time in cracking down on companies that sell the drug without requiring traditional prescriptions. Chronicle science writer Carl T. Hall reported that one of the companies peddling the exceedingly popular anti-impotence pill as well as other prescription medicines on the Internet required only a short, customer-completed ``medical history'' form. The form is sent to the drug distributor along with money for the pills and a $50 ``physician review'' fee. The ``review'' physician neither talks to nor examines the hopeful buyer. That lack of contact between doctor and patient is in disturbing contravention to the time-honored practice of pairing doctor knowledge of a patient with a prescription for that patient. Most prescribed drugs are not available over the counter for a good reason. They may have side effects that require an evaluation of appropriateness on a case-by-case basis. Viagra has been linked to 174 reports of side effects and 31 deaths, although, as Hall reported, it is not clear whether the drug itself or underlying health problems were to blame. While serious questions still exist about the safety of a drug, as they do with Viagra, it is extremely irresponsible to allow the medicine to be distributed through the mails as if the pills were M&M's. With every passing day, the public witnesses both the good and ill that comes from the Internet marvel. The disclosure that scores of men are essentially writing their own prescriptions to get a potentially dangerous drug is an illustration of the Internet used for ill. 1998 San Francisco Chronicle Page A26
------------------------------------------------------------------- Wage, Marijuana, Abortion Initiatives May Make Ballot ('The Seattle Times' Says The Initiative 692 Campaign To Legalize Marijuana For Medical Purposes Delivered An Estimated 245,000 Signatures To The Washington Secretary Of State's Office In Olympia Yesterday, Far More Than The Required 179,248 Valid Signatures Needed To Get The Issue Before Voters In November) Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:44:06 -0700 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US WA: Wage, Marijuana, Abortion Initiatives May Make Ballot Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 July 1998 Author: Jim Lynch, Seattle Times Olympia bureau WAGE, MARIJUANA, ABORTION INITIATIVES MAY MAKE BALLOT OLYMPIA - Citizen initiatives to raise the minimum wage, ban late-term abortions and allow the medicinal use of marijuana appear to have collected enough signatures to qualify for the November ballot. The campaign to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes was the last to deliver petitions to the Capitol before yesterday's deadline, unloading an estimated 245,000 signatures at the secretary of state's office. The proposal, Initiative 692, is a streamlined version of last year's I-685, which voters rejected. This year's model allows marijuana use by patients with certain terminal or debilitating conditions such as cancer, AIDS or glaucoma. The campaign appears to have collected far more than the required 179,248 valid signatures needed to get the issue before voters. The state usually disqualifies no more than 15 percent of petition signatures. While sponsors of I-692 paid workers to gather petition signatures, the other two measures relied on vast networks of volunteer signature gatherers. I-694 would ban so-called partial-birth abortions late in pregnancy, making it a felony to kill a fetus "in the process of birth" unless it is deemed the only way to save the mother. The campaign delivered about 225,000 signatures to the Capitol on Wednesday. I-688 would raise the minimum wage in Washington from $4.90 an hour to $5.70 in 1999 and to $6.50 an hour in 2000, after which it would rise with inflation. The campaign, sponsored by the state Labor Council, collected an estimated 284,000 signatures. Six other initiative campaigns failed to rally enough support by yesterday's deadline. A move to eliminate the state's vehicle excise tax may have come the closest. The campaign reported that it had gathered more than 164,000 signatures, but conceded defeat yesterday. David Brine, spokesman for the secretary of state, said the office will start verifying the signatures soon, beginning with the minimum-wage campaign. The final tally of valid signatures for the minimum-wage campaign is expected by about July 20, he said, with the results of the two other initiatives coming later this summer.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Man Gets 29 Years In Slaying Of Pierce Deputy ('The Seattle Times' Says Brian Eggleston Was Sentenced To 29 Years In Prison Yesterday For Fatally Shooting Pierce County, Washington, Sheriff's Deputy John Bananola During An October 1995 Marijuana Raid - The Sentence Will Run In Addition To A 20-Year Sentence Eggleston Was Given Earlier For The Assault On Another Deputy - Eggleston's Family And Friends Maintain He Only Acted In Self Defense)Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:42:19 -0700 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US WA: Man Gets 29 Years in Slaying of Pierce Deputy Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 July 1998 Author: Nancy Bartley, Seattle Times South bureau MAN GETS 29 YEARS IN SLAYING OF PIERCE DEPUTY Two-and-a-half years of anguish finally has come to a close for the family and friends of slain Pierce County Sheriff's Deputy John Bananola. In a packed Pierce County Superior Courtroom yesterday, Brian Eggleston, a former Tacoma bartender, was sentenced to 29 years in prison for fatally shooting Bananola during an October 1995 drug raid. As Judge Leonard Kruse of Kitsap County handed down the sentence - which will run in addition to a 20-year sentence Eggleston was earlier given for the assault on another deputy - Bananola family members and friends sighed with relief. Meanwhile, Eggleston's family and friends, who maintained he had only acted in self defense, cried and hugged each other. For Brooke Bananola, John Bananola's 16-year-old daughter, the sentencing means a new chapter in life. In a prepared statement read by her mother, Gloria Manning, she told the court that after her father's murder she was hospitalized for an eating disorder and eventually lost her will to live. "I was dead inside," she wrote. "There will forever be a hole in my heart where his love used to be." Eggleston expressed his regret for the killing and insisting he never knew Bananola was a sheriff's deputy when he fired the gun. His defense attorneys contended he thought he was shooting intruders. "If there is a genesis to this (crime), it's drugs and handguns," Kruse said as he sentenced Eggleston. Kruse said he found the case more disturbing than any he had experienced in his 40 years of practicing law. Because Bananola had been a Pierce County courtroom guard before joining the Sheriff's Department, Kruse was brought in from Kitsap County to sentence Eggleston, avoiding a conflict of interest. In May, a jury convicted Eggleston of second-degree murder in his second trial for the shooting death of Bananola. The first jury last year deadlocked 10-2 in favor of conviction. That jury, however, did find Eggleston guilty of selling and possessing drugs, and of assault for shooting Deputy Warren Dogeagle during the raid. According to authorities, the deputies raided Eggleston's home in East Tacoma because sheriff's officials had acquired evidence that he sold marijuana. Prosecutors have contended that Eggleston was furious at seeing his narcotics business coming to an end and that he chased Bananola down a hallway, shooting him. But relatives and supporters have portrayed Eggleston as a gentle man and loyal friend who had always respected the law. His lawyer argued at trial that Eggleston was groggy with sleep when deputies burst into the house and that he instinctively fired at them to protect his home, not knowing they were police officers. Eggleston was shot in the chest and groin during the raid. Before the sentencing, Linda Eggleston, Brian's mother, thanked her son, saying his action during the raid saved her life and protected their home.
------------------------------------------------------------------- November Ballot Has 15 Measures ('The Arizona Republic' Notes State Voters In November Will Cast Ballots Again On Medical Marijuana, As Well As The Voter Protection Act, Which Will Restrict The Legislature From Amending Initiatives Approved By Voters, As Happened With Proposition 200) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: "MN" (email@example.com) Subject: MN: US: AZ: Nov. Ballot Has 15 Measures Date: Sun, 5 Jul 1998 00:00:37 -0500 Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Frank S. World) Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 Source: Arizona Republic (AZ) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/ Author: Hal Mattern NOV. BALLOT HAS 15 MEASURES Cockfighting ban, Lottery fate, medicinal marijuana at issue By Hal Mattern The Arizona Republic July 3, 1998 When Arizona voters go to the polls in November, they'll be asked to do more than choose their favorite candidates for state and federal offices. They also will be asked to ban cockfighting, open primary elections to members of all political parties, and make it harder for the Legislature to amend future citizen initiatives. Voters also will have the chance to decide the fate of the Arizona Lottery, to approve the allocation of $220 million in state funding to buy vacant land for preservation, and, for the second time, to authorize doctors to prescribe marijuana to critically ill patients. Those are some of the initiatives and referendums that are expected to be included as propositions on the Nov. 3 general election ballot. Several others, including proposals to restrict urban growth and to eliminate sales, property and income taxes in Arizona, failed to attract the needed support to make the ballot. "We're going to have 15 measures on the ballot," said Jessica Funkhouser, state elections director. "That's a lot of issues. It might make (voters) more interested in the election." As of the 5 p.m. Thursday deadline, petition signatures had been filed with the Secretary of State's Office for five citizen initiatives. Such initiatives allow voters to place proposals directly on the ballot, bypassing the Legislature. There also will be two citizen referendums - measures passed by the Legislature but referred to the ballot by voters for changes - and several proposals referred to the ballot by lawmakers. Backers of the citizen initiatives had to file at least 112,961 signatures from registered voters to qualify for the ballot. Initiatives calling for constitutional amendments need at least 15 percent of qualified electors - 169,442 signatures - to qualify for the ballot. It will take more than a month for the signatures to be verified by state and county officials. One of the most significant of the citizen initiatives likely to be on the ballot deals with initiatives themselves. The Voter Protection Act seeks to amend the state constitution to restrict the Legislature from amending initiatives already approved by voters. Backers submitted 245,000 signatures. The Voter Protection Act, backed by Attorney General Grant Woods and Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio, would require at least a three-fourths vote of the Legislature to amend initiatives passed by voters. It also would prohibit the governor from vetoing such measures. "This is about opening up government," said Richard Mahoney, a former Democratic secretary of state and chairman of the initiative drive. "We got 245,000 signatures because people couldn't believe the Legislature was trying to do these things." Support for the initiative stems from anger over changes made by the Legislature to voter-approved initiatives. The most striking example involved a medical-marijuana initiative passed by voters in 1996 but gutted by lawmakers in 1997. Lawmakers, meanwhile, have launched a counterattack, placing their own less restrictive measure on the ballot. The Legislature also has placed an open-primary measure on the ballot to compete with a citizen initiative backed by Woods and Paul Johnson, the Democratic candidate for governor. Their proposal would amend the constitution to allow registered voters to cast ballots in primary elections for any candidate, regardless of party affiliation. "The current system is rigged for the people who created the system," Woods, a Republican, said Thursday as backers filed 230,000 petition signatures. "The big loser is the average person who is not on the extreme right or the extreme left, who finds himself shut out," he said. But Mike Hellon, chairman of the Arizona Republican Party, said the initiative would "wreak havoc on Arizona's electoral process and double costs of elections. Candidates will be forced to raise more campaign funds, empowering special-interest groups to a greater degree." Hellon urged voters instead to support the Legislature's open-primary measure, which would allow voters registered as independents, those with no party preference or those from minor parties not represented on the ballot to vote in a primary election of their choice. Johnson said that by placing the two competing measures on the ballot, lawmakers are trying to confuse voters so that neither side's proposals will pass. "What they want to do is split the 'yes' votes," he said. "Hopefully, the public will recognize what they are trying to do."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Legalized Pot Backers Raise Good Points, But . . . ('Arizona Republic' Columnist Steve Wilson Defends Cannabis Prohibition) Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 12:24:41 -0400 To: DrugSense News Service
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US AZ: Legalized Pot Backers Raise Good Points, But . . . Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: email@example.com (Frank S. World) Source: The Arizona Republic (AZ) Contact: Opinions@pni.com Webform: http://www.azcentral.com/opinions/letter.shtml Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 Columnist: Steve Wilson firstname.lastname@example.org LEGALIZED POT BACKERS RAISE GOOD POINTS, BUT . . . They've called me brain-washed, illogical, a government stooge, dumber than dirt, squarer than Al Gore, and a fenderhead. Twice I've wondered in print whether legalized marijuana would be a good thing, twice concluded it wouldn't, and both times been stoned, so to speak, by readers. Charming people, these pot proponents. They've raised some good points just the same. Such as: Statistics indicating that marijuana leads to harder drugs are dubious. I wrote that more than 90 percent of hard-drug users report that pot was their first drug. Robert H. Doherty ridiculed the logic: "I would bet that at least 99 percent of all heroin users started out with peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. "Does that make them 'gateway' sandwiches?" I'll concede that the 90 percent figure proves nothing, but I don't think the correlation is meaningless. Some connection can exist between hard and soft drugs without a cause-effect relationship. If marijuana is a gateway drug, it's largely because most users buy it from drug pushers. The dealers have an economic incentive to sell their customers harder, more addictive drugs. After one illegal drug is bought, buying another is easier. If a gateway exists, it's created by criminalizing marijuana, not its effects. Many opponents of legalization agree. Any link between pot and heroin has more to do with personality type than with the drugs. A lot of people who use drugs have more sensation-seeking, risk-taking personalities than non-users. It's predictable that many would try more than one drug. But that doesn't mean that marijuana leads to heroin, and the fact remains that the vast majority of pot-smokers don't go on to hard drugs. The costs of keeping pot illegal probably exceed the costs of legalization. Take the expense of locking up pot-smokers, add the costs of lost jobs, broken homes and turning productive citizens into criminals, and the price of keeping cannabis against the law is enormous, wrote Rodney Smith of Bullhead City. Fair enough, but there are other costs to consider. If marijuana were legalized, use by teenagers would likely increase. A study of high-school seniors last year found that 5.8 percent were regular marijuana users, compared with 3.9 percent who regularly consumed alcohol. Removing penalties for smoking pot would probably push under-age usage higher. Alcohol is a more addictive drug than marijuana and causes far more harm. I agree. Alcohol is more widely abused and socially destructive than marijuana. For better or worse, though, it's long been a part of American culture. Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 was a failed experiment. But the nation's acceptance of alcohol doesn't make the case for legalizing more mind-altering drugs. Making marijuana legal would surely increase the country's total drug use. Would the country be in better shape if more drugs were consumed by adults and teens? I don't think so. If legalizing pot is such a bad idea, why has it worked in the Netherlands? Marijuana remains illegal there, but Dutch authorities have allowed limited buying and selling since 1976. Fans of legalization say Dutch acceptance shows that more good than harm comes of it. That's debatable. Usage didn't change much in the early years before pot was sold openly in coffee shops. Once that happened in the '80s, the percentage of 18-year-olds who tried it climbed from 15 percent to near 50 percent. The country subsequently reduced the number of coffee shops that could sell it and the amount that can be purchased at one time. Not everyone likes the easy access. A 1996 poll found that 75 percent of the Dutch considered their drug policies too lax. I agree with my critics that U.S. law comes down too hard on pot. They haven't pulled me across the legalization line, though. Marijuana use by teenagers has doubled in the past few years, and easier availability would feed the trend. Call me a fenderhead, but I'll prefer peanut butter and jelly to a joint any day.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Peaceful Protest Criticizes Drug War ('The Dallas Morning News' Covers A Demonstration Wednesday In Dallas Sponsored By The Drug Policy Forum Of Texas Protesting The 25th Anniversary Of The Drug Enforcement Administration) Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 06:47:27 -0400 To: DrugSense News Service (email@example.com) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US TX: Peaceful Protest Criticizes Drug War Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Larry Nickerson Source: Dallas Morning News Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.dallasnews.com Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 Section: Metropolitan section, page 26A Editor's note: The Drug Policy Forum of Texas was able to put together this excellent media event in part because of their effective use of the internet. The Forum has an excellent active email discussion list which facilitates publicity and coordination of events like this. DrugSense supports similar private email lists on its list server for a growing number of states. Contact Mark Greer (MGreer@mapinc.org) if you are interested in starting a list for your state. The DPFT website is at: http://www.mapinc.org/DPFT/ PEACEFUL PROTEST CRITICIZES DRUG WAR U.S. Policies Fuel Profits For Dealers, Says Group Outside DEA's Office As protests go, it was more jovial than most. Seven members of a group that opposes drug laws "celebrated" the 25th anniversary of the Drug Enforcement Administration on Wednesday by declaring war against the war on drugs. Members of the Drug Policy Forum of Texas arrived shortly after 8 a.m. and set up on the median in front of the DEA's Dallas field division on Regal Row between Stemmons Freeway and Harry Hines. Armed with placards -- including "Stop the Drug War" and "War is Bad Domestic Policy" -- the small band of protesters spent 90 minutes catching the eye of motorists, a few of whom honked in support and most of whom slowed in confusion. "We're trying to generate awareness that what we're doing with drugs is not working," said Bob Ramsey of Irving, an executive board member of the Houston-based Drug Policy Forum. "We're just trying to open the debate." Forum members say state and federal governments are wasting their time trying to stop the flow of drugs. They see the DEA -- created by executive order July 1, 1973 -- as the embodiment of all that is wrong about the war on drugs. "In the early '70s, we had a lot less drug use," said Rolf Ernst of Frisco, another Forum member. "Criminalization creates a profit motive for criminals." The protestors mocked drug policies by serving Coke -- as in cola -- and poppy-seed cake at the "party". As Dallas police cars cruised by and a DEA security guard tugged on a cigar and kept a watchful eye, the protest remained peaceful, with only a handful of people stopping to see what the signs were about. The cake was barely touched. Despite what anyone may think, Drug Policy Forum members say their stand should not be confused with condoning drug use. "We discourage the use of drugs by controlling the supply," said Robert F. "Colonel" Mason, a Lewisville writer. "We have to make drugs legal to do that." About 9:30 a.m., the group strolled past the security guard to present the card and cake. For the occasion, Mr. Mason penned a poem, which concludes: "They'll toast 25 years with booze, cigs and mirth, while the rest of us mourn at the DEA's birth." DEA officials courteously accepted the gifts, and the protesters left quietly. As soon as they were out of earshot, DEA employees erupted in laughter. "What are you going to do? You can't get excited over this," said Hulio Machado, special agent in charge of the Dallas office. "They're good people . . . What you had is people voicing their opinions."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Time Arrives For Changes In Drug Lifer Law (Three Letters To The Editor Of 'The Detroit News' About Drug Policy, The First Two Of Which Praise The Michigan House Of Representatives For Voting 77-26 In Favor Of Reforming Michigan's Harsh Mandatory Minimum Sentence For Drug Offenders, And Urge The State Senate To Approve The Bill) Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 05:34:02 -0700 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Pat Dolan (email@example.com) Subject: Time arrives for changes in drug lifer law Newshawk:Pat Dolan Source: Detroit News PubDate: July 03 1998 Section: EdPage Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://detnews.com Friday, July 3, 1998 Letters Time arrives for changes in drug lifer law The Michigan House of Representatives deserves high praise for its vote on June 24 passing a bill that substantially reforms the "650 lifer law" ("House follows Senate's lead, eases drug lifer law penalties," June 25). The revision would allow parole eligibility after 15 years rather than require those convicted of possession with intent to deliver cocaine or heroin in an amount over 650 grams to spend their entire life in prison without the possibility for parole. The fact that the drug law needed to be rewritten has been recognized from nearly every corner for several years. Just this spring, former Gov. William Milliken declared that signing the law was one of his biggest regrets. Until now, however, lawmakers have been slow to address the problem because of concern about being viewed as "soft on drugs." In the meantime, able-bodied and nonviolent first offenders have been wasting away in our prisons and adding an unnecessary burden to the state budget. The 77-26 vote in favor of reforming the law shows bipartisan recognition that we made a mistake that must be corrected. Although the state Senate has approved a moderate reform, many of the Senate provisions are unworkable. The House bill does not address every concern, but it is clearly an improvement. Senate Judiciary Chairman William Van Regenmorter and the Senate leadership should move swiftly and adopt the House version of the drug reform bill so it can be signed into law. Douglas R. Mullkoff President Criminal Defense Attorneys of Michigan Detroit *** It is so obvious after 20 years of having the worst law in the nation (the "650 lifer law") that we need to change our "hang 'em" approach. This inhumane law has made a mockery out of the justice system in Michigan. Never mind about human rights violations in China or Sudan; let's check out our own back yard. Judges should have discretion, and the Legislature must not continue to overburden the system with inflexible mandatory sentences. Politicians must stop defying reality by prescribing more of the medicine that hasn't worked. Michelle Melchert River Rouge *** Hidden agenda How does "Big Tobacco" hold our children's lives? If advertising is the culprit, why would we not take responsibility and instruct our children that not all we see in the media reflects reality; that there are consequences when smoking is used for social acceptance or relaxation. There is a hidden agenda from the initiators of legislation that claims to do justice for the innocent - in this case it's children. It is acquiring additional revenue for an already bloated bureaucracy. Smoking may not be right for everyone. However, the choice to do so is. And with this goes responsibility for accepting the choices we make and not looking to place blame elsewhere when the ills you've heard about come to fruition. And please don't argue that hospitals are filled with lung patients on Medicare who are consuming my tax dollars. It was not the intention of our Founding Fathers to encourage legislation simply because our free choice may not have been wise. We should oppose the tobacco industry and perhaps fight their media blitz - but not legislate our choices. Daniel Geminick Canton Copyright 1998, The Detroit News We welcome your comments. E-mail us at email@example.com
------------------------------------------------------------------- Re - Opiates For The Masses (A Letter To The Editor Of 'The Wall Street Journal' From Two Physicians Responds To The Letter Opposing Heroin Maintenance Written By Notorious Prohibitionist Dr. Sally Satel, Saying It Demonstrates 'Her Lack Of Medical Ethics, Compassion And Professional Expertise') From: Rgbakan@aol.com Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 16:43:24 EDT To: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Subject: HT: Response- Sally Satel's letter in Wall St J.- BRAVO! Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 12 Jun 1998 07:27:25 EDT Errors-To: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Peter Webster (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Response to Sally Satel's letter in Wall St Journal - BRAVO!! Letter to the Editor Forwarded from: From: Andrew Byrne (email@example.com) To: "Webster, Peter" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Re: Shinderman and Haemmig's response to Sally Satel's WSJ letter attacking heroin maintenance - BRAVO!! Dear ..., This letter (below) is beautifully written and apposite. I hope that it is not too long for the WSJ to print ... but everything in it needed to be said. I too read the article, cringing all the way through it that it was a fellow physician writing, and clearly out of a depth of ignorance in the subject. She clutched at any slight deviation from perfection in the heroin trial and made it into some travesty, ignoring the broad benefits in most areas. Best wishes, Andrew Byrne .. PS: Of the 1000-odd patients, there were some deaths as I recall, but none from administered heroin. Dr Andrew Byrne, General Practitioner, Drug and Alcohol, 75 Redfern Street, Redfern, New South Wales, 2016, Australia Tel (61 - 2) 9319 5524 Fax 9318 0631 Email email@example.com author of: "Methadone in the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction" and "Addict in the Family". Ed: In "Opiates for the Masses," a WSJ letter to the editor, Sally Satel writes yet another article demonstrating her lack of medical ethics, compassion and professional expertise regarding the disease of addiction and the human beings that are its victims. It is alarming to see that she is identified as an M.D., affiliated with Yale. Her willingness to commit to print her uninformed opinions and conjecture regarding the efforts of serious governmental public health initiatives by the Swiss and others should be an embarrassment to her colleagues. The eagerness of the Wall Street Journal to publish them puts their editorial judgment on a par with Jerry Springer's. The Swiss had more than 50% of their heroin addicts in treatment (compared with 15% in the US) before they considered ways of reaching those unable to benefit from existing alternatives. To this end they instituted the Heroin Maintenance Trials, which are subject of Satel's article. In the article she distorts both the facts regarding the trials and the concept of "harm reduction." At the very least, a physician is bound to a practice which reduces mortality, illness and suffering, while inflicting no harm. Her mindless approach to the subject of heroin maintenance suggests that she thinks addicts are discouraged from using heroin by "consequences." If she read the DSM -IV which defines the disease, she would learn that pursuit of a drug or behavior in spite of dire consequences is the nature of addiction. If she read the synthesis report on the Swiss Heroin Trials, she would learn that this intervention reduced disease, diminished mental and physical suffering and resulted a lower death from overdose rate, "zero," to be precise, more than any other known treatment. What Dr.Satel seems to advocate is death, suffering, disease and punishment for addicts who do not respond to currently available treatments. Satel is misinformed or lying when claims that there were extraordinary expenses and supportive services associated with heroin maintenance treatment. What is true is that there were extraordinary economic benefits derived from it. The net saving was $10,786 per year per patient. In any event, what does Satel think so terrible about saving the lives and improving the health of severely deteriorated addicts who were not served by any other therapy, if it had cost few more francs? Treating advanced disease is usually expensive. To be fair, some of what Satel says are not lies, but half-truths. Criticisms about lack of randomization and not having control groups fall into this category. It becomes unethical to randomize patients into a treatment that they repeatedly fail, in any trial which has life and death outcomes. This was the case in these studies. This study took only patients with the most severe mental, socioeconomic and physical problems, more than 50% of whom had been failed by methadone maintenance, previously. While she complains of there being no control group the truth is that a methadone cohort is being studied for comparison, with results soon to be released. It was unethical, for the Swiss, to create a more exact control group, after their experience with these very ill patients to be retained in other modalities. Her criticisms related to addicts being unreliable when reporting their drug abuse or criminality when in maintenance treatment demonstrate her prejudices toward addicts and unfamiliarity with clinical literature which proves just the opposite: such self report is extremely reliable. Apart from this, the Swiss report clearly states that estimates of decreased criminality were derived from police and judicial records. Her lack of understanding of addicts is underscored by implications that the addicts pursuit of heroin and its ingestion are pleasurable and self indulgent. At this stage of the disease, every medical expert in addiction knows, heroin is nothing more than medication. Her suggestion that nothing is demanded of the patients in return for the "free drugs" is obscene in its implication. What is it that she thinks that these desperately ill and penniless people should contribute? They did pay fees for treatment, in all cases. The patients were required to present themselves up to three times a day, 7 days a week, forfeit their driving privileges, and take part in the research interviews, as well. She quotes Kleiman, allegedly, saying patients would purposely fail in less restrictive treatment in order to get heroin. This fantasy demonstrates total lack of familiarity with the criteria which apply to entrance into heroin maintenance, "failed treatment" being neither necessary nor sufficient. Finally, from our advice is that Dr. Satel restrict her professional activities to reading on these subjects, evaluating the heroin patients and programs, on site, and restraining herself from writing, until she has done so. Robert Haemmig, M.D., Medical Director, Integrated Drug Services of University Psychiatric Services Bern, Switzerland (Bernese heroin maintenance program) tel 41 31 632 4611 Marc Shinderman, M.D., Center for Addictive Problems, Chicago, IL Mshinder@ix,netcom.com tel 312 266 0404
------------------------------------------------------------------- Two Amish Men Enter Their Pleas In Drug Case (A 'New York Times' Article In 'The Orange County Register' Says The First Two Members Of Pennsylvania's Amish Community To Be Arrested For Involvement With Cocaine And Methamphetamine Were Arraigned Thursday Along With Eight Members And Associates Of The Pagans Motorcycle Gang)Date: Sat, 4 Jul 1998 09:46:56 -0700 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US PA: Two Amish Men Enter Their Pleas In Drug Case Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John W.Black Source: Orange County Register (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.ocregister.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 Author: Michael Janofsky-The New York Times TWO AMISH MEN ENTER THEIR PLEAS IN DRUG CASE Modern society with all its ills may have finally caught up with the community, invading its simple ways. PHILADELPHIA - At a glance, they looked little different from any other defendants indicted on illegal-drug charges. Standing before Judge Jay Waldman at their arraignment in U.S. District Court on Thursday morning, the two men with the same name looked frightened, anxious, perhaps even a little embarrassed. Actually, Abner King Stoltzfus, 23, and Abner Stoltzfus, 24, who are not related, are anomalies in the federal criminal-justice system. Authorities here say they are the first two members of Pennsylvania's Amish Community to be arrested for involvement with cocaine and methamphetamine. Along with eight members and associates of a motorcycle gang known as the Pagans, the Stoltzfuses were indicted after a five-year investigation in Lancaster County, and they now face charges that could bring them a mandatory minimum of 10 years in prison. Nine of the defendants, including the Amish men, pleaded not guilty; a 10th defendant, Natalie King, is to be arraigned next week. As Waldman explained the procedure to each of the Stoltzfuses, seven of their relatives and close friends - all dressed in typical Amish wear - sat silently in the third row of the courtroom, hiding their somber faces from courtroom artists in accordance with their belief that it is a sin of vanity to have your likeness reproduced. For generations, the Amish have lived lives different yet not entirely apart from mainstream America. In their eastern Pennsylvania communities of Gap, Intercourse, Paradise and other small towns, they work as farmers,craftsmen and small-business owners who have raised families under the strictures of their church and the quaint ways of a bygone era: They eschew such basic conveniences as electricity and travel in horse-drawn buggies. In many ways, they have been poster people for all that America cherishes: strong family values, accountability, responsibility, a deep faith in God. But in recent years, suburban sprawl westward from Philadelphia has invaded their turf. Though it has brought new jobs at a time when fewer Amish are tending to farms that are generations old, it has also brought them wider exposure to commercial America and some of its unsavory elements. Were it only alcohol involved in charges against them, the levels of surprise and bewilderment among the Amish might not have been so high. Typically, Amish teen-agers are permitted several years of discovery outside the traditions of family and church to help them decide whether they want to re-enter their church and community for the rest of their lives. Often during that period, known as timeout, the youths join groups that meet in social settings the Amish call hoedowns, where taboo activities like drinking, smoking and driving cars are common. "Times are a-changing," Robert Ham, who has been the police chief for 28 years in Strasburg, a Lancaster County town of 3,000, said in an interview earlier this week. "Their young folks get out into the world. They believe in sowing their wild oats while they're young."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Aging `Hippie' Jailed For Cultivating Pot (A Typically Biased Article In Ontario's 'London Free Press' Notes A 60-Year-Old Man Got 90 Days For Growing 10 Plants In His Backyard And Basement) From: email@example.com (Matt Elrod) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Canada: Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating pot Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 09:42:14 -0700 Lines: 38 Source: London Free Press Contact: email@example.com Author: Don Murray -- Free Press Court Reporter Pubdate: July 3, 1998 Author: By Don Murray -- Free Press Court Reporter AGING 'HIPPIE' JAILED FOR CULTIVATING POT A 60-year-old "hippie who hasn't grown up yet" was sentenced to 90 days in jail yesterday for growing pot in his back yard. Joseph J. Dabros has a history of marijuana use, said his lawyer Don Crawford, and "at this age is still dabbling . . . I guess old habits die hard." Dabros pleaded guilty earlier in Ontario Court, general division to cultivation of marijuana and simple possession. On Aug. 8, 1996, police found 10 plants worth about $2,500 in the back yard and basement of the London home Dabros shares with his elderly mother. Crawford told Justice John Desotti that his client comes from a good family and is above average in intelligence. One family member is a general in the Canadian Armed Forces. Dabros, however, is content to live on the rent from farm land he owns and, in a few years, will be collecting old age security, said the lawyer. He said Dabros is almost "more of a nuisance" to police than a law enforcement problem. Desotti accepted the joint sentencing submission by Crawford and federal prosecutor Dave Rocliffe and a smiling, cheerful Dabros was led away to serve his time. Copyright (c) 1998 The London Free Press
------------------------------------------------------------------- Re - Aging `Hippie' Jailed For Cultivating Pot (A Letter Sent To The Editor Of 'The London Free Press' Alludes To Cannabis's Low Toxicity Compared To Alcohol And Valium) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Matt Elrod) To: email@example.com Subject: Sent: Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating pot Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 10:31:25 -0700 Lines: 11 To the editor, Concerning the 60-year-old man sentenced to 90 days in jail for growing 10 cannabis plants in his back yard, (Aging `hippie' jailed for cultivating pot, July 3), I feel safer already. Perhaps some time in jail will teach the old hippie to drink or use Valium. Matthew M. Elrod 4493 [No Thru] Rd. Victoria, B.C. V9C-3Y1 Phone: 250-[867-5309] Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cop Used Bait In Drug Bust ('The Hamilton Spectator' Says A Halton, Ontario, Police Officer Who Posed As A High School Student To Entrap Other Students In A Drug Sting Baited His Trap By Illegally Selling Cigarettes To Teens At Discount Prices)From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: "MN" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: MN: Canada: Cop Used Bait In Drug Bust Date: Sun, 5 Jul 1998 00:01:54 -0500 Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: email@example.com Pubdate: Fri 03 Jul 1998 Source: Hamilton Spectator (Canada) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.southam.com/hamiltonspectator/ Author: Andrew Dreschel COP USED BAIT IN DRUG BUST A Halton police officer who posed as a high school student to buy drugs baited the trap by selling reputedly contraband cigarettes to teens at discount prices. And in doing so he probably broke the law by pedaling smokes to minors. To gain the trust of teens and to enhance his undercover image, Constable Rui Freitas presented the cut-rate cigarettes to students as stolen property. They weren't. The smokes were bought and paid for by police as part of a two-month sting operation at General Wolfe High School in Oakville, which recently resulted in drug-trafficking charges against 13 youths. Eleven of the accused were charged under the Young Offenders Act. Police say they don't know for certain if any of those charged bought butts from the officer or if he sold them to other underage kids. But it seems likely that's what happened. ``I think there's a good possibility that he may have done that but I'm sure it was unwittingly,'' said Detective Inspector John van der Lelie, who approved the covert operation. ``He would have sold cigarettes to pretty well anybody who approached him.'' It is illegal to sell or provide tobacco to someone under 19 in Ontario. ``Our official position is we would not encourage the officer to violate the law,'' said van der Lelie. ``And I'm sure the officer didn't intentionally sell quasi-stolen cigarettes to anybody that appeared to be under the age of 19.'' Be that as it may, this new information casts further doubts on an already ethically dubious operation that involved officially sanctioned spying and lying in an educational setting. Police acknowledge the cigarette scam has them walking a thin line legally, but they stand by the controversial investigation -- even though the street value of the marijuana, hashish and magic mushrooms seized was only about $1,000. ``Clearly we're on the edge on this and I'll accept responsibility for that, but that's the nature of the beast,'' said van der Lelie. He says the cigarettes were sold at knock-down prices because that's what happens with stolen property, and the undercover cop needed to convince students he was a bad guy so he could more easily infiltrate the school's drug culture. ``We have a police officer who's trying to act like a youngster and participate in all the activities that youngsters do,'' said van der Lelie. ``The undercover officer wasn't perpetuating the use of cigarettes by minors. He's giving cigarettes to people who are probably already smoking.'' Presumably, the actual facts of the matter will emerge in court. In the meantime, the public is left pondering the irony of a police force selling a highly addictive legal substance to catch kids who are in possession of illegal drugs. Unlike cigarettes, the types of drugs that were netted in the busts do not appear to induce dependence in most users, according to the Addiction Research Foundation. General Wolfe principal Tom Adams, who okayed the clandestine operation in his school, wasn't aware that police were selling cigarettes to students and likely breaking the law while doing so. ``I don't support anybody breaking the law,'' he said. Adams said it's a complex situation and he declined further comment until he had spoken to police. In a further irony, the revelation comes on the heels of a private member's bill by Oakville Tory MPP Terence Young proposing to make it illegal for anyone under 19 to possess tobacco in school. Young's bill also targets drugs and alcohol, but it's his idea of making unlit cigarettes an illegal substance in schools that has sparked controversy. Young, stung by criticism and claiming his bill has been misrepresented by the media, refused to comment on the appropriateness of police selling cigarettes to kids. But the tactic obviously has sent police skidding down a very slippery slope. It looks as if the war against drugs has enlisted deadly tobacco as an ally. As a commander, van der Lelie deserves credit for standing by his officer and shouldering responsibility for his actions. But given the public hue and cry against smoking, particularly by teens, the black and white presumptions the investigation was based upon have suddenly turned startlingly piebald.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Tired Tactics Won't Stop Kids From Lighting Up (A Letter To The Editor Of 'The Toronto Star' Protests Ontario Legislation That Would Mandate Suspensions For Student Tobacco Consumers - 'If Keeping Drug Users From Participating In Society Worked, We Would Have Licked The Adult Drug Problem Already, Right?') Date: Fri, 3 Jul 1998 15:39:51 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: Canada: PUB LTE: Tired Tactics Won't Stop Kids From Lighting Up Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Dave Haans Pubdate: Fri, 3 Jun 1998 Source: Toronto Star (Canada) Page: A23 Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.thestar.com/ TIRED TACTICS WON'T STOP KIDS FROM LIGHTING UP Re Student smokers face suspension (June 19) Tory MPP Terence Young's Zero Tolerance for Substance Abuse Act, which passed second reading recently, promotes segregating and suspending students who are caught with a mere unlit cigarette. If keeping drug users from participating in society worked, we would have licked the adult drug problem already, right? Wrong. We've used this tactic for 90 years now, and the harm resulting from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use continues unabated. Young's bill is also a boon to schoolyard bullies, who will undoubtedly welcome the chance to see a fellow student suspended merely by dropping an unlit cigarette into his or her knapsack. Perhaps Young could take a cue from his fellow Tory MPPs, Helen Johns and Ernie Hardeman. They recently called for changes to the existing Tobacco Control Act, simply because the act of barring tobacco use by students on school property has driven smoking students to loiter in neighborhoods surrounding their schools. It has also has the unfortunate effect of leaving students open to increased drug use off school grounds, where they can't be monitored in any way. For some reason, Young would seem to want to increase these negative effects, adding these on top of the rise in drug use and youth crime that will surely come as schools' extracurricular activities are curtailed due to lack of funding. It's sad that Young only wants to punish Ontario's youth, rather than look at ways to help them through the so-called best years of their lives. Dave Haans Toronto
------------------------------------------------------------------- Iran Sets Fire To 51 Tonnes Of Illegal Drugs ('Reuters' Notes Iranian Officials On Thursday Torched A Pile Of Heroin And Opium Valued At $700 Million, Supposed To Be Equal To One Year's Consumption In Britain, Italy And France Combined - Decades Of Prohibition In Iran Have Produced A Rising Rate Of Heroin Use, With Up To A Million Addicts In The Country Of 60 Million People) Date: Fri, 03 Jul 1998 18:39:40 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: Iran: WIRE: Iran Sets Fire To 51 Tonnes Of Illegal Drugs Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: DRUGNEWS@aol.com (by way of Richard Lake
) Source: Reuters Pubdate: 3 Jul 1998 IRAN SETS FIRE TO 51 TONNES OF ILLEGAL DRUGS TEHRAN, July 2 (Reuters) - Iranian officials on Thursday torched 51 tonnes of heroin and opium, enough to supply markets in Britain, Italy and France for more than a year. An archer shot a flaming arrow into a pyre of drugs soaked in petrol, sending plumes of black smoke billowing over the northern Tehran hillside as the Islamic republic marked the U.N.'s international day against drug abuse and trafficking. ``We have come together...to eliminate such a scourge from human society,'' President Mohammad Khatami told a crowd of anti-drugs police, invited guests and foreign diplomats shortly before the bonfire was ignited. ``Narcotic drugs and their prevalence in societies are the crucial factors stupefying the mind and wisdom and threatening the health of mankind and represent an obstacle to independence and development,'' Khatami said. He said Iran was dedicated to combating drug smugglers, in particular traffickers plying routes between cultivation centres of Afghanistan to markets in Western Europe. Iranian officials say the fight against drug trafficking has claimed the lives of more than 2,300 agents in the last 20 years. They put the cost of enforcement, including treatment of addicts, at $560 million in the last Iranian year, which ended in March. Earlier, the head of the United Nations anti-drug effort, Pino Arlacchi, praised Iran's efforts and said other regional states must follow suit. ``Iran has set a striking example for others to follow,'' Arlacchi said. ``With this bonfire, the destruction of 51 tonnes of drugs, the region and the world are a little safer.'' He put the value of the narcotics to be destroyed at $700 million and estimated the quantity as one year's consumption in Britain, Italy and France combined. U.N. officials estimate Iran accounts for about 85 percent of opium and 30 percent of all heroin and morphine seizures. ``It is my opinion that Iran is shouldering too big a portion of the burden...Others in the region need to do more,'' Arlacchi said. Iran is a key transit route for smugglers from Afghanistan and Pakistan, the so-called Golden Crescent, to Europe and the oil-rich Gulf states. Iranian police seized 195 tonnes of drugs in 1997. Domestic drug use is also on the rise, with up to a million addicts in the country of 60 million people. -------------------------------------------------------------------
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