------------------------------------------------------------------- School Pays Students For Tips On Guns, Drugs (An 'Associated Press' Article In 'The Seattle Times' Says Salem, Oregon, High School Principal Rey Mayoral Pays Informants $30 For Information About A Weapon, $20 For A Drug Tip And $10 For Vandalism) Date: Tue, 07 Jul 1998 08:44:29 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US OR: School Pays Students For Tips On Guns, Drugs Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Pubdate: Monday, 06 July, 1998 Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Author: The Associated Press SCHOOL PAYS STUDENTS FOR TIPS ON GUNS, DRUGS EUGENE - A Salem, Ore., high-school principal has hit on a way of finding students who brings guns to schools: He pays informants. The May 21 shootings at Thurston High School in Springfield, Ore., which left two students dead and 20 wounded, has given new impetus to efforts by educators to keep firearms off campus. "If somebody would have been enticed to turn in this Kinkel kid, they would have saved lives." said Rey Mayoral, the Salem principal. Kip Kinkel, the suspect in the Thurston High shootings, reportedly bought a .22-caliber pistol at school last fall and didn't get caught. Mayoral, who serves on a state juvenile task force, pays students $30 for information about a weapon. A drug tip garners $20 and vandalism $10. Students are paid after each crime is confirmed. An average of $600 a year is paid under the school program, which has been in operation for three years. The tipsters' identities are kept secret. If administrators can't get to the bottom of a crime without exposing the source of the information, they drop the investigation. Congress passed a tough law against guns at school in 1994. The Oregon Legislature followed in 1995 with a law requiring a one-year expulsion for almost every student caught with a weapon. A juvenile caught with a handgun could spend a year in lockup. If the juvenile is caught with the gun at school, the penalty could be a five-year sentence. But the courts don't usually hand out major punishment for first-time offenders. "We have a felony on the books, and we treat it like a traffic violation or something," said John Walley, whose 16-year-old son, Jesse, was injured in the Thurston shootings. The number of Oregon teens arrested for carrying deadly weapons of all types doubled within 10 years. Eighty-five Oregon students were caught with guns at school and expelled in the 1996-97 school year, according to a recent state report.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Lawyer Lets Grief Propel His Fight For Medical Pot ('The Los Angeles Times' Interviews Robert L. Kennedy, The Attorney Representing Marvin Chavez Pro Bono - As Director Of The Orange County Patient, Doctor And Nurse Support Group, A Cannabis Club Based In Garden Grove, Chavez Supplied Kennedy's Son-In-Law With Medical Marijuana As He Was Dying From Brain Cancer, Prolonging And Enhancing His Life)Date: Tue, 07 Jul 1998 19:07:22 -0700 From: Dan Bunnell (email@example.com) Subject: L.A. Times 7/6/98 Lawyer Lets Grief Propel His Fight for Medical Pot * Law: Grateful to the man who helped ease his dying son-in-law's pain, Robert L. Kennedy seeks to beat the case against the supplier. By LISA RICHARDSON Times Staff Writer Ask him, and attorney Robert L. Kennedy can tell you the exact moment of his conversion to the controversial medical marijuana movement and his motivation for taking one of its most important cases. It's been almost one year since his son-in-law died of brain cancer, and Kennedy still cannot accept the death of the loving husband and father who had been an altar boy until age 21. Pictures of his late son-in-law, Paul Comouche, dot Kennedy's well-appointed office. There's one of the dark-haired, movie-star handsome Comouche with Debbie, Kennedy's daughter. Another of Comouche with a 5 o'clock shadow, grinning alongside his 2-year-old daughter - Kennedy's granddaughter. Then there are the pictures kept out of sight. Comouche wasting away, Comouche without hair. It was this painful period and his beloved son-in-law's death that led Kennedy to an unlikely alliance with the medicinal marijuana movement. When Comouche was dying in 1997, dozens of medicines failed to ease his pain. Kennedy read that marijuana helped other cancer patients and begged his son-in-law to try the drug. Then Kennedy contacted Marvin Chavez, the director of the Patient, Doctor, Nurse Support Group, a cannabis club based in Garden Grove. Chavez steadily provided Comouche with marijuana until Comouche died last year at age 31. So when Chavez was arrested in April on charges that he sold marijuana to an undercover officer posing as a caretaker for a terminally ill patient, Kennedy took the case for free, out of gratitude. Kennedy recalled that Comouche's nausea subsided and his appetite returned after using the drug. His son-in-law also lived within 10 days of a full year, although doctors had given him six months to live. "I have a soft spot in my heart for Marvin," Kennedy said of Chavez, who took many legal risks. "I didn't have to expose my license to jeopardy; I didn't have to go to clients of mine who are dealers or go into the street and get ripped off." A finely carved statuette of Don Quixote stands in the corner of Kennedy's Long Beach office, a gold-handled sword in one of Quixote's hands and an open book in the other. When it comes to the Chavez case, Kennedy sometimes views himself as the fanciful knight of literature who yearned to combat the world's evil but ended up tilting at windmills. "My first thought when I met Marvin and saw how they were distributing marijuana was: 'This ain't gonna work in Orange County.' " The county's reputation for conservatism, Sheriff Brad Gates' campaign against Proposition 215 - the successful ballot measure seeking to make marijuana available for medicinal purposes - and the fact that many of the judges in Orange County were once prosecutors make the case challenging, he said. Several of his colleagues agree there are obstacles to Kennedy's winning the case. "But this goes to Bob's own personal sense of what is right," said family law attorney Boo Giuffre. "That's why he's willing to deal with the D.A. where a lot of us at some point just throw our hands in the air and say, 'You win.' " Also, Kennedy makes no secret about the fact that he enjoys challenging the odds. "It's not popular to say so, but a defense attorney is really liberty's last champion, and Bob Kennedy exemplifies that," said lawyer Stephanie Loftin. Orange County may be unlikely territory in which to blaze a trail for the use of medicinal marijuana, but Kennedy has had tough fights before. In September 1995 he represented the California Grocers Assn. after racist pamphlets had been tucked inside products in stores in Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura counties. The association had endured the problem for two years before hiring Kennedy. Although no law had specifically prohibited the pamphlet insertions if product seals weren't broken or food actually touched, Kennedy won permanent injunctions against a Glendale man said to be behind the pamphlets. He also won injunctions in three counties against the White Aryan Resistance, whose members, including the Glendale man, were believed to be behind the pamphlet insertions. The injunction bars them from such insertions. Three months later, the state Legislature enacted a law making all such distributions illegal. The perpetrators "knew just how far they could go and what they had to do to stay somewhere on the borderline of the law," said Don Beaver, former president of the California Grocers Assn. "Bob Kennedy's a real bulldog - that's why we used him. We knew he'd go after this guy with passion, and he did." Kennedy believes the law is on Chavez's side. Proposition 215 may be poorly drafted, he said, but its intent is clearly to help people who are ill. Orange County officials simply plan to ignore the law, he said. He cites passages of Proposition 215 - also called the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 - whose stated purpose is "to encourage the federal and state governments to implement a plan to provide for the safe and affordable distribution of marijuana to all patients in medical need of marijuana." Officials should have helped Chavez distribute marijuana legally rather than letting him flounder, Kennedy said. Deputy Dist. Atty. Carl Armbrust sees it differently. Chavez maintained he was just seeking a donation when he asked the undercover officer for money, but police and prosecutors say that he was conducting a drugs-for-money transaction - illegal even under Proposition 215. Armbrust maintains that once money is received in return for marijuana, the law has been broken. Chavez, a slight man with a wiry build who suffers from a degenerative back disorder, was recently released on $100,000 bail after three months in jail. He has tried a variety of prescription drugs but said none work as well as marijuana, which is why he champions its use. "I'm willing to do the time and fight for the cause in an ethical, practical and peaceful way, but definitely, we're going to win," Chavez said. Kennedy, he said, is the ideal lawyer for the case. "He's been there with the movement, and now it's time to use his experience as an attorney to defend the spirit of the law for the people." Like Chavez, Kennedy is optimistic that marijuana one day will be prescribed by doctors and supplied by pharmacies. And he is ready to tell his personal story to anyone who wants to listen. Why go after sick people seeking solace from marijuana? he asks. Looking at his daughter's wedding picture, he added: "No one who has seen a close relative die an agonizing death would do it. . . . I wouldn't wish this last year of hell that my family has suffered on anybody, but maybe that's what it takes for people to understand." Copyright Los Angeles Times
------------------------------------------------------------------- Jesse Jackson Endorses Kubby Efforts On Proposition 215 (News Release From Medical Marijuana Activist And California Gubernatorial Candidate Steve Kubby Says The Reverend Jesse Jackson Endorsed 'Kubby's Efforts To Implement Proposition 215,' If Not His Candidacy) Date: Tue, 7 Jul 1998 21:37:46 EDT Errors-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Arthur Sobey (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: Jesse Jackson endorses Kubby efforts on Prop. 215 NEWS RELEASE July 6, 1998 Steve Kubby for Governor P.O. Box 1012 Garden Grove, CA 92842-1012 Steve Kubby and Jesse Jackson reach accord on medical marijuana/Prop. 215. The Rev. Jesse Jackson endorsed Libertarian Gubernatorial candidate Steve Kubby's efforts to implement Prop. 215, the medical marijuana initiative adopted by California voters. Kubby, en route home from the Libertarian Party National Convention in Washington, D.C., met with Jackson at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport on Sunday night. Said Kubby, "When one watches Republican Attorney General Dan Lungren ignore his own party's commitment to states' rights by inviting the federal government to overrule the will of the people, it's refreshing to find an individual of Rev. Jackson's stature to stand up for what is right." Kubby believes the provisions of Prop. 215 should be heeded to allow sick people access to medicine without fear. He asks, "What part of 'exempt' doesn't Dan Lungren understand?" Jackson said, "When a doctor advises that marijuana would be a good remedy to ease peoples' pain and suffering, politicians shouldn't interfere," and he wished Kubby well in his efforts to get the initiative implemented. Kubby backed that up by saying "It's time to stop arresting sick people." *** Arthur R Sobey Communications Director Kubby for Governor Campaign firstname.lastname@example.org K U B B Y F O R G O V E R N O R 1998 CALIFORNIA 2002 http://www.kubby.com STATEWIDE CAMPAIGN OFFICE Voice: (714) 537-9200 Fax: (714) 537-9203 Toll Free: (877) GO-KUBBY
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ex-Guard Tells Of Brutality, Code Of Silence At Corcoran ('The Los Angeles Times' Says The Conscience Of Former Corcoran State Prison Guard Roscoe Pondexter Has Reawakened And He Has Decided To Expose Corcoran's Brutality, Talking To 'The Times' And Testifying Before A Federal Grand Jury, Pointing The Finger Not Only At Himself But At Those Above Him Who He Says Sanctioned The Systematic Brutality, Including Encouraging Inmates Who Were Sexual Predators To Rape Other Inmates) Date: Mon, 6 Jul 1998 15:12:59 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US CA: Ex-Guard Tells of Brutality, Code of Silence at Corcoran Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Jim Rosenfield Pubdate: Mon, 6 Jul 1998 Source: Los Angeles Times (CA) Contact: email@example.com Fax: 213-237-4712 Website: http://www.latimes.com/ Author: Mark Arax, Times Staff Writer EX-GUARD TELLS OF BRUTALITY, CODE OF SILENCE AT CORCORAN Prison: Former officer claims supervisors sanctioned violence, including rapes that still haunt a former inmate. It's been two years since guard Roscoe Pondexter walked the cellblocks of Corcoran, two years since he wrapped his big basketball hands around the neck of an inmate and squeezed until the air nearly went out. "Now don't you go passing out on me, you hear?" he would whisper as he squeezed a little more, until he heard that tiny gurgle and the inmate had the eyes of someone drowning. That's when a partner would yank on the inmate's testicles while two higher-ranking officers stood outside the cell, pretending all was fine and blocking any view inside. Welcome to a counseling session at Corcoran State Prison, a little attitude adjustment for inmates who needed reminding of the rules. And no guard did it better than 6-foot-7-inch, 270-pound Pondexter. "We called it Deep Six. It's like taking a dive underwater and not coming up. You give the prisoner only enough air to hear your message. . . . It wasn't in the manual. It wasn't part of the official training. It was grandfathered into me by my sergeant and the sergeant before him. "It was brutality, but we never left a mark." He was once one of California's most celebrated prep basketball players, a college all-American at Cal State Long Beach drafted by the Boston Celtics. His playing days over, he found himself walking the line inside Corcoran's Security Housing Unit, staring across bars at some of the most-feared killers in the state. Like in his hoop game, he didn't give a damn who was on the other side. "I'll be honest with you. I was known as the Bonecrusher. I was used as an intimidation factor. When brute force was needed to get an inmate to comply, they called me in. 'Pondexter, take care of it.' " Today, two years after being forced to resign for a counseling session that turned into a fight, the 45-year-old Pondexter is a different man. His three children refer to him as Dad One and Dad Two: the father who came home each day but could never leave Corcoran behind, and the father who was stripped of his job only to rediscover the values that his parents, Dust Bowl cotton pickers, had passed on to him. As part of that awakening, he has decided to expose Corcoran's brutality, talking to The Times and testifying before a federal grand jury, pointing the finger not only at himself but at those above him who he says sanctioned the violence. The grand jury has charged eight officers with setting up inmate fights for blood sport at Corcoran, where 50 inmates were wounded or shot dead by guards since 1989. As the FBI expands its probe into alleged brutality and cover-up at the San Joaquin Valley prison, Pondexter has joined the handful of officers who have broken rank and come forward. "A lot of things I did then I would never do now. But that's the mentality of the place. That's the socialization. I didn't care if someone got raped or if someone got killed by staff. It was just another day's work. Pushing paper and we're off again. . . . Bit by bit, I lost my conscience." One of a Thousand Crips and Bloods Pondexter had seen a thousand Eddie Dillards come and go, Crips and Bloods from Compton and Watts, small in stature and big in mouth, punks who gave hard-working black people like himself a bad name. Dillard was a lightweight by Corcoran standards, a 23-year-old first-timer with a conviction for assault with a deadly weapon. He could have chosen to do his time hassle-free but he made one mistake: He kicked a female officer at Calipatria State Prison and now he found himself inside the Corcoran SHU, where such transgressions did not go unpunished. Dillard was a marked man. Pondexter said he surmised this as soon as he learned about the transfer form sent down by his sergeant. Dillard, who looked like a skinny teenager, was to be moved into the cell of Wayne Robertson, a big, buffed-up prison enforcer who boasted in official reports that he raped unruly inmates as a favor to Corcoran staff. Robertson, a murderer serving a life term, wasn't shy about being called the "Booty Bandit." He told corrections investigators that any time the SHU supervisors needed an inmate to be "checked," they could call on him. Depending on his mood, he said, he would either rape or beat them. He got extra food and tennis shoes in return. "I didn't know what wrong Dillard had done, but my superiors obviously wanted him punished," Pondexter said. "Everyone knew about Robertson. He had raped inmates before and he's raped inmates since. "He would always tell us, 'If you have any loudmouths or any inmates you can't control and need to be taught a lesson, put them in the house with me.' The Booty Bandit was just one of the tools of punishment that we used." If Pondexter had a pang of doubt or pity as he and other officers directed Dillard toward Robertson's cell that day in March 1993, he does not remember it. He said he was just a grunt following the orders of his commanding officer, Sgt. Alan Decker. Questioning a superior was like questioning a coach. It wasn't something he had ever done. "To stand up for Dillard would have meant betraying the code of silence and putting my sergeant on the spot. And I wasn't going to give up my sergeant." 'They Took Something Away From Me' Eddie Dillard sits in the sparse living room of his tidy apartment in Northridge, not far from the junior college he now attends. His wife, studying to get her master's degree in psychology, works at a good-paying job. During the day, he tends to their toddler son born a year after his release from prison. He wonders if he is up to the task, wonders if he will ever stop running from that night in Robertson's cell. "They took something away from me that I can never replace. I've tried so many nights to forget about it, but the feeling just doesn't go away. Every time I'm with my wife, it comes back what he did to me. I want a close to the story. I want some salvation. But it keeps going on and on." His words tumble out in a strong voice, and he is not past anger and tears. He said he has committed the names of each of the officers, what they did and failed to do, to memory. He has named four officers as defendants in a lawsuit against the state set for trial this fall. His account is backed up by Pondexter, corrections investigative reports, state agents and the statements Robertson made to investigators. With the exception of Pondexter, none of the named officers, including Decker, responded to requests for interviews. But in court papers, they deny any wrongdoing and their attorney in the civil case said he would wait until the trial to tell their side. Dillard had been at Corcoran about a week when he was told: "Roll up your crap, you're moving." Officer Anthony Sylva and another officer escorted him from one section of the SHU to the other, he said. Along the way, they informed him that his new cellmate would be Robertson. "I told them, 'You can't put me in there. This guy's my enemy. He's a sexual predator.' " A few years earlier, at another prison, Dillard had spurned Robertson's sexual advances, and this led to a fight. Dillard so feared Robertson that he listed him as an enemy in his personal file. Under prison policy, this alone should have precluded any move into Robertson's cell. Dillard said Sylva responded: "It's happening. Since you like hitting women, we've got somebody for you." During the move, they were met by Pondexter and Sgt. Decker. Dillard said he lodged more protests, but no one would listen, and he was led to Robertson's cell. As soon as the door clanged shut, Robertson began to lecture him. He was there because Decker thought he needed to be "taught a lesson on how to do your time," Robertson told him, according to internal reports. You know better than to be kicking a female officer, he said. Dillard tried to appeal to Robertson's street loyalties, reminding him that they came from the same neighborhood. But he said Robertson would hear none of it. The lights went out and the 230-pound Robertson grabbed at him. Dillard, who weighed 120 pounds, fought back but Robertson was too powerful. He said he pounded on the cell door, banged at it in a way that the guards surely must have heard, but nobody ever came as he was raped. "It's not something you can forget. That shame kind of holds you. It's not like going out and getting hit by a car or something and then a couple of days later you can say, 'Yeah, I got hit by a car and survived.' This is kind of something different. It's like your life is on the line. It feels like you're being killed. Just slowly." When the guards finally did arrive, it was hours too late. Dillard said he told them his life was in danger and hinted that he had been sexually assaulted. He was not more explicit because that would have been snitching, grounds for Robertson to kill him. He said Officer Joe Sanchez laughed in his face and told him, "You can hit a woman but you can't fight him back?" Over the next two days, Dillard said, he was raped again and again. When the cell door later opened, Dillard ran out and refused to go back in. Officer Michael Coziahr was the only one who showed any interest in what had happened to him, Dillard said. Coziahr got Dillard to admit that he had been raped and called a medical technician to examine him, according to investigative reports. Coziahr walked up to Robertson's cell, noticed him smiling, took down his admission. "Yeah, I punked him," he said Robertson told him. Robertson later marveled how Dillard kept his pride during the assault and didn't snitch. Of course, he had no choice. "I could have broke his neck," Robertson told investigators. Coziahr was angry and hand-carried his report to Sgt. Jeff Jones, but no internal inquiry was ever done, according to investigative reports. Coziahr said a frustrated Jones told him, "What do you want me to do with this? Nobody wants to do anything about it." Dillard was supposed to be transferred to an outside hospital for a full rape examination, but the orders were canceled by an unknown officer, the reports show. Moved to a different cell, Dillard began scrawling out on a sheet of paper the germ of his lawsuit. He said Decker came by and told him to stop making noise or he would be sent back to Robertson's cell. "No one cared because I was a convicted criminal," Dillard said. "I somehow deserved it. Society don't care what happens behind bars." Dillard said he understands the impulse to conceal. He said he learned from six years in prison that guards were their own gang, with a peculiar language and walk and code. "They have that same camaraderie as street gangs, the same silence." But the tall black officer named Pondexter, who came up to his cell after that first night and politely listened to his complaints but did nothing, somehow troubles him even more than those who laughed in his face. "I felt like this man is black and he knows what these officers are doing and he is condoning it just by saying nothing," he said. "I try to rationalize it. He probably needs that job. He don't need the pressure from his peers. I ask all these questions but I can never find the answers." A Conscience Turned Numb Roscoe Pondexter says Dillard does not know what he knows or where he has been. Not even his own wife, a prison guard herself, fully understands the four years he spent inside the twisted world of the Corcoran SHU, how his conscience turned numb over time, almost imperceptibly, bit by bit. "You let your conscience take a walk, Roscoe," his wife, Doris, tries to explain for him. "You did that to survive. You were a foot soldier. It was the guys above, the Hitlers, who were the architects and sent down the orders." "I didn't have a conscience, Doris," he says, shaking his head. He was a company man. When he joined up at Corcoran, he said, his superiors confronted him with a choice. You'll never be trusted until you give us something we can hold over your head. You bleed and we'll bleed. They taught him pressure points and control holds. How to administer pain and straighten out an inmate without a bruise left behind. When an inmate rubbed feces all over his body or masturbated in front of a female officer, Pondexter would be called in to counsel. "The counseling session was all about context, what will be tolerated and what will not be tolerated. It was all about control." By his way of thinking, he drew a line and never crossed it. Not once, he said, did he ever beat an inmate or use anything but the force necessary to secure a situation. Once the handcuffs were on, it was over. He said he saw too many officers who got a kick out of gratuitously beating or torturing inmates. He remembers no turning point, no epiphanies where his eyes suddenly opened and he saw the light. But a few incidents in 1994 and 1995 do stand out. He recalled the inmates who had just arrived from Calipatria Prison, where they had cut an officer's face. Pondexter said their introduction to Corcoran was being forced to stand barefooted on the scorching asphalt until they collapsed from third-degree burns. Like all the abuse he witnessed, he said, this one was covered up too. Officers told the medical staff that the injuries occurred while the inmates were playing handball. "One of the guys had no bottoms of his feet left," Pondexter said. "It was the biggest lie ever told." He recalled one beating that a group of officers administered to a convicted child killer in front of several supervisors. The beating was provoked by one supervisor who displayed photographs of the young murder victim -- the inmate's own son. "He kicked him to death with steel-toed boots and threw his body in a dumpster," Pondexter said. "The first photo was of the boy smiling and riding a horse at some party. The second photo was his autopsy. The guys went nuts and beat him down right there in the committee room. "I watched the whole thing. I wasn't swinging on the guy, but I was right there. I did nothing to stop it because I thought the guy deserved it. I kept my mouth shut. I knew how to keep my mouth shut." And then there was the rape of Dillard. Last year, a special team of corrections investigators tried to make a case against seven officers and supervisors for aiding and covering up the attack. They had the statements of Dillard and Officer Coziahr and an admission from Robertson, who had a dozen prior rapes documented in his prison file. But Pondexter was among those officers who refused to talk, and the local prosecutor declined to take the case to the grand jury. Two of the officers were later promoted. Now the FBI is investigating, and Pondexter has agreed to cooperate, recently telling his account of the rape and cover-up to a federal grand jury in Fresno. "Pondexter is probably the most stand-up officer to come forward," said a federal source involved in the case. Lessons of Character It is Father's Day 1998, and the pastor at a Baptist church in northeast Fresno is delivering a stemwinder about the value of a good name and how to redeem the reputation tarnished. "I'd rather be poor with a good name than rich with no name at all," Pastor Chester McGensy booms. "The character of your name. What you do when your family isn't watching. It's worth more than gold." He asks those who have strayed to come to the front of the cavernous hall, and Pondexter stands high above them, head bowed and shaven, polished clean. After the service, he is greeted by those who remember him as one of the finest basketball players to ever come out of Fresno. A few of them know about his time at Corcoran, how it ended with him being fired for what Pondexter describes as little more than a sanctioned counseling session, something he had done a hundred times. "Roscoe has rebuilt his good family name," the pastor says. "He's made his wife, his parents and his children proud of him." Back at home, Pondexter is asked what he would do if the clock was turned back five years and Eddie Dillard was pleading with him again from the other side of the bars. There's a long pause. "That's a hard question to answer. First, I believe God has forgiven me, and I forgave myself. I did what I had to do at the time to be a good correctional officer. What do you do to stop it? You're part of it, man. I probably would have talked to Dillard straight. And I probably would have never let them put him in that cell in the first place." Copyright Los Angeles Times
------------------------------------------------------------------- Alice's Brownies (A Letter To The Editor Of 'The San Francisco Chronicle' Notes Alice B. Toklas's 'Cannabis-Spiked Brownies' Didn't Make Her Famous - Her Recipe Was For 'Haschich Fudge') Date: Mon, 6 Jul 1998 15:12:59 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US CA: PUB LTE: Alice's Brownies Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Frank S. World) Pubdate: Mon, 06 Jul 1998 Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/ ALICE'S BROWNIES Editor -- In Wednesday's Chronicle staff writer Elaine Herscher wrote that Alice B. Toklas's ``cannabis-spiked brownies'' made her famous. Not true. Ms. Toklas's recipe was for haschich (sic) fudge, ``which anyone could whip upon a rainy day.'' She cautioned, however, that ``it should be eaten with care.'' Herb Caen made the same error in his column many years ago, and after I pointed this out to him he wrote that he ``would question whether it's fudge at all, the ingredients being peppercorns, nutmeg, cinnamon, coriander, stoned dates (``was Miss Toklas making a joke here?'' Herb asked), etc.'' Ms. Toklas is equally well-known for not being the author of her own autobiography. ROBERT ORNDUFF, Berkeley
------------------------------------------------------------------- Shhh! We Don't Discuss The Drug Biz Here ('Time' Magazine Notes Milwaukee Mayor John Norquist Has Put The Kibosh On Any Substantive Discussion Of A New Study About The Inner-City Drug Trade By Criminologist John Hagedorn Of The University Of Illinois At Chicago) Date: Sun, 12 Jul 1998 14:55:34 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US WI: Shhh! We Don't Discuss The Drug Biz Here Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Patrick Henry and Marcus-Mermelstein Family Source: Time Magazine Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.time.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 6 Jul 1998 Author: Wendy Cole SHHH! WE DON'T DISCUSS THE DRUG BIZ HERE Criminologist John Hagedorn of the University of Illinois at Chicago fully expected his new study on the inner-city drug trade would provoke debate. The main contention, based on extensive research in two poor Milwaukee neighborhoods, is that dealers should be regarded as "innovative" and "entrepreneurial" and that their "work" is driven by economics, not immorality. But Milwaukee mayor John Norquist has essentially put the kibosh on any substantive discussion of the professor's controversial ideas among city officials and policymakers by calling the report "twisted" and the product of "drug-addled minds." Though Hagedorn figured critics would try to label him as soft on crime, he was initially shocked by the ferocity of Norquist's attack. He explained to TIME that his intention was to show that "we can't solve the drug problem without recognizing its economic dimensions." Indeed, it is difficult to dismiss the report as simply the work of an ivory-tower leftist apologist. Its publisher? The conservative Wisconsin Policy Research Institute. *** Date: Mon, 13 Jul 1998 16:44:25 -0700 (PDT) From: turmoil (email@example.com) To: Darral Good (firstname.lastname@example.org) cc: email@example.com Subject: Re: HT: ART: Time Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Nice find Darral. And if anyone wants to read the actual report, I located it in PDF format at http://www.wpri.org/Vol11no5.pdf The truth cannot be hidden forever. Turmoil
------------------------------------------------------------------- New York City Judge's Likeness Featured On Heroin Packets ('Reuters' Says Drug Dealers Have Decorated Thousands Of $10 Bags Of Heroin With The Likeness Of New York State Supreme Court Judge Leslie Crocker Snyder, Known For Meting Out Tough Sentences To Gang Members) Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 20:02:28 -0400 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US NY: WIRE: NYC judge's likeness featured on heroin packets Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: isenberd@DynCorp.com (Isenberg, David) Source: Reuters Pubdate: 6 Jul 1998 Author: Jeanne King NYC JUDGE'S LIKENESS FEATURED ON HEROIN PACKETS NEW YORK (Reuters) - A New York City judge has a dubious new honor. Drug dealers have decorated thousands of $10 bags of heroin with the likeness of State Supreme Court Judge Leslie Crocker Snyder, known for meting out tough sentences to members of murderous drug gangs, officials said on Monday. Imprinted on glassine envelopes containing a type of heroin nicknamed ``25 to Life'' is a masked man clad in prison garb, standing before a robed judge with flowing blond hair. The heroin bags with Snyder's likeness first turned up two months ago in a raid by federal drug agents. Snyder, who has presided over dozens of drug gang-related trials since 1985, said she was ``stunned.'' ``I guess it's good to make an impression on criminals, one way or another, even though this is not the way I would have chosen,'' Snyder said on Monday during a recess in a trial involving an alleged heroin gang called Champion Crew. The package illustration even shows her in a characteristic pose, leaning her head on her hand while listening to testimony, a glass of water next to her. Snyder has presided over major cases involving the Colombian Cali cartel and the Wild Cowboys gang. In the Wild Cowboys case, nine gang members were convicted of running a multi-million dollar cocaine operation and several murders. Threats against Snyder's life are not uncommon, her clerk said, and she has had full-time security since 1994. Anyone entering Snyder's courtroom is inspected by armed officers, even after passing through a courthouse metal detector. Robert Silbering, a former state special narcotics prosecutor, said drug dealers commonly give names to different types of heroin but that this is the first time he recalls them using a judge's likeness to help market their goods. REUTERS
------------------------------------------------------------------- DC Initiative 59 To Appear On November Ballot (A News Release From Colorado Citizens for Compassionate Cannabis Notes Volunteers In Washington, DC, Have Filed Enough Signatures To Put A Local Medical Marijuana Measure Before Voters) Date: Tue, 21 Jul 1998 11:46:02 -0600 (MDT) From: "Colo. Cannabis" (email@example.com) To: "Colo. Hemp Init. Project" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: DC Init. 59 to Appear on Nov. Ballot July 6, 1998 D.C. MEDICAL MARIJUANA PETITIONS TURNED IN Initiative 59 to be on the November Ballot Washington, DC -- Organizers for DC's Ballot Initiative 59 submitted petition sheets containing some 32,000 signatures to the DC Board of Elections and Ethics on Monday, July 6, 1998. Measure 59, which will be placed on the upcoming general election ballot on November 3, proposes to protect persons with serious and terminal illnesses such as cancer, glaucoma, and advanced stages of AIDS, if they are told by their doctor to use small amounts of marijuana to ease their suffering. DC AIDS activist Steve Michael, Initiative 59's original sponsor, transferred the Measure to his partner of 7 years, Wayne Turner, the day before he entered the Intensive Care Unit of the Washington Hospital Center. "You have to keep going on the Initiative," Michael instructed, "just in case I don't make it." Steve Michael, 42, died from AIDS four weeks later, on May 25. A determined group of local activists vigorously hit the streets, gathering the signatures of at least 5% of DC registered voters, a total 16,997, in order to place Initiative 59 on the November ballot. "This campaign for Initiative 59 has been nothing less than an act of love," states Wayne Turner, of the AIDS advocacy group ACT UP/DC. "From everyone who circulated the petitions to those who signed, there is compassion, and hope for the sick and dying." In order to qualify Initiative 59 for the November election ballot, at least 5% of the total number of District registered voters, representing at least five of the eight wards, need to sign petitions. Activists have verified more than 18,000 valid signatures for Initiative 59, matching names and addresses based upon the District's own voter rolls. According to I-59's calculations, the minimal amount has been exceeded in 6 of the District's 8 Wards. "Our local, grassroots campaign, funded on a shoestring budget, proves that democracy is alive and well here in the District of Columbia." adds Turner. "We're going to win in November!" The group's earlier effort, Initiative 57, fell short last year of the requisite signature requirement, prompting an ongoing lawsuit challenging DC's inflated voter rolls. Special thanks to the DC Green Party, with support from the Whitman-Walker Clinic, and the African American Catholic Congregation, and all our volunteers! *** Note from CCCC: The AIDS activists in DC have scored a huge victory on behalf of patients and grassroots patient advocates. The Yes on 59 Campaign deserves all the support you can give. Please forward this message to discussion groups, the Usenet, or other interested parties. Donations can be made to: Yes on 59 Campaign 409 H Street N.E. - Suite #1 Washington, D.C. 20002-4335 Phone: (202) 547-9404 Fax: (202) 547-9448 For more information on the DC campaign, see: http://www.actupdc.org http://www.levellers.org/dcstat.html *** Photos of Steve Michael's Political Funeral - June 4, 1998 http://www.sinkers.org/actupdc_funeral/index.html http://www.actupny.org/reports/SteveMichael.html *** Distributed by: Colorado Citizens for Compassionate Cannabis P.O. Box 729 Nederland, CO 80466 Phone: (303) 784-5632 Email: email@example.com Web: http://www.levellers.org/cannabis.html
------------------------------------------------------------------- Marijuana Might Protect Brain, Study Finds (The 'Reuters' Version Of Recent News About Scientists At The National Institute Of Mental Health Who Have Reported In 'The Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences' That Cannabidiol And THC, The Only Two Cannabinoids Tested, Could Prevent Cell Damage In The Brain When Oxygen Is Cut Off, As Happens In A Stroke) 12:10 PM ET 07/06/98 Marijuana might protect brain, study finds WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Some of the chemicals in marijuana may protect the brain from the damage caused by injuries and stroke, researchers reported Monday. The chemicals, known as cannabinoids, work independently of marijuana's better-known effects, which include a dreamy state, distortion of the senses and a euphoric feeling known as a ''high,'' Aidan Hampson and colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health found. Writing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Hampson's team said cannabinoids could block the effects of other chemicals that kill cells when oxygen is cut off -- which is what happens in a stroke caused by a blood clot. Hampson's findings were made using brain cells from fetal rats in a test-tube, so they are a long way from any tests on humans. But he said the results were intriguing. The two cannabinoids tested are cannabidiol and THC -- the active ingredient in marijuana that causes its psychoactive effects. They are already known to have other effects, too. They can relieve nausea and are used for this by AIDS patients and patients taking strong drugs for cancer. They can relieve pain and they also relieve pressure on the eye sometimes and have been tested against glaucoma, for instance. There is also evidence they worked to protect nerve cells against damage. Hampson's team tested this idea. In a stroke, blood flow is blocked by a clot. Cells release huge amounts of glutamate, a neurotransmitter or message-carrying chemical. This overstimulates nerve cells and kills them. Chemicals known as antioxidants can block this effect, but so can cannabinoids, Hampson's team wrote. They said cannabidiol seemed an especially promising candidate. REUTERS
------------------------------------------------------------------- Pot Substance May Stay Strokes (Version In The Everett, Washington, 'Herald') Date: Mon, 13 Jul 1998 15:36:02 -0700 (PDT) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Darral Good) To: email@example.com Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org FROM THE HERALD NEWS SERVICES email@example.com POT SUBSTANCE MAY STAY STROKES July 6th 1998 A substance in marijuana that does not have any mind altering effects may be useful for protecting the brain from the damaging effects of stroke and disease. Scientists from the National Institutes of Mental Health found that cannabidiol appears to protect the brain cells of rats in experiments in the laboratory, performing better that antioxidant vitamins C and E. The findings suggest that the substance may be useful from protecting the brain from strokes as well as brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Science Notebook (A Brief 'Washington Post' Version) Date: Thu, 9 Jul 1998 11:08:06 EDT Errors-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: Gettman_J@mediasoft.net Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: Re: W. Post on cannabis/stroke http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1998-07/06/063l-070698-idx.html Washington Post 7/6/98 SCIENCE NOTEBOOK Compiled from reports by Rob Stein and Joby Warrick. Monday, July 6, 1998; Page A02 BRAIN CHEMISTRY: Marijuana's Preventive Properties A substance in marijuana that does not have any mind-altering effects may be useful for protecting the mind from the damaging effects of stroke and disease. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health found that cannabidiol appears to protect the brain cells of rats in experiments in the laboratory, according to a report in the July 7 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Aidan J. Hampson and his colleagues put cannabidiol into laboratory dishes with rat brain cells that had been exposed to toxic levels of a brain chemical called glutamate. Strokes can cause the release of levels of glutamate that overstimulate and kill brain cells. So-called antioxidants can protect against this process. In the experiments, cannabidiol did exactly that, performing better than vitamins C and E. The findings suggest, the scientists say, that the substance may be useful for protecting the brain from strokes, as well as brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cannabis Cuts Brain Damage ('The New Zealand Herald' Version) Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 17:52:20 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US: Cannabis Cuts Brain Damage Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: David.Hadorn@vuw.ac.nz (David Hadorn) Source: New Zealand Herald (Auckland) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: 6 July 1998 CANNABIS CUTS BRAIN DAMAGE LONDON - Extracts of the marijuana plant might one day be prescribed to stroke victims to prevent brain damage, if new findings by United States scientists are converted into medical practice. The US National Institute for Mental Health in Maryland has discovered that active components in cannabis act to prevent damage to brain tissue placed in laboratory dishes. Results of the experiments, to be published this week in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reveal an unexpected potential use for a drug long believed to have medicinal properties. Stroke victims suffer a blood clot which starves brain cells of glucose and oxygen and sets off a cascade of chemical reactions which destroy cells. The US study, led by biologist Dr Aidan Hampson, found that marijuana compounds THC and cannabidiol blocked this destructive process. The results suggest that cannabidiol could also become a treatment for other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. "We have something that passes the brain barrier easily, has low toxicity and appears to be working in animal trials - so I think we have a good chance," Dr Hampson said. Cannabis is already known to suppress nausea during chemotherapy, relieve pain and muscle spasms for multiple sclerosis sufferers and reduce pressure on the eye in cases of glaucoma. - AAP
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cannabis May Limit Damage From Strokes (Version In Britain's 'Independent') Date: Tue, 07 Jul 1998 23:34:08 -0400 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US: Cannabis May Limit Damage From Strokes Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Martin Cooke (email@example.com) Source: Independent, The (UK) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.independent.co.uk/ Pubdate: 6 Jul 1998 Author: Steve Connor, Science Editor CANNABIS MAY LIMIT DAMAGE FROM STROKES Cannabis could protect brain cells against the effects of a stroke and may help to slow the mental deterioration associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Scientists have found that a component of marijuana acts as a powerful antioxidant in the brain which can prevent cells being damaged when a blood vessel in the head becomes blocked during a stroke. Experiments revealed that cannabidiol, which is a harmless constituent of marijuana and does not produce a ''high'', is a more powerful antioxidant than vitamins C and D, which are known to neutralise the highly damaging free radicals released during a stroke. Dr Aidan Hampson, a British-born researcher at the United States National Institute of Mental Health, near Washington DC, said the discovery could eventually lead to a treatment for stroke based on the cannabis plant. ''We have reason to believe we are on to a good thing here. Cannabidiol was given to humans in large doses in other clinical trials with no significant adverse effects,'' Dr Hampson said. ''We could synthesise it and administer it to patients as a pill, in an inhaler or even as a suppository, although that would not be as popular. It is non-psychoactive which makes it particularly useful." The research, which is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, also found that the mind-altering ingredient of cannabis - tetrahyrocannabinol (THC) - also behaved as a potent antioxidant which protected brain cells against the sort of oxygen starvation caused by a stroke. The US National Academy of Sciences, which publishes the proceedings, said: ''These findings suggest that cannabidiol may be a promising treatment for stroke and other neurological disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, [which are] also thought to involve oxidative damage." Dr Hampson said that when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked a complex set of reactions takes place that culminates in the power houses of the cell, called mitochondria, pumping out free radicals. When he exposed the nerve cells of laboratory animals to cannabidiol he found it significantly reduced the damage resulting from the release of free radicals. The dose levels were similar to those known to be safe in humans. ''These are the very first results and I would be surprised if we get through all the stages of drug trials for humans in less than five or six years,'' Dr Hampson said. However, the research findings do not explain whether people who smoke cannabis are less likely to suffer ill effects following a stroke. ''We don't know whether smoking produces these levels of cannabidiol,'' he said.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Losing The Drug War ('Calgary Sun' Columnist Bill Kaufmann Writes About Vancouver, British Columbia, Police Constable Gil Puder, Who Now Opposes The War On Some Drug Users) From: email@example.com (Matt Elrod) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Canada: Losing the drug war Date: Mon, 06 Jul 1998 09:49:00 -0700 Lines: 91 Newshawk: email@example.com Source: Calgary Sun Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: July 6, 1998 Author: BILL KAUFMANN -- Calgary Sun LOSING THE DRUG WAR CRIMINALIZED USERS ARE DEHUMANIZED WHILE WEALTHY DEALERS TAKE SMARMY REFUGE Gil Puder has waged the war on drugs and seen its failure and attendant propaganda for what it is. For Puder, it's impossible to ignore -- he's a Vancouver police constable on the un-winnable conflict's frontline. The trophies showcased by narcotics officers -- their drug seizures -- are astutely identified by Puder as flags of failure. If the strategy of realizing a relatively drug-free society were working, such exhibitionism would be infinitely more infrequent. But for now, the tip of the iceberg show-and-tell is one way to justify their budgets. It's only one observation in a compelling recent presentation Puder made to the conservative Fraser Institute. The entire police ethos and the mandate to serve and protect has been compromised and tainted by the counterproductive assault on liberty, personal choice and addiction, writes Puder. "The tactics, weaponry and propaganda of our 20th century narcotic prohibition have been borrowed from a western military model, yet in their misguided application have generated nothing other than systemic conflict that has overwhelmed our justice and health-care systems," says Puder. Certainly, police anti-drug strategies are a product of discredited legislation, but Puder is clearly repelled by the attitudes and tactics of his colleagues. An atmosphere of cowboy machismo focused on compiling arrest statistics with little hope of concrete progress is a hallmark of the narcotics' units' world, he says. Dehumanizing and arresting the criminalized users while wealthy dealers take smarmy refuge behind their money and lawyers is the daily dichotomy, he adds. "With fiscal restraint and 'fear of crime' combining to place enormous and often unrealistic expectations on police services, it's easy to be pessimistic that open-mindedness will be rediscovered soon," he laments. He sees the lives of citizens and fellow-officers being risked needlessly to a culture of violence created by a lucrative black market fueled by prohibition. In 1984, Puder tasted the horror when he shot to death an addict robbing a bank, armed with a replica gun. The four-year head of the Calgary Police Services' drug unit dismisses Puder as "absolutely out to lunch." Puder, adds Staff Sgt. Mike Cullen, would find little sympathy among most officers, something the maverick cop would undoubtedly wear as a badge of honor. But at the same time, Cullen agrees the war on drugs is a futile one -- with the resources being allocated now. "He may be right on that point -- it's not working," says Cullen, who attended the Fraser Institute conference. Part of Cullen's solution: More money for enforcement. But considering the American experience of pouring tens of billions of dollars down prohibition's black hole, it's a dubious proposition. To be fair, Cullen also champions two other prongs -- harm reduction and education. Whether law enforcement compliments them is questionable. "There's no easy answer," says the staff sergeant. In the meantime, money and energy that could be used for education, treatment and other policy alternatives will continue to be wasted on our streets. Copyright (c) 1998, Canoe Limited Partnership.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Awaiting Trial - American's Two Years In Latin Jail ('The Christian Science Monitor' Says James Williams, A Fish Importer From Jacksonville, Florida, Has Been Held In A Prison In Ecuador Without Trial For Nearly Two Years In What He Says Began As A Campaign By FBI Agents To Pressure Him Into Testifying Against A Suspected Drug Trafficker) Date: Wed, 8 Jul 1998 13:58:01 -0700 (PDT) From: Ben (email@example.com) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: HT: More Drug War Atrocities - spread the word (fwd) Sender: email@example.com ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Sun, 5 Jul 1998 18:59:52 +0000 From: Jay Stewart (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: More Drug War Atrocities - spread the word MONDAY, JULY 6, 1998 Awaiting Trial - American's Two Years In Latin Jail Warren Richey Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor MIAMI - A fish importer from Jacksonville, Fla., has been held in a prison in Ecuador without trial for nearly two years in what he says began as a campaign by FBI agents to pressure him into testifying against a suspected drug trafficker. In the United States such punishment without due process of law would be a violation of constitutional rights. But James Williams is not in the United States. And US officials say they have no intention of interfering in the sovereign workings of the Ecuadoran justice system. International law experts say Mr. Williams is stuck in a kind of constitutional twilight zone, where American drug agents working behind the scenes through Ecuadoran proxies could do almost anything they want to increase the pressure on an imprisoned US citizen. Long wait: James Williams, a US citizen, has been in an Ecuadoran jail since 1996. He insists he's done no wrong. (Photo courtesy of Robin Williams) "It comes down to this issue: Whether the US government can prompt foreign governments to do things that the fourth, fifth, and sixth amendments [to the US Constitution] would forbid our government from doing," says Christopher Blakesley, a law professor at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. "They think that now the way they can resolve all the constitutional problems they face is to get foreign countries to do their dirty work." The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and federal prosecutors deny any wrongdoing. They insist Williams's situation in Ecuador is the result of independent actions taken by Ecuadoran officials without US involvement. In a November 1997 letter to a member of Congress, DEA chief Thomas Constantine wrote in part: "The investigation itself was conducted unilaterally by the Ecuadoran National Police Narcotics Division." Court documents tell a different story. A letter found in a court file by Williams's lawyer suggests the DEA requested the Williams investigation and his eventual arrest in Ecuador. And a State Department report acknowledges that the investigation was conducted with US assistance. Mr. Constantine insists that the DEA letter was written simply in response to a request by Ecuadoran officials for information about Williams. The case raises fundamental questions of how much due-process protection Williams should get. In 1957, the Supreme Court ruled that constitutional protections under the Bill of Rights apply when US citizens face US government law-enforcement action in foreign countries. "When the government reaches out to punish a citizen who is abroad, the shield which the Bill of Rights and other parts of the Constitution provide to protect his life and liberty should not be stripped away just because he happens to be in another land," the ruling says in part. Experts say the Williams case takes the issue into a new area - one the court hasn't addressed. "What rights does an American citizen have when a foreign jurisdiction has acted at the behest of the United States? The answer is none," says Wilmer Parker, a defense lawyer in Atlanta and a former federal prosecutor. Origins of the case Williams's ordeal began in April 1996, when he was contacted by FBI agents seeking his testimony. The agents told him that one of his fish suppliers in Colombia, Josť Castrillon, was a drug trafficker. They wanted Williams to testify against him. Williams said that as far as he knew, Mr. Castrillon was a legitimate fish seller. He said he had no knowledge of drug trafficking or any other illegal operations. The agents didn't believe him. Williams invited the agents to investigate his business, including the traceable wire transfers used in all his financial dealings with Castrillon. He turned over more than five boxes of business records, according to his lawyer. Prison life: James Williams awaits trial in this Ecuador jail. He has been in prison since 1996 and says the US is pressuring him to testify against a suspected drug dealer. (Photo courtesy of Robin Williams) By July 1996, Williams hadn't heard from the FBI and wanted to finish a pending project in Ecuador. His lawyer checked with the FBI and was told that the bureau had no objection to Williams traveling to Ecuador. A month later, on Aug. 14, 1996, a DEA agent based in Ecuador wrote a letter to Ecuadoran counter-narcotics officials in which he identified James Williams and five other men as being members of a "narcotrafficking organization." The letter does not say Williams is a suspect, rather it says that investigations have "established" his membership in the criminal organization. No specific evidence is offered. The letter concludes with a request that Williams and the others be investigated "and steps be taken, as the case may require, for the purposes of disarming this international drug-trafficking organization." When Williams arrived in Ecuador in September 1996, he assumed the FBI had investigated him and that he was free to continue conducting his fish business. But within days of his arrival, he was arrested by Ecuadoran narcotics policemen. He says he was interrogated for three days before anyone was allowed to see him. Two weeks after his arrest, Williams's lawyer in the US, Isaac Mitrani, says he received a call from an FBI agent. The agent wondered if Williams was ready now to cooperate, and if so, federal agents could help him get out of prison in Ecuador. Williams refused, saying all he wanted to do was tell the truth. Mr. Mitrani says the FBI called back a month later, this time saying that Panama would soon file charges against Williams, and if necessary, try him in absentia. If he was inclined to cooperate, now was the time to do it, the agent said, according to Mitrani. Charges were eventually filed in Panama against Williams, but in late June a Panamanian judge threw them out for lack of evidence. Meanwhile, Williams remains imprisoned in Ecuador. The DEA works closely with Ecuadoran antinarcotics officials. Human-rights workers familiar with the political situation say US officials actually helped draft Ecuador's tough antidrug law, which, for example, prohibits bail for anyone like Williams who is arrested in a narcotics case. 'It is really some high-handed and pretty scary behavior on the part of the US government.' - Joseph McNamara, a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and a former police chief In addition, US drug agents are well aware of the conditions that an American or any other suspect would face once arrested in Ecuador. A US State Department human-rights report released earlier this year paints a sober picture: * "The most fundamental human-rights abuse stems from shortcomings in the politicized, inefficient, and corrupt legal and judicial system. People are subject to arbitrary arrest; once incarcerated, they may wait years before being convicted or acquitted unless they pay bribes." * "Those [judges] charged with determining the validity of detention often allowed frivolous charges to be brought, either because they were overworked or because the accuser bribed them. In many instances, the system was used as a means of harassment in civil cases in which one party sought to have the other arrested on criminal charges." * "Police continue to physically mistreat suspects and prisoners, usually with impunity.... Victims reported that the police beat them, burned them with cigarettes, applied electric shocks, or threatened them psychologically." Going it alone Instead of cooperating with the FBI and accepting FBI help to get out of Ecuador, Williams attempted to fight back. He hired a lawyer in Ecuador. He set up a Web site to publicize his plight. His wife, Robin, appealed to members of Congress. The campaign gained some momentum in Washington, but never got close to sparking oversight hearings in either the House or Senate judiciary committees. A further setback for Williams and his supporters came on June 1, when federal prosecutors in Tampa unsealed a superseding indictment of Castrillon that named Williams as a co-conspirator. The indictment says Williams acted as a cocaine smuggler, cocaine distributor, and money launderer. But it cites no specific illegal acts by Williams. Prosecutors declined to discuss the evidence against Williams. There is no legal requirement that the evidence presented to the grand jury be disclosed in an indictment. If he is convicted of the US conspiracy charges, Williams faces up to life in prison and $4 million in fines. In Ecuador, he faces roughly eight years in prison if convicted. In an interview conducted by telephone from prison, Williams says he wants only one thing - the chance to defend himself in a US courtroom. He says he is confident that once a US jury hears all the evidence in his case, he will be acquitted. "All Robin and I have ever asked for is an opportunity to present the truth. It can't happen here [in Ecuador]. I will be condemned here without any proof or evidence," Williams says. Williams says he believes he was indicted because his case was beginning to attract interest among some members of Congress. Federal prosecutors say his indictment was the decision of a federal grand jury. At first, Williams says, he and his supporters welcomed the indictment because they thought he would be returned to the US to stand trial with Castrillon. But prosecutors in Tampa say that Williams must complete his Ecuador case before being returned to face the US charges. As a result of his ordeal in Ecuador, Williams has been imprisoned since September 1996. He has lost his business, his life savings, and a significant portion of his extended family's life savings. He is yet to be arraigned in a US court of law. "It is really some high-handed and pretty scary behavior on the part of the US government," says Joseph McNamara, a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and a former police chief. Williams's supporters say even if he ever gets his day in US court, he may be unable to pay for an effective defense. "In my opinion they don't want me back in the United States right now because I don't know anything that would hurt Castrillon, and there is a good possibility that I might say something that could help Castrillon," Williams says. "All we are asking is to bring him home and give him his right to constitutional protections and a fair trial," says Mr. Mitrani. The URL for this page is: http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1998/07/06/fp1s4-csm.htm (c) Copyright 1997, 1998 The Christian Science Publishing Society. All rights reserved.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Heroin Users Are Younger - Survey (According To 'The Age' In Australia, The Victorian Drug Trends 1997 Report Indicates Heroin use Is Increasing In Melbourne, And Users Are Younger And Increasingly Female - Although Many Addicts Say Heroin Is More Easily Available And Getting Cheaper, Supposedly 'Addicts Are Using More Potent Cocktails Of Drugs, Including Anti-Depressants,' But It Doesn't Explain Why, Since It Takes Weeks For Most Anti-Depressants To Affect People Who Are Prescribed Them) Date: Mon, 06 Jul 1998 23:33:01 -0400 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: Australia: Heroin Users Are Younger: Survey Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Russell.Ken.KW@bhp.com.au (Russell, Ken KW) Pubdate: Mon, 6 Jul 1998 Source: Age, The (Australia) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.theage.com.au/ Author: Mary-Anne Toy HEROIN USERS ARE YOUNGER: SURVEY Heroin use is increasing in Melbourne, with a new study showing an alarming trend for users to be younger and female. The Victorian Drug Trends 1997 report, the most comprehensive assessment of illicit drug use in the state, reveals that heroin may no longer be regarded as a ``hard drug'' by the drug community. It shows that addicts are using more potent cocktails of drugs, including anti-depressants. The report was compiled for the federal Department of Health and Family Services from a survey of 254 injecting drug users in May and July 1997 and from interviews with police, ambulance and social workers. The researchers were Dr Greg Rumbold and Mr Craig Fry, of the Turning Point centre in Fitzroy. Dr Rumbold has called for more investigation of several trends, including the increase in heroin use, the increase in younger and female users and multiple drug use. Tobacco, cannabis and heroin were the most common combinations, with a significant increase in the use of anti-depressants and benzodiazepines (tranquillisers such as Valium and Rhohypnol). The report shows that drug users are increasingly going straight to heroin rather than injecting less dangerous amphetamines first, increasing the risk of fatal overdose. Dr Rumbold said he was concerned about the apparent softening in attitudes towards heroin. ``In the past, drug users would say that they and their friends wouldn't use heroin - heroin was for losers - but now that's changed,'' he said. He speculated that this could partly be explained because heroin had become more easily available and cheaper. Most respondents said the price was stable (58 per cent), while a third said it had dropped as purity had increased. Just under two-thirds (62per cent) reported involvement in crime in the previous month and, despite most believing there had been more police activity at the time of the survey, most (65per cent) said this did not make it harder to get drugs. The survey showed that 56per cent of respondents reported that they had overdosed at least once and three-quarters had witnessed an overdose. Police, ambulance workers and youth and social workers reported an expansion of the street scene in heroin and more teenage and female users.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Dutch Foreign Affairs Ministry Report On UNGASS - Plus Appendix (A Dutch List Subscriber Posts A Translation Of The Report To The Dutch House Of Commons On The United Nations' Recent Special Session In New York To Expand The Global War On Some Drug Users - Plus A Passage From The Netherlands' Official Statement Presented At UNGASS On June 10) From: "mario lap" (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: "DRCTalk Reformers' Forum" (email@example.com) Subject: LONG: (2nd version translation) dutch foreign affairs ministery report on UNGASS + appendix Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 00:10:48 +0200 Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com To the Chairman of the "Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal" (dutch house of commons), July 6, The Hague , Report on SAVVN (UNGASS) drugs (June 8 - 10) The Special Session on Drugs of the General Assemby of the United Nations (UNGASS) took place in New York during the 8th - 10th of June 1998. As promised during the General Discussions with the permanent commission for Foreign Affairs of the 27th of May 1998 I now present you the report on UNGASS also on behalf of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Minister of Justice, the Minister of Internal Affairs and the Minister for Development. The opinion of the government concerning UNGASS can be found in my letters of January 26 and April 6 1998. The delegation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was lead by the undersigned in the capacity of vice pime-minister. The further delegation consisted of representatives of most related departments (Health, Justice, Internal and Foreign Affairs, one representative of Aruba (the Dutch Antilles were not represented), representatives from "the field" see my letter of May 29), members of the second chamber M.J.M Vehagen and FCGM Timmermans as well as Mrs N van den Broek of the first chamber. The UNGASS meeting was of an exceptional character for all documents presented (the political declaration, the declaration concerning guidelines for demand reduction and five action plans/resolutions on synthetic drugs, precursors, judicial cooperation, money laundering and alternative development) were already totally agreed upon through diplomatic negotations before the conference. No Party has attempted to break these negotation results open during UNGASS. Nevertheless the Special Session was regarded of great importance witness the fact of the large number of presidents (23) and government leaders (8) attending and the "broad" composition of most delegations consisting of representatives from both the legal and health fields. There was no question anymore of real negotations taking place and attention was therefore centered around the speeches. These in themselves evidentally did not produce an enequivocal picture, as the drug policies of the member states of the UN still vary greatly among each other. However, UNGASS did show that an agreement over two starting-points is growing. These starting points are the collective responsibility of production and consumption countries and, connected with that, the necessity of a well balanced approach to demand and to supply. Here the most tangible result was formed by the acceptance of the Declaration concerning Guidelines for Demand Reduction which now, for the first time, provides for a formal basis for a balanced approach. Only the interventions of some Asian countries (China, Pakistan and India among others) contained a one-sided emphasis on repression. Most traditional production countries welcomed the formal confirmation of the principle of a balanced approach to demand and supply and regarded it as an acknowledgement of the fact that production can not effectively be combatted when demand is not restricted simultaneously. Furthermore they made an urgent appeal to the Western countries, based on the principle of collective responsibility, to give financial support to programs fighting production (especially through alternative development) and transportation(Andes countries and the countries around Afghanistan in particular). They all consistentally related the drug problem in their country to wider development issues such as combatting poverty. In most speeches of Western countries the attention paid, within the subject of demand reduction, to the necessity of care and treatment for drug users, as well as of the mitigation of the negative results of drug use, was an outstanding feature. New Zealand presented the most outspoken plea for a pragmatic approach. Just as a number of other countries, such as Norway, New Zealand placed drug use in the wider context of substance use (drugs, tobacco, alcohol) in general. There was much attention for the Dutch intervention, in which the positive results of the Dutch policy were explained and a call for new strategies, based on experience from practice, was made. Dutch policy does not just fit in with the policies of the 'known' like minded (Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland), but seems to find more and more acceptance among EU partners, particularly Portugal, Italy, Austria and Belgium. Portugal made a plea for a new drug policy with ample attention for harm reduction and based on objective information instead of demagogy. Italy stated that a repressive approach of drug users showed to be ineffective in practice and that care and harm reduction represented a better strategy. Austria reported a national policy with the possibility of alternatives for prison sentences for drug users in the treatment sphere. Belgium announced the introduction of a clear distinction in the prosecution policy between soft and hard drugs. The interventions of France and Sweden distinguished themselves unfavorably, governed as they were by a repressive tone. Both countries maintained that the risks of drug use (especially of soft drugs) were mistakenly played down. It was noticeable that many interventions made a clear distinction between heroin and cocaine on the one hand and synthetic drugs on the other, considering the latter a growing danger for the future. Japan for example, reported use of synthetic drugs already to be a greater problem than traditional drugs. Except for a number of developping countries (such as Morocco and some countries from Sub-Sahara Africa), France and Sweden, member states in their interventions hardly ever mentionned cannabis use. Liberalisation/legalisation was only brought up in a few interventions. Switzerland emphasized in an extensive explanation that their heroin prescription policy is by no means to be interpreted as a first step towards legalisation. Liberalisation/legalisation was for the rest only mentionned, directly or iondirectly, in the interventions of overt opponents such as Sweden, France and Hungary, as well as by some, mostly African and Asian, developping countries. The developping countries in question accuse Western countries of inconsistency: where they demand strong measures of the developping world, they are lenient themselves concerning drug use. UNDCP, in most interventions, was rather left out in the cold. The initial purpose of UNDCP Executive Director Arlacchi was to use the momentum of UNGASS to convince the Member States to committ themselves politically and financially to SCOPE (Strategy for Coca and Opium Poppy Elimination), a strategy to totally eradicate the production of coca and poppy within ten years. As is well-known, this target had fallen by the way-side during the diplomatic negotations preceeding UNGASS. The General Assemby did not go beyond the acceptance of the principle of a world wide approach, which seems self-evident in view of the nature of the problem (as stated by the UK speaking also for the EU: "It is no use stopping opium cultivation in one place, just to see more grown elsewhere (and) we gain nothing by closing one trafficking route to see another opened"). The General Assembly, through the approval of the political declaration, did agree upon target dates for the restriction of drug production and demand as well as for the fight against money laundering. But no commitments were made for specific strategies to be followed or with regard to the necessary financial resources. At the same time the action plan for the eradication of illegal drug crops and alternative development, which stipulates conditions for the appication of the various instruments (such as alternative development, crop destruction and law enforcement) as well as the requirements to be met by alternative development programs, was agreed upon. As said before, the acceptance of the Declaration on Guidelines for Demand Reduction is the most tangible result of UNGASS. In the follow up to the UNGASS most attention will therefor probably be paid to the implications of this declaration. In the aftermath to UNGASS, UNDCP initiated a first informal meeting of experts from a select group of countries, amongst which the Netherlands, in order to study the ways in which the declaration can be applied in practice and how UNDCP can play a facilitating role in the process. The aim is to present detailed suggestions to the next meeting of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (March 1999). The Netherlands government in the mean time intends to continue on the road it has followed so far, namely making Dutch policies and the positive results obtained through them as widely understood as possible (without, for that matter, denying the problematic aspects attached to them), continuing to enter into policy discussions based on experience obtained in practice and furthering ever intenser practical cooperation, particularly with neighboring countries. The Minister of Foreign Affairs *** Annex added by sender *** The following is a passage from the Netherlands' intervention at the UNGASS in New York on 10-6-98: quote: *** Mr. President, Allow me to share with you some of the experiences of the Netherlands' demand reduction policy. Our primary aim is to protect health and social-well-being and to reduce the harm and risks associated with drug abuse. Within this context, we believe that drug users should not be criminalized for their habits, but, on the contrary, should be provided the help they need. This policy has shown some positive results. First, our policy prevents drug users from going underground, where we cannot reach them. We have identified the various user groups and we know their habits. This has enabled us to develop targeted policy measures, which are more effective. By bringing it out into the open, drug use has become less glamorous. The clearest example of this is the use of opiates. For young people in the Netherlands now, heroine is for losers. Very few of them would think of trying it. Secondly, thanks to a high standard of treatment, care and risk reduction, including methadone and needle exchange programmes, morbidity and mortality among drug users are relatively low. Such measures are also important to society in general, since they reduce the spread of infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, AIDS and Hepatitis. Now, one may ask whether our programmes do not lead to an increase in drug abuse. Our experience is that they do not. On the contrary, needle exchange programmes, for instance, have not led to more intravenous drug use, but they have led to less people sharing needles. Consequently, few addicts in the Netherlands suffer from AIDS. Mr President, Each country must bear in mind that it should not impose its system on other countries as the only right and proper one. This would deny the specific circumstances of the drug problem that vary from country to country. In regional and international discussions we must find out what is the best approach for our peoples, based on experiences and arguments. We in the Netherlands believe that we are on the right track, encouraged as we are by results and figures. We have a wealth of experience in demand reduction programmes and are willing to contribute to the further development of the guiding principles on demand reduction and their implementation. Whether the world will ever be completely free of drugs remains an open question. Control of drugs and drug related problems seems a more attainable goal. As we all know, even to reach this objective takes all the resources, both political and financial, that we can bring to bear. The Kingdom of the Netherlands stands ready to play its part. We look forward to working together with all of you. Thank you. *** unquote
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cheating At The Olympics - Should History Be Rewritten? (The Transcript Of An ABC 'Nightline' Discussion Focusing On Revelations That The East German Swim Team In The 1970s And 1980s Won So Many Gold Medals By Using Banned Performance Enhancing Drugs) Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 19:02:15 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US: Transcript: Cheating at the Olympics: Should History Be Rewritten? Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (firstname.lastname@example.org) Source: ABC News Nightline Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.abcnews.com/onair/nightline/ Pubdate: 6 Jul 1998 CHEATING AT THE OLYMPICS: SHOULD HISTORY BE REWRITTEN? (This is an unedited, uncorrected transcript.) FORREST SAWYER, ABC NEWS (VO) In the '70s and '80s, they overwhelmed their Olympic competition. EAST GERMAN LEADER The miracle about which the whole world is talking is no secret. It's called socialism. FORREST SAWYER (VO) It wasn't a miracle but it was a secret. The East German swim team was powered by banned performance enhancing drugs. RICA REINISCH We didn't think about what they gave us every day. We just accepted it. FORREST SAWYER (VO) Now, US swimmers are claiming the gold medals weren't won, they were stolen. WENDY BOLGIOLI Most of my teammates would have medals had it not been for the East German women on steroids. FORREST SAWYER (VO) Tonight, cheating at the Olympics, should history be rewritten? ANNOUNCER From ABC News, this is Nightline. Substituting for Ted Koppel and reporting from Washington, Forrest Sawyer. FORREST SAWYER It is a little like pulling a thread on a sweater, tug on it long enough and the sweater begins to unravel. So it is with the use of performance enhancing drugs in the highly competitive world of international athletics. For years there were complaints the extraordinary successes of East German athletes were powered by steroids. Only now is that claim drawing real international attention. The center of it all is a criminal trial underway in Germany charging former coaches and doctors on the women's swimming team with using steroids to further an East German state goal, winning Olympic gold to prove communism's superiority, and badly damaging the athletes' health along the way. It is suspected as many as 10,000 athletes may have been involved in the widespread program and as you might guess, some of the swimmers who came in behind the East Germans, many of them American, want the record set straight. They want the gold medals they say are rightly theirs. But it is not as simple as one country gone wrong. A member of a Czechoslovakian anti-drug commission now claims it happened there, too. Chinese women swimmers have been accused of using banned drugs and there is a growing belief that international athletics today means competing against rivals who are likely on steroids. Now, as the tale unravels in Germany, the size of the problem is gradually and disturbingly being revealed. So tonight, drugs and Olympic gold, who are the real winners and who are the cheats? Here's ABC's Sheila MacVicar. SHEILA MACVICAR, ABC NEWS (VO) This is what dreams are made of. To reach the pinnacle of sports, to pit your talent, your strength against the world's best, to compete for your country at the Olympic games, to win. RICA REINISCH, FORMER EAST GERMAN SWIMMER It was overwhelming. I couldn't grasp it. I was just so happy. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Beginning in the 1970s, there was nobody better at winning than the women who swam from East Germany. They came from nowhere and suddenly again and again they were virtually unbeatable. ULRIKE TAUBER, FORMER EAST GERMAN SWIMMER It was great. I had trained so much and when I won it was like a confirmation, a very nice feeling. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) They were East Germany's wonder girls, medal bedecked and honored, the pride of their nation. (on camera) The collapse of communism brought an end to East Germany and its medal winning dynasty. But in the thick of the cold war, the swimmers who ploughed up and down this pool in what used to be East Berlin swam not just for the glory of sport. For East Germany's leaders, their phenomenal successes were proof for all of the supremacy of socialism. But they had a secret weapon. They called it state plan 1425. (VO) It wasn't enough to find talented young athletes. The East Germans wanted performance machines. In films kept secret for 20 years, they recorded their training techniques, electric shocks to make muscles contract harder, bizarre tests to measure endurance and most important, the little blue pills. Oral-Turinabol, a growth hormone that builds muscles and makes women more like men, a steroid, a banned substance. Rica Reinisch was one of the stars of that swimming dynasty, setting world and Olympic records, winning three gold medals. She was just 15 when her coaches handed her steroids. RICA REINISCH When I asked what they were, my coach said take it. It's good for you. It will help your body to recover faster. We didn't think about what they gave us every day. We just accepted it. That's the way it was. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) The steroids had a remarkable effect. WENDY BOLGIOLI They were not great athletes, never had been, and all of a sudden, a couple years before '76, they became incredible athletes, like literally overnight. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Wendy Bolglioli was co-captain of the US swim team at the Olympics in Montreal in 1976. She watched as the East Germans took 11 of 13 gold medals, towering ahead of one of the best American women's teams ever assembled. WENDY BOLGIOLI They didn't get touched out by a tenth of a second. They got touched out by a full body length. That doesn't happen in any sport and certainly not swimming. 1ST OLYMPIC COMMENTATOR Their training programs go further, they go one step beyond ours. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Olympic commentators alternated between envy of the East German system and hinting at the truth. 2ND OLYMPIC COMMENTATOR There have been dark rumors of excessive use of steroids but none of these charges have been proved and the East Germans march on. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) But the women who competed against the East Germans had all the proof they needed. They heard their deep voices, saw the muscles in their shoulders, their performance times and knew they were cheating. When they spoke out no one wanted to listen. WENDY BOLGIOLI I got hate mail. I got more mail that said, you know, you are a sour grape American woman swimmer and you should be ashamed to be on this Olympic team. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Many suspected what the American women openly talked about but the East German athletic machine remained unchallenged for years. The secret was safe. In 1989 as the state crumbled, people stormed the archives of the secret police, hoping to preserve the files that would reveal the crimes of their government. (on camera) Amongst these thousands of files, investigators found in meticulous detail the records of East Germany's state run doping program. They recorded everything, the names of thousands of athletes and the doses of steroids they took, the schemes designed to fool international testing. There were even memos talking about what to say to curious athletes who asked too many questions. (VO) Investigators have spent years poring over the files, building a case against the doctors and coaches who gave steroids to thousands of athletes knowing they could have serious side effects. Rica Reinisch was one of the first athletes to talk publicly. RICA REINISCH I only found out what had happened to me when I had to be admitted to the hospital with a chronic ovarian infection. The blood tests showed that I had too many male hormones in my body. They warned me they might have to remove my ovaries. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) What investigators learned has led to the criminal prosecution of swim coaches and doctors now underway in Berlin. They are charged with causing bodily harm, harm that includes cancers, infertility, birth defects and liver disease. RICA REINISCH It's absurd. It's inhumane. They were experimenting with us. ULRIKE TAUBER I've talked to many people, I've asked many people would I have won in 1976 without the drugs? They tell me that's not how I should look at it. WENDY BOLGIOLI I have a lot of sympathy for them because they had to. Many of them had to. Many of them didn't know what they were but that doesn't make it OK. That does not make it OK. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) If the East Germans cheated, what about those who did not? WENDY BOLGIOLI Most of my teammates would have medals had it not been for the East German women on steroids, and that's just a fact. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) The US women's swim team left Montreal with only one gold medal. Now, American swimmers and others say they deserved more, that they should get the medals and the rightful place in Olympic history that for all these years has been occupied by East Germany. FORREST SAWYER Who should have those medals and should Olympic history be rewritten? Part two of Sheila MacVicar's report in a moment. (Commercial Break) FORREST SAWYER It's not as easy as it sounds. So many years after the event, how can you determine what really happened? How much evidence do you need to take away an Olympic gold medal? Once again, ABC's Sheila MacVicar. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) It's 7:00 am Stanford swim coach Richard Quick is putting his team through their paces. He's a veteran of four American Olympic swim teams and for years he kept quiet about East German cheating. RICHARD QUICK I didn't want to sound like I was a cry baby, but it's simply not fair to the athletes and it hasn't been fair for a long, long time. For the East Germans to still have Olympic gold medals that are recognized in the history books as being legitimately achieved is just a lie. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) The President of the US Olympic Committee, the USOC, Bill Hybl, says he's still not convinced. BILL HYBL It's way too soon to tell if there has been cheating and if that cheating will be proven. WENDY BOLGIOLI I am entitled to the gold medal. I won it fair and square. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Wendy Bolgioli took home a bronze medal in the 100 meter butterfly after she finished behind two East Germans. If the International Olympic Committee, the IOC, were to punish the East Germans for cheating, her medal would go from bronze to gold. BILL HYBL And if it gets to the point where there's conclusive evidence that comes out of these trials or other trials, you can count on the United States Olympic Committee being very aggressive in our requests to the IOC because ultimately the International Olympic Committee is in charge of the medals. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) But the German criminal trials are based on the fact that doping did take place. The only issue is whether the use of those drugs caused the athletes criminal bodily harm. RICHARD QUICK For us to take action only after we get absolute proof is ridiculous. WENDY BOLGIOLI USOC's comment by many of the USOC officials and IOC has been, you know, if we point the finger, Wendy, you're going to make a scandal. You point the finger and then people are going to be pointing the finger back at us. So Wendy, it's better if you just keep your mouth shut. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Doping hasn't stopped. Earlier this year, Chinese swimmers were caught with performance enhancing drugs. They now dominate the swimming world and like the East Germans, many coaches attribute their success to drugs and blame the sport's governing bodies and the IOC for failing to take firm action. WENDY BOLGIOLI If they could make a stand and say you're all going to get caught and you're all going to pay a consequence, right now there are no consequences. ULRIKE TAUBER There's no consistency in what they're doing or saying. It's all a big farce. And I'm convinced that either you draw a line and make sure that sports are clean or stop talking about it. SHEILA MACVICAR (VO) Should the East German women be punished for what their government obliged them to do? Athletes say the decisions made now at the highest levels of sport about the past may determine how fair and level the playing field will be for those who compete in the future. I'm Sheila MacVicar for Nightline in Berlin. FORREST SAWYER When we come back, the question of Olympic gold medals, past and future. We'll talk to a senior Olympic official and to a US swimming coach. (Commercial Break) FORREST SAWYER Joining us now from Lausanne, Switzerland, Francois Carrard has been the director general of the International Olympic Committee for the past nine years. John Leonard has been the executive director of the American Swimming Coaches Association since 1985 and he joins us from our Miami bureau. Mr Carrard, I understand the desire to be cautious but what it all comes down to, it's a question of evidence and how much evidence do you need before you're prepared to take away an Olympic gold medal? FRANCOIS CARRARD, INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (Lausanne, Switzerland) Well, this is a very delicate matter indeed because when one speaks about it right now it may seem simple to try to rewrite history, to reallocate the ranking and medals but, indeed, we must be very cautious because inasmuch as I deeply feel for the athletes who fairly resent having been deprived of their ranking and medals, when you have to reinvestigate facts which are sometimes very old, very old, you have to be sure about all the facts, about all the allegations. FORREST SAWYER I understand Mr Carrard, but I must tell you there seems to be at least some difference between caution and reluctance. Now you have volumes of documents that have been turned over that were in the East German files showing specific athletes who were given doses, who was giving the doses to them. You have a sports physician admitting today in the trial that he did make available antibiotic steroids and you had the athletes themselves, some of them who are saying, indeed, they did take steroids. Now, why isn't that enough evidence? FRANCOIS CARRARD Well, first of all, I have to recall that the International Olympic Committee was the first organization in the world that started fight against doping. In 1968 ... FORREST SAWYER I thank you for that sir, but we've got a very little amount of time. The question is why isn't that enough evidence? FRANCOIS CARRARD Well, you must take each evidence for each case because if one athlete got a gold medal 20 years ago, 20 years ago, sometimes more, having tested and being found not positive at the time based on the methods, restory, reestablishing the evidence of what exactly took place, how was that athlete actually doped or not doped, what was the status of the athlete which should take or not take the ranking of the athletes. There are currently procedures going on in Germany. These are criminal procedures and we must know exactly the facts and the evidence. It's very easy to see it like that. FORREST SAWYER All right, so you'd like to wait until after the trial. FRANCOIS CARRARD Right. FORREST SAWYER Mr Leonard, are you satisfied with that? JOHN LEONARD, AMERICAN SWIMMING COACHES ASSOCIATION (Miami) Forrest, I think that's absolutely bizarre. The reason the IOC needs to be cautious about this is because this has nothing whatsoever to do with sports. It has everything to do with the IOC's business relationships with its sponsors. As I said earlier in the show, once you start to pull on the thread of this, the entire garment of the Olympic fabric begins to come apart. And what you begin to realize is the IOC itself has nothing to do with sport. It has to do with raising money and putting money in the IOC's coffers and the relationships it has with its major sponsors. FORREST SAWYER Well, you go leaping pretty far there Mr Leonard. Why isn't it fair for Mr Carrard to say I understand that you want to do this but this is a person's life and this is a person's medal and we want this trial to proceed and we want to have all the evidence before us before we decide? Mr Leonard? JOHN LEONARD The evidence has been there since 1989 in various forms in depth, from individuals, from documents in the German state plan. All the evidence is there. The evidence has been there. The IOC doesn't want to act on this because they don't want the full extent of doping in Olympic activities revealed. FORREST SAWYER The fact is, Mr Carrard, that charge has been made more and more. FRANCOIS CARRARD I think that charge is absolutely, absolutely wrong. I would just like to remind Mr Leonard, who is quoting 1989, that in 1988 who did withdraw the gold medal for doping at the most famous event of the Olympics in Seoul? Ben Johnson for doping. It was the International Olympic Committee and nobody else. And only since, and this is no coincidence, one speaks now of 1989, I have to repeat that from '68 to '88, 20 years, the IOC was absolutely alone. And it is easy now to take it on the IOC and on the organizations which are, indeed, fighting against doping. There are many organizations which are still not fighting against doping, professional organizations in the world, and these are the real causes why doping has been such a plague and not these allegations which are totally out of place about the IOC sponsoring. This is ridiculous. FORREST SAWYER Mr Leonard? JOHN LEONARD Forrest, a gentleman by the name of Prince Alexandre de Merode, who happens to be the chairman of the medical committee of the IOC, has recently been quoted thusly. What we are dealing with here is a certain kind of public relations issue. The public must be persuaded that something is being done. Prince Alexandre de Merode is a gentleman without a medical degree who runs the IOC medical committee, who has been guilty of losing, I repeat, losing positive doping results in each of the last three Olympic games. FORREST SAWYER We have only a few seconds left before our break. Is there any way that you can safety Wendy Bolgioli and say that there will be sufficient evidence for you to make a call one way or the other, either you will take the medal away or you will not? FRANCOIS CARRARD What we are going to do in specific cases when we see the actual evidence, and we have nothing yet on our table, we get accusations over the air like that. There is no specific request yet on our table. We will look into the situation, we will look into the evidence and we will see what we can do in specific individual cases when the facts are established. But it's easy to accuse us over the air like that, but we have not yet a request and certainly not from Mr Leonard, on our table. FORREST SAWYER Mr Leonard, we have a few seconds left, as I said. If you would look ahead with me. What should be done now and toward the future to eliminate the problem of doping? JOHN LEONARD The IOC needs to put its wallet where its words are. Right now they've waged a tremendous PR campaign about being the only organization involved in doping. Now they need to take a significant percentage of their dollars and put it there and get ahead of the back room basement chemists who right now are ruining sports. FORREST SAWYER Do you believe, Mr Leonard, that they can do that? JOHN LEONARD I believe they can, but I don't believe they really want to. FORREST SAWYER Mr Carrard, what should be done now to make sure that ... FRANCOIS CARRARD There are scores of millions of dollars which are invested every year in the fight against doping. If Mr Leonard deliberately chooses to ignore that, that's his problem. JOHN LEONARD I'd like to know how an organization like the IOC can spend $42 million and not be able to get ahead of a bunch of basement chemists. FORREST SAWYER Mr Carrard, it's a final question. Is the IOC doing all that can and should be done? Can you do more to prevent doping in a sport? FRANCOIS CARRARD The fight against doping is so difficult you can, indeed, always try and do more. That's one of the dramas about doping. It's easy to accuse the IOC. The IOC is only competent at the games. In between the games many other organizations should do their work as well. The difficulty is that you are always chasing the cheaters, the cheaters are getting smarter and we are fighting and fighting very hard, contrary to what Mr Leonard thinks, to lead. FORREST SAWYER Gentlemen, I thank you both for a spirited discussion and I'm sure we'll be discussing this again. Thank you. FRANCOIS CARRARD Thank you. JOHN LEONARD Thank you. FORREST SAWYER We'll be back in just a moment. (Commercial Break) FORREST SAWYER That is our report for tonight. For the latest overnight developments, watch Good Morning America tomorrow morning. I'm Forrest Sawyer in Washington. For all of us here at ABC News, good night. -------------------------------------------------------------------
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