Portland NORML News - Wednesday, January 7, 1998

ACLU Urges Court To Change Marijuana Measure Title ('Associated Press'
Notes Officials In Oregon Are Continuing Their Effort To Recriminalize
Possession Of Less Than One Ounce Of Marijuana, This Time By Wording
The Repeal Measure's Ballot Title To Confuse Voters)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 13:31:02 EST
From: Todd Olson 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: Ballot Title Press

ACLU urges court to change marijuana measure title

SALEM--The ballot title for a marijuana measure is confusing and
fails to inform voters that a yes vote would make possession of less
than an ounce a crime, the Oregon Supreme Court was told Tuesday.

The American Civil Liberties Union made the argument as it urged the
court to rewrite the title for the measure that will be on the ballot in

The 1997 Oregon Legislature reversed a 1973 law that reduced the
possession of less than an ounce of marijuana from criminal activity to
an infraction, similar to a traffic ticket. Lawmakers passed a new law
that makes possession of small amounts of marijuana a crime again,
punishable by up to a $1,000 fine and 30 days' imprisonment.

But marijuana proponents blocked the law by gathering enough
signatures to force a statewide vote.

At issue in Tuesday's arguments before the Supreme Court was the
ballot title that was approved by the state attorney general's office.
It says: "Makes possession of limited amount of marijuana (a) Class C

The ACLU said the ballot title must be more clear. "It does not
specify the amount of marijuana involved," ACLU attorney Katherine
McDowell told the court. "The average person reading this ballot title
may not know whether this increases or decreases the penalty."

Justice Susan Graber asked Erika Hadlock, an assistant attorney
general, why the title did not include the amount of marijuana in
question. Hadlock said that, among other things, the attorney general's
office couldn't come up with a better phrase in 10 words, the limit for
ballot titles.

The Supreme Court didn't indicate when it would rule.

--- The Associated Press

Pot Measure Lights Up In Court - Ballot Title At Issue
In Front Of Supreme Court (Different 'Associated Press' Account
Broadcast By KOIN, Portland's CBS Affiliate)

KOIN Channel 6
Portland, Oregon
letters to editor:

Associated Press

Pot Measure Lights Up in Court
Ballot Title at Issue In Front of Supreme Court

SALEM, Posted 9:51 a.m. January 07, 1998 -- Usually, re-criminalization of
marijuana is an issue that sparks debate. But yesterday, the ballot title
for a marijuana measure fired up in front of the Oregon Supreme Court.

The American Civil Liberties Union says the ballot title is confusing. The
organization's lawyers argue it fails to inform voters that a "yes" vote
would make possession of less than an ounce of pot a crime, according to The
Associated Press.

The ACLU urged the court Tuesday to rewrite the title for the measure that
will appear on the statewide ballot this fall. Currently it reads: "Makes
possession of limited amount of marijuana (a) Class C Misdemeanor."

The ACLU says the ballot title needs to be clearer. "It doesn't specify the
amount of marijuana involved," ACLU attorney Katherine McDowell told the
court yesterday. "The average person reading this ballot title may not know
whether this increases or decreases the penalty."

During the 20-minute hearing, Justice Susan Graber asked Erika Hadlock, an
assistant attorney general, why the title did not include the amount of
marijuana in question.

Hadlock responded that the attorney general's office couldn't come up with a
better phrase in 10 words, the limit for ballot titles.

The ACLU's McDowell offered this alternative: "Makes possessing less than
one ounce of marijuana a crime."

The Supreme Court didn't indicate when it would rule.

Copyright 1998 by The Associated Press

NewsBuzz - On The Rocks ('Willamette Week' In Portland
Quotes A Few Statistics On Annual Alcohol Use In Oregon - But Perhaps
Since There Is No War Against Alcohol Users, Doesn't Mention

Dozens Of Oregon Teens Who Die In Car Accidents After Drinking It,
Or More Than One Thousand Other Oregonians Who Die From Drinking It,
While Thousands Of Others Are In Jails, Prisons For Nontoxic Cannabis)

Willamette Week
Portland, Oregon
Jan. 7, 1998
letters to editor:

NewsBuzz - On the Rocks

Still feeling a bit rough around the edges from New Year's
Eve? Sober up with this alcohol-related trivia:

* Oregon ranks 31st in the nation in per capita consumption of
alcohol. New Hampshire has the highest consumption, West
Virginia the lowest.

* The best-selling spirit in Oregon is vodka from Hood River

* Liquor sales in December are twice what they are in January.

Losers - Oregon Department Of Corrections (Scoreboard Column
In 'Willamette Week' Notes DOC Has Been Breaking Law For Three Years
By Not Making All Prisoners Work Full Time)

Willamette Week
Portland, Oregon
January 7, 1998
letters to editor:
'Scoreboard' column - A tally of the week's winners and losers -


3. Three years after voters passed an initiative requiring
state prison inmates to work full time, the State
Department of Corrections still isn't complying--though not
for a lack of trying. Today, only 56 percent of the prison
population puts in 40 hours a week. Neither is the DOC
meeting the requirement that the cost of putting inmates to
work be covered by the profits from that work. In order to
make up some of this deficit, the DOC decided last month to
cut inmate pay by $2 per month. Last time the DOC
reduced inmate pay, in December of 1996, prisoners
protested--by killing a fellow inmate at the Oregon State

High Times With Peter Gorman And Art Bell (Thursday Night's Syndicated Radio
Talk-Show With Art Bell Features The 'High Times' Writer And Editor
Discussing Tours He'll Lead To Peruvian Amazon Featuring Ayahuasca Rituals)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 12:39:53 -1000
From: prophets@maui.net
To: dragonfly@aloha.net
Subject: High Times with Peter Gorman and Art Bell

An impressive first takes place tomorrow night (January 8/9) when America
listens to High Times Magazine executive editor Peter Gorman as a special
guest on Art Bell's Coast-to-Coast radio program. Peter Gorman is a
remarkable individual who brings a great deal of colorful entertainment, and
definitely on-the-edge information, to the program's large audience. Gorman
is a noted writer, adventurer and medicinal plant collector, and at High
Times Magazine he concentrates on civil liberty issues. He has published
articles and papers in numerous national and international magazines,
including: The New York Times, The Boston Globe, Omni, Spy, Discovery
On-Line, The New York Sunday News, Americas (the magazine of the OAS),
Buzzworm, Das Tier, Die Zeit, Elle, Geo, Airone, Geo Mundo, Geographical,
New York Newsday, Natura, Now, Panorama, Playboy, Sette, Shaman's Drum,
Terre Sauvage, Wildlife Conservation, Penthouse, World, The World and I,
VSD, and Zoom. Gorman is highly respected for his research into a wide
variety of fields, including indigenous cultures, rainforest destruction,
ethnopharmacology, and shamanism. His discovery of the human use of a
substance secreted by the phylomedusa bicolor frog has created intense
international interest in the potential medicinal properties of the substance.

What could be of particular interest is Peter Gorman's current adventure of
taking small groups of people into the Peruvian Amazon to participate with
curandero shaman in ayahuasca rituals which generate out-of-body travel
(much like remote viewing), journeys beyond space and time (time travel),
receiving information from plant and animal spirits, and the receiving of
cures for common and exotic illnesses. The results being claimed from the
use of this ancient brew in this deep jungle setting are extraordinary. His
Amazon jaunts are taking place in March, April and August of this year.

Check your local radio listings for the time and station for Art Bell with
Peter Gorman.

You may also listen to the show using Real Audio which may be downloaded
from the Art Bell webpage at: http://www.artbell.com/

For more information on Peter Gorman work and his Amazon Jaunts, visit:

USS California Deployed To Counter Drug Smuggling (Nuclear Cruiser
Disembarks From Bremerton, Washington, For Five-Month Mission To
The Caribbean And Tropical Pacific)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 22:34:13 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: US: WIRE: USS California Deployed To Counter Drug Smuggling
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: "sburbank" 
Source: The Associated Press
Pubdate: Wed, 7 Jan 1998


BREMERTON, Wash. (AP) -- The USS California, a nuclear cruiser scheduled
for decommissioning next year, has left its Bremerton base for a five-month
voyage to fight drug smuggling in the Caribbean and tropical Pacific.

The 596-foot ship left Tuesday from its berth at the Puget Sound Naval
Shipyard and is scheduled to arrive in Panama for a port call Jan. 22.

The 24-year-old California, one of only two nuclear-powered cruisers left
in the Navy, will return to Bremerton in late May. It is scheduled for
decommissioning in early 1999.

Most of the deployment will be spent monitoring vessel traffic and
intercepting suspected international drug smugglers.

Tentative plans call for a goodwill port visit to Ecuador in early February
and back to Panama later in the month.

The ship will pass through the Panama Canal in early March, then spend time
in the Caribbean carrying out counter-drug operations there.

Port calls are tentatively planned at the island of Curacao and at
Cartagena, Colombia. Then more drug-fighting operations are planned in the
Pacific before the USS California returns to Bremerton.

Carrying A Gun During Drug Crime Is Defined (US Appeals Court Rules
'Carrying' Means Weapon Must Be Accessible, Reduces 17-Year Sentence)

Date: Fri, 9 Jan 1998 21:29:25 -0800
Subject: MN: US: Carrying a Gun During Drug Crime is Defined
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk:John W.Black
Source: Orange County Register News
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Pubdate: Wednesday, 07 Jan, 1998
Section:news.page 4


Carrying a gun during a drug crime - grounds for a mandatory five-year
sentence increase - means not merely transporting it in a car but also having
it within easy reach, says a federal appeals court.

In an 8-3 ruling Monday, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered a
reduction in a 17-year drug sentence in Sacramento and weighed in on an
issue that has already reached the U.S. Supreme Court.

Federal law requires the five-year increase for anyone who carries a gun
during and in relation to a violent crime or drug trafficking but does not
define "carries."

Zumwalt Denies He Sold Cocaine (Duvall, Washington, City Councilman
Denies Charges During Trial)

From: "W.H.E.N." 
To: "Talk Group" 
Subject: HT: ART: Councilman denies coke sales
Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 19:55:12 -0800
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net
1997 The Seattle Times Company
Wednesday, Jan. 7, 1998
Zumwalt denies he sold cocaine
by Ronald K. Fitten
Seattle Times staff reporter

Duvall City Councilman Dave "Ernie" Zumwalt, on trial for allegedly selling
and distributing cocaine, testified yesterday that he never sold drugs to a
police informer.

Zumwalt's testimony in King County Superior Court contradicted the
testimony of the informer, who said he bought a half-gram of cocaine from
the councilman at a Duvall tavern in July while police waited outside.

The informer testified Monday that he walked up to Zumwalt in the bar and
told him he wanted to buy cocaine. He said Zumwalt told him he'd have to
wait because the police were parked outside.

But after telling Zumwalt he had a friend waiting for him, the informer
said Zumwalt agreed to make the sale. He said that he slipped Zumwalt $40
and that shortly afterward the councilman went outside to his van and
returned with the cocaine.

He said Zumwalt gave him the cocaine in the restroom.

But Zumwalt yesterday denied he ever sold the informer drugs. He said, "I
told him I didn't have anything," then chided the informer for even raising
the question.

Zumwalt conceded that he went out to his van but said he returned with his
pool cue, not cocaine.

When asked by his attorney, Tony Savage, whether he had delivered or sold
drugs to the informer July 25, Zumwalt replied, "No sir." He also
contradicted testimony on several key issues provided earlier by the

Zumwalt said when he was arrested Aug. 1 and his van was searched, he was
never asked while sitting in the police patrol car whether a vest taken out
of his van belonged to him. Police said they found a small quantity of
cocaine in the vest.

Zumwalt also denied admitting during a police interrogation that he sold
drugs to the informer.

"They asked me if I had done drugs," Zumwalt said. "I said, `Yes, I have
done drugs.' " But when asked whether he'd sold drugs, he testified he told
the two officers no.

Zumwalt, 41, admitted during direct examination that he received drugs from
a drug dealer up until two years ago.

He added that though he was still friends with the dealer, he had not
received drugs or observed the dealer sell drugs since he quit taking

Ronald K. Fitten's phone message number is 206-464-3251. His e-mail address
is: ronf-new@seatimes.com

Professor Roger Roffman From University Of Washington's Medical Marijuana
Treatment Program To Be On Seattle Television January 25

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 10:12:08 -0800 (PST)
From: dludd@scn.org (Deran Ludd)
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net
Subject: HT: Prof. Roffman on TV 1/25/98
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net

I noted in the Seattle Times TV guide that the Sunday news program, Upon
Reflection (Sundays at 12:30pm on Seattle PBS Channel 9/KCTS), will have
Professor Roger Roffman on the show on Jan. 25, 1998. Prof. Roffman heads
up the UW's marijuana treatment program. I know that may sound like a
prohibitionist, but Roffman recognizes medicinal use, and I think decrim of
some sort. I know the pamphlet on marijuana the dept he teaches in (U of
W School of Social Work) issued last fall was very level headed in its
assessment of marijuana. I know he and LG Brad Owen had a meeting
where Roffman tried to get Brad Owen to at least acknowledge marijuana's
medicinal utillity. It could be an interesting show.

Those outside Channel 9 area may be able to find Upon Reflection on their
local PBS affialiate.


Deran Ludd

Editorial - State Supreme Court Handcuffs The Judges ('San Francisco
Chronicle' Blames California Supreme Court Judges For Upholding
'Three-Strikes' Law Spawned By Media-Induced Fear And Ignorance)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 21:24:49 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US CA: EDITORIAL -- State Supreme Court Handcuffs the Judges
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: "Frank S. World" 
Source: San Francisco Chronicle
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/


IN LIMITING the discretion of judges to apply common sense to sentencing
under the ``three strikes'' law, the state Supreme Court went precisely in
the wrong direction.

Judges need more authority to consider the evidence when applying a law
that calls for life imprisonment for third felony convictions. Otherwise
California will continue to spend precious resources locking people up for
life even when their final felony involves a stolen pizza or a bounced check.

The 1994 ``three strikes'' initiative has helped put the state on course to
a prison population of 250,000 by 2006.

In its latest decision, the Supreme Court significantly narrowed its 1996
ruling that gave judges some latitude to refuse to impose a ``three
strike'' sentence if they found that it was too harsh in view of the facts
of the case. This new ruling forbids sentence reductions for defendants
whose past or present conduct fell within ``the spirit of the three-strikes

So what does all that legalese mean? The upshot is that it means judges are
going to have a harder time justifying anything other than a life term for
a third felony convic tion -- or ``strike.''

The case that brought the decision involved Reginald Eugene Williams, a Los
Angeles area man whose third strike was for driving under the influence of
drugs, a charge that can be treated as a felony or misdemeanor.

Williams was no angel. He had a long criminal record, and he earned his
trip back to prison. But Williams had not been convicted of any violent
felonies in 13 years. The judge had sentenced him to nine years, but the
prosecution appealed -- citing the ``three strikes law.''

He now faces 28 years to life.

The ``three strikes law'' emerged from the public outrage over Richard
Allen Davis, a violent predator who kept bouncing in and out of prison
until he kidnapped and killed 12-year-old Polly Klaas of Petaluma. Keeping
the Richard Allen Davises of the world in prison is money well spent. The
real ``spirit of three strikes'' was to make sure that such repeat violent
offenders do not keep getting extra chances to prey on society. The latest
court ruling, however, clings to a rigid formula that is overreaching and

California legislators now must have the political courage to come up with
a clear and sensible plan that defines ``third strikes'' as serious and
violent felonies. In all other cases, the judges should be free to do their
jobs of assessing an appropriate sentence.

Ritalin, The Drug Of Student Choice (Letter To Editor Of 'Oakland Tribune')

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 22:35:32 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US CA: LTE: Ritalin, The Drug Of Student Choice
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Source: Oakland Tribune, LTE section
Contact: triblet@angnewspapers.com


This is in response to an article in the Tribune (Dec. 7) discussing how
the drug Ritalin is becoming the "college students' drug of choice."

One cannot but find irony in the extreme when, on the one hand we like to
think of our schools as drug-free zones, and on the other, be furiously
pumping Ritalin into our younger kids in these schools as if trying to set
record profits for psychiatrists and the stockholders of pharmaceutical

Whose problem are we really trying to solve with this drug, anyway? Anyone
who thinks Ritalin is an innocent drug needs to discover why an alleged
major side effect of Ritalin is suicide. Basic common sense dictates that
any drug that has the power to alter brain chemistry that much is by no
means safe.

How utterly hypocritical. How can we expect our children to shun drug use
and a lifestyle based upon the view that whenever you're having problems
you solve it with drugs, when we allow the psychiatric industry to
virtually shove it down their throats in record amounts at such an early age?

Then wonder in perplexed bewilderment why we now have Ritalin becoming
college students' drug of choice.

James C. Rego, Concord, California
Tracy Burns, Mike Dix
Cleaned Out (Michael Dix and Tracy Burns,
Busted For Marijuana And Cocaine
Possession Nine Months Ago, Come Home
To Find Cops Have Taken All Their
Possessions Without Due Process
Because They Didn't Buy Iowa Tax Stamps
For The Illegal Drugs)

MN: US IA: Cleaned Out
Newshawk: "Carl E. Olsen" 
Source: Cityview
Author: Geoff S. Fein
Pubdate: January 7, 1998
Page: 7-8
Contact: Fax: 515-288-0309
Email: bpc@mail.commonlink.com

Photo: "I was freaked out. I begged them not
to take things. I sat here and watched them
rob me." Tracy Burns, With Mike Dix, in
their Adel home.

Editor's note: This article, with photo, is
online at:

Michael Dix and Tracy Burns were busted
for marijuana and cocaine possession. Nine
months later, cops seized everything from
their pickup truck to a pooper scooper.


Michael Dix and Tracy Burns wear the look of frustration, anger and fear.

They moved to Adel four years ago from Waukee. Dix, a plumber, came from
East Dubuque, Ill., because of the construction boom and to be closer to
his family.

The couple's home is several miles off Highway 6. The only noise they hear
is the sounds of cooing doves and barking dogs.

Inside, borrowed furniture sits upon torn-up floors and semi-finished
walls, the byproduct of a remodeling project.

Their home is an empty nest.

But it wasn't always that way.

They had all the things a young couple could want: furniture, a stereo and
a VCR. Dix had his tools and a Ford pick-up.

And they both had a cocaine problem.

On March 10, the couple's home was turned upside down as Dallas County
Sheriff's deputies searched for drugs. Months earlier, deputies searched
through their garbage for drugs, but came up with only a few seeds and a
straw, Dix says.

It was, however, enough to get a search warrant for the home.

The sheriff was originally tipped off by neighbors who complained about
increased traffic on Prospect Ave., a sign of drug dealing, says Dallas
County Sheriff Art Johnson.

Because no one was home during the raid, deputies left a letter informing
the couple of their pending arrest.

"Our attorney called them. We agreed to turn ourselves in," Burns says.

But the Dallas County Sheriff couldn't wait.

"They went behind our lawyer's back and arrested us," Dix says.

Burns, 26, and Dix, 37, were arrested March 14 on charges of possession
with intent to deliver. The raid turned up 5 grams of marijuana and 48
grams of cocaine.

Though they had more than an ounce and a half of cocaine, Burns and Dix
deny they were dealers, instead claiming it was for their own use.

On June 26, Burns and Dix pleaded guilty to not having a drug tax stamp.
The Dallas County attorney dismissed the possession charges, avoiding a
trial. The couple were placed on five years probation, paid fines and
entered drug treatment.

Six months later they're adhering to the court's orders, staying off drugs
and working to turn their lives around, Burns says.

Little did Burns or Dix know their past would come back to rob them.

On Dec. 15, Burns returned to the Dallas County Sheriff's department to
retrieve items taken during the March search. She got back all but one - a
videotape. The next day she was sitting in her living room when a deputy
drove up.

"I thought he was coming to drop off the tape," Burns says.

Until she say the other vehicles.

Deputies and agents of the Iowa Department of Revenue had come to collect
on the couple's failure to pay the drug stamp tax.

The tax, which sounds more like a leftover from the Revolutionary War, is a
way for Iowa to collect on the multi-million dollar drug trade.

"It's a means to have this segment of society pay its fair share," says
Lucille Hardy, an assistant with the attorney general's revenue division.
"It's revenue the state is entitled to."

Since Sept. 1990, Iowa has required a stamp be affixed to a baggie of
marijuana or a vial of cocaine. Any illegal drug requires a stamp. And it
ain't cheap.

A $5 tax is due on each gram of marijuana; $250 on each gram of cocaine,
heroin or methamphetamine; $750 on each unprocessed marijuana plant; and
$400 per 10 pills, from the moment of possession.

"This is a business with no income tax, no sales tax, so we enacted an
excise tax," Hardy says.

Iowa law prevents the Department of Revenue from sharing information on
drug tax stamp applicants with law enforcement agencies. Even with that
assurance, few people are lining up to admit they are in possession.

A program manager with the Department of Revenue says few if any stamps
have been sold, except maybe to stamp collectors.

Some attorneys have begun telling clients to get the tax stamps, Hardy says.

"The number of applicants is small in comparison to the number of people in
possession of drugs," she says.


Burns and Dix owed the government $24,242.40, half in taxes, half in

Failure to pay results in immediate collection.

That's what the state did.

During the three-hour seizure, Lori Dennis, an agent of the Iowa Department
of Revenue and Finance, and seven sheriff's deputies took six truckloads of
items. Among them were stereo equipment, a bug zapper, pooper scooper,
bread box, couch and love seat, milk can, 50-foot roll of air hose,
Christmas presents, a Thighmaster, Burns' engagement rings and Dix's 1994
Ford Ranger.

"I was freaked out. I begged them not to take things," Burns says. "I sat
here and watched them rob me."

The state took more than 150 items.

Neither Burns nor Dix had any idea they owed the money.

"No one contacted us about the law," Dix says. "The Department of Revenue
said most people don't pay. This is why they don't give notice."

The notice sent to Burns and Dix was postmarked the afternoon of Dec.16,
the day of the raid. It's possible the notice wasn't even sent until

Dennis wouldn't comment.

"We don't have a lot of advance warning, says Don Cooper, Administrator of
Compliance with the Department of Revenue. "The usual process is to hand
deliver it. It's not a typical case to mail notice of the tax."

Nothing about this case is typical.

No advance warning is given because violators are usually unwilling to pay
the tax. They may hide, sell off their possessions or flee, making it
harder for the state to collect, Cooper says.

But Burns and Dix say they were willing to work out a payment plan. And
it's doubtful they would have fled - both have jobs and own their home.

"They were never given a chance to work on a payment plan," says Burns'
attorney Dean Stowers.

The number of people prosecuted for not buying the stamps is unknown.
Hardy says the Attorney General's office collected more than $400,000 in
back taxes in 1996.

While the Department of Revenue states it's willing to work out payment
plans, acceptance of a plan is at the department's discretion.

"They are saying they use discretion, but they can't say how. Is it up to
the individual revenue officer?" Stowers says.

Truth is, Burns and Dix never got the chance to ask about a payment plan.

The letter sent to them said if they wanted to discuss a payment plan, they
should call the Department of Revenue on Dec. 16. But they didn't get the
letter, sent registered mail, until Dec. 18, two days after the raid.

During the seizure, Burns says law enforcement went through the house
tagging items, acting as if they were on a shopping spree.

"They made it sound like they were taking things for their own personal
use," Burns says.

When she asked to call her attorney, Burns says not only did officers
refuse to let her answer the phone without paying $24,242.40, but they
tagged the phone and seized it.

"I sat in the corner of the room and they stood over me," Burns says.
"They said if we listened to them this wouldn't happen."

Burns and Dix both believe the reason for the seizure was that they refused
to be snitches. When they were arrested in March, the couple says Sheriff's
Investigator Kelly Sutten asked them to turn over names. "The police were
upset because the people wouldn't become snitches.

The cops carried a grudge over this," Stowers says.

Sutten was on vacation and unavailable to comment.


Dix was in the middle of remodeling the house. The job was made a bit
easier when police broke down the door and ripped up the carpet. Losing
his tools and feeling victimized by the authorities, however has made it
hard for him to continue.

"I got so much hard work into this," Dix says. "It's hard to control my

Dix was hoping to spend some time over his vacation doing work around the
house. But not now.

"I'm trying to keep occupied. I have no tools and I'm afraid to buy
anything. They could come back and take them."

Tools were not the only thing he lost.

When authorities took his truck, they directly affected the terms of his
probation. Dix can no longer drive to weekly recovery meetings in Des
Moines. He's now trying to make arrangements with his probation officer so
he isn't charged with violating probation.

"No one is making much effort to work with us," Dix says.

Burns says she has trouble sleeping and has gone to a doctor because of the
raid. "It's scary. They can come in any time and take things," she says.

Burns and Dix say they put in long hours at work to keep their minds off
their situation.

"It's not bad working long hours when you don't have much to come home to,"
Dix says.

"We knew we had five years ahead of us, but we were doing really well.
This is like a smack in the face," Burns says. "Now we just sit here and
look at nothing we have."



The police wrote this list of items they took from the home of Tracy Burns
and Michael Dix for failure to pay the stamp tax on their drugs

1.Kenmore microwave
2.1-gallon jug of pennies
3.Wine rack & contents
4.CDs & rack
5.7 Nintendo 64 games
6.Star Fox 64 games
7.Two blank video tapes
8.Three VCR video tapes (movies)
9.50' roll of yellow airhose
10.Nokia cell phone
11.Pentax 35mm camera
12.Hitachi TV
13.Nintendo 64
14.Hitachi VCR
15.Coffee table
16.Table lamp
17.Wooden TV trays
18.Two hand held video games
19.RCA Dish TV
21.Bread box
22.Sears Craftsman lawn tractor
23.Couch & love seat
24.Sony boom box radio
25.Telephone stand
26.Oreck XL Vacuum cleaner
27.Avon Michael Jordon watch
28.Gold colored rope style chain
29.Antique style Austin phone
30.Brass plant stand
31.Metal step ladder
32.Miscellaneous hand tools
33.Bread maker
34.Goose cookie jar & pennies inside
35.Black Hills ring
36.Solitaire ring
37.Microwave stand
38.Telephone system
39.Norman Laboratory Speakers
40.Hpm - 60 Speakers
41.One set soft side luggage
42.Table & chairs (dining room)
43.Folding card table (4 chairs)
44.CD file & 12 CDs
45.Box containing 76 CDs
46.Stand up mirror
47.Box & 7 CDs
48.White jug full of pennies
49.Collector plates
50.Collector plates
51.Collector plates
52.Collector plates
53.Collector plates
54.Collector plates
55.Collector plates
56.Collector plates
57.Collector plates
58.Collector plates
59.Collector plates
60.Collector plates
61.Darts & dart case
62.Misc. costume jewelry
63.Florescent lantern
64.Dewalt circular saw
65.Coleman Dual Fuel Lantern
66.Camping stools
67.Delta Mitre saw
69.Skil 4 1/2 angle grinder
70.Air compressor regulators
71.Spray gun
72.Spray gun
73.Air heater
74.Tool cabinet & contents
75.Air compressor
76.ICE auger
77.Halogen light
79.Battery charger
80.Craftsman chainsaw
81.Fiberglass 6' Ladder
83.B & D buffer
84.Whistler radar detector
85.Folding ladder
86.Dewalt drill & case
87.Silver horn saddle (kid size)
88.Adult saddle
89.Four fishing poles
90.Gas trimmer
91.Boat anchor
92.Huffy bike
93.Palm sander
94.Mag cement float
95.Drop cord
96.Swingline stapler
97.Floor support stands
98.Sheet rock square
99.Oreck hand held vac
100.Ford Ranger pick-up truck
101.Drill bit index & bits
102.Halogen lamp
103.Liars bench
105.Hole saw
106.Belt sander
107.Plumber bit kit
108.Three ice fishing poles
109.Tackle box & contents
110.New kitchen faucet
111.Well pump
112.Patio tables & chairs w/umbrella
113.Bug zapper
114.Milk can
115.Servess 5hp roto tiller
116.Turbo wash
117.Almn grain scoop
118.Quasar camcorder
119.Self propelled push mower
120.Paramount weed trimmer
121.Sheridan pellet gun
122.Winston lighter set
123.Bose speaker
124.Elvis decanter
125.Elvis decanter
126.Video rewinder
127.Bushnell binoculars
128.Box of 18 CDs
129.New Ford rim
130.Music box carousel horses
131.Music box carousel horses
132.Music box carousel horses
133.Music box carousel horses
134.Music box carousel horses
135.Music box carousel horses
136.Music box carousel horses
137.Music box carousel horses
138.Brass carousel horse
139.Green bakeware
141.Pioneer turntable
143.TEAC graphic equalizer
144.Pioneer cassette tape deck
145.Kenwood receiver
146.Sony CD player
147.Elvis decanter
149.Stanley stud finder
150.AM/FM Clock Radio
151.$75 cash
152.$75 cash
153.$75 cash

Ignoring Impact Of Legal Drugs (Syndicated Editorial By Arianna Huffington
Of Creators Syndicate Asks Why We Punish People So Severely For Using
Illegal Drugs, While Drug Companies Make Billions Selling Mood-Altering Drugs
To Millions Of Americans, Including Children?)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 08:45:13 EST
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: "Doug Keenan" 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: Huffington: Ignoring impact of legal drugs

Ignoring impact of legal drugs

Before the new year gets much older, our airwaves will be filled with
anti-drug commercials - paid for in part by you.

The Office of National Drug Control Policy in cooperation with the
Partnership for a Drug-Free America and the Ad Council will soon launch a
$350 million ad campaign against drugs - $175 million to be provided by the
American taxpayer.

Why not continue to expect corporate America, including the networks, to
provide this public service, as they have been doing for years? But there
is a larger question that affects the drug war on which the government
proposes to spend $16 billion in 1998, a 400 percent increase since 1986.

"Why do we have such intense punishment," Dr. Dean Ornish told me, "for
people who take drugs illegally while drug companies make billions of
dollars in profits every year by selling mood-altering drugs to millions of
Americans, including children?"

There are undoubtedly some children who are properly diagnosed as clinically
depressed and are legitimately prescribed antidepressants, But there are 2.5
million prescriptions filled every year for Zoloft, Prozac and other
antidepressants for children under 18.

"Shall we dance?" a Zoloft ad asks while a fatherly man is dancing with a
young girl in a sun-filled room. "Make it happen," the ad urges us. So,
it's great for us to medicate you, but it's terrible for you to medicate

Tom Oberdorfer, a clinical social worker who works with many anxious,
depressed or hyperactive children, traces a lot of these problems back to
the family. "The troubled kid," he told me, "may in fact be the ticket for
the whole family to recognize and deal with the problems they have been

Dr. Ornish echoes this deep concern. "It is all too easy to write a
prescription and stop looking at what is really troubling the child."

The aggressive marketing both to doctors and directly to consumers - is
supplemented by many subtler forms of persuasion. Medical journals are
predominantly funded by ads they carry from pharmaceutical companies, while
much of the research on drugs, Including antidepressants, is sponsored by
the drug companies. And then there are the junkets drug companies offer,
the lobster dinners, the doughnuts in the emergency room and, above all. the
"detail" men and women - as the sales reps are called - who are a formidable
grass-roots army traveling around the country, leaving a trail of samples

Some of these legal drug pushers in the employ of Eli Lilly, the
manufacturer of Prozac, found their way to a suburban Washington high
school. "They gave out pens and pads and little brochures pushing Prozac to
those high school kids," Sidney Wolfe, director of the Public Citizens
Health Research Group, said in a groundbreaking but hardly noticed Nightline
show last March on the continuum between legal and illegal drugs.

As Heather, a heroin user who runs a needle exchange program in Santa Cruz,
said on the same Nightline show: "If you live in a neighborhood where you
can't afford $150-an-hour therapists and Prozac. and you've got brown tar
heroin down the street, and you know that's going to ... get you through
another day without killing yourself, that's what you're going to use."

Why has there not been - Ted Koppel asked - "a really massive study" on the
relationship between legal drug use and illegal drug use?

And there is plenty of anecdotal evidence of children who move from legal
antidepressants or sleeping pills to street drugs. But we will never win
the war against drugs unless we stop turning a blind eye to the connection
between a culture that offers a pill for every ill and a culture that cannot
wean itself from illegal drugs.

The pressures against studying this correlation are enormous.
Pharmaceutical companies are a big part of the war against drugs, helping
fund both the Partnership for a Drug-Free America and the National Center on
Addiction and Substance Abuse, while 17,000 of their sales reps distribute
information to health care professionals to help them identify drug abuse. .

So here we are, using the same people who are pushing mood-altering drugs to
alert doctors to the dangers of the competition. On top of it, television
and magazines are living off the ad revenues of pharmaceutical companies.

"We probably make more money in our industry from the pharmaceutical
industry than we do from any other," Koppel said. "Do we need to be
concerned about the role that television is playing in perhaps unwittingly
promoting drug use in this country?"

Koppel had the guts to ask the question. Will the media have the guts to
look for the answers?

Creators Syndicate

Letter To Editor & Response In JAMA ('The Journal Of The American Medical
Association' Favorably Reviews A Pro-Drug-War Book That Endorses Drug-Testing
But Doesn't Cite Any Scientific Evidence For It)

Date: Mon, 26 Jan 1998 18:58:25 EST
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: "Tom O'Connell" (tjeffoc@sirius.com)
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: LTE & Response in JAMA

My letter to the Editor criticizing the review of "Selfish Brain" was
published in Jan 7 JAMA, along with responses from the reviewer and the

JAMA; 279:20, Jan. 7, 1998.

Khantzian's plea for "love, not war" in this context is at least amusing.

Dupont states that I "misunderstand" his support for drug testing. I don't
at all-it's lucrative. If there were any published evidence (beyond his
anecdotal recollection) that routine testing of any population reduces the
incidence of addiction, we'd never know it because of there is no

His response is a good example of classic drug warrior "refutation-" ignore
the specifics of the criticism and restate the original assertions in
slightly different form.

Learning From Addiction

To the Editor.-Several weeks ago, my abiding interest in our national drug
policy was further piqued by a book review in JAMA, so I ordered The
Selfish Brain, by Robert L. DuPont, MD. When it arrived, I was astounded to
find that, although dealing assertively with all aspects of drug addiction
from history through modern clinical concepts, the book contains no

Written for a lay and professional readership, the book makes several
policy recommendations, including mass drug testing of high schoolers.
Given the author's prominence as a former presidential drug policy adviser
and first director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, it is sure to
be widely quoted. That a book devoid of supportive references would be
published by the American Psychiatric, Press and reviewed in JAMA lends it
an unwarranted appearance of academic integrity.

Beyond that, the review, while timidly taking issue with the author's
authoritarian tone, fails to note the absence of references. The book does
have pages of glowing recommendations from prominent members of the drug
"prevention and treatment" establishment, and its author and one of the
endorsers, a former Drug Enforcement Agency director, are joined in the
business of setting up drug-testing programs for industry, further
suggesting that American medicine's institutions have become compromised by
the drug war.

Thomas J.O'Connell,MD
San Mateo, Calif

1. Khantzian EJ, reviewer. JAMA. 1997; 278:339-340. Review of: DuPont RL.
The Selfish Brain: Learning From Addiction

In Reply.-Dr O'Connell takes me to task for "timidly taking issue" with Dr
DuPont's book, The Selfish Brain. He also chides me, JAMA, and the American
Psychiatric Press for not making more of the absence of references in the
book. More seriously, he accuses "American medicine's institutions" of
becoming "compromised by the drug war" because of the endorsements in the
book and because of DuPont's and one endorser's activities.

For the interested reader who has not read the review, I would argue that I
give a fair and balanced description of the book's content but, tactfully
and forcefully enough, criticize DuPont's views about prevention, policy,
and treatment as a "rigid approach [and] a shortcoming of the book." In my
review, I make a plea for more flexible and integrative thinking for
proponents of DuPont's perspective vs his narrow reductionistic views. As
for my failure to note the absence of references, mea culpa, but I do not
see the lack as so dreadful an issue as does O'Connell. I disagree that
this book can presume to be a major scientific or academic reference. It
mainly recapitulates and popularizes much that is known (or disputed) about
the nature of substance use disorders and what we should do about them,
especially from the perspective of DuPont's admittedly strong convictions.

To the extent that O'Connell's letter is accusatory, I find it
objectionable. We need to make more peace, not war, on issues of drugs in
our society. My preference is to consider alternative perspectives
respectfully and to challenge them forcefully when necessary. As I conclude
in my review, "this is especially the case when we are dealing with
problems as complex as those involved with substance use disorders."

Edward J. Khantzian, MD

Tewksbury Hospital
Tewksbury, Mass

In Reply.-Dr O'Connell complains that my book, The Selfish Brain: Learnng
From Addiction, is not referenced. He may be reassured to know that the
book was peer reviewed by the publisher and the American Psychiatric Press
and that JAMA's reviewer, Dr Khantzian, is a distinguished opponent of many
of my drug policy recommendations, which he makes clear in his review. The
book lists 43 recommended books on related topics in the section
"Bibliotherapy." Finally, O'Connell and other readers seeking more
citations can find ample references in my many published articles on drug
policy including those cited below.

The Selfish Brain is not a drug policy book. Instead, it offers an
integrated, comprehensive understanding of the uniquely human and
20th-century problems of addiction to alcohol and other drugs. The most
important features of the book are the recognition of the newly elucidated
biology of reward as the principal biological root of addiction and a
single-minded focus on the vital role of the 12-Step programs, including
Alcoholics Anonymous, in promoting lifelong recovery from addiction.

O'Connell misunderstands my support for drug testing. Testing for alcohol
and other drugs is important for both prevention and treatment, because
denial is, along with loss of control or unmanageability, 1 of the 2
principal characteristics of addiction. It is only when denial and
dishonesty are stripped away from addictive behavior that the healing
forces of recovery can begin the transformation of the addict and the
addict's family. I have known many addicted people who date the beginning
of their recovery from the time they were "caught" in the criminal justice
system, the workplace, or elsewhere as a result of a positive drug test

I am grateful to the American Psychiatric Press for publishing the book, to
JAMA for having it reviewed, and to O'Connell for bringing additional
readers to the book.

Robert L. DuPont, MD
Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc
Rockville, Md

1. DuPont RL, McGovern JP. A Bridge to Recovery: An Introd uction to
12-Step Programs ; Washington, DC: Amencan Psychiatric Press, 1994.

2. DuPont RL, Voth EA. Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy.
Ann Intern Med. 1995123:461-465.

3. DuPont RL Gold MS. Withdrawal and reward: implications for
detoxification and relapse prevention. Psychiatr Ann. 1995;25:663-668.

4. DuPont RL. Harm reduction and decriminalization in the United States: a
personal perspective. Subst Use Misuse. 1996;31:1929 1945.

Industrial Hemp Bills And Initiatives In The US (Update Compiled By
The Colorado Hemp Initiative Project)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 00:22:28 -0700 (MST)
From: "Colo. Hemp Init. Project" (cohip@levellers.org)
X-Sender: cohip@saturn.eagle-access.net
To: "Colo. Hemp Init. Project" (cohip@levellers.org)
Subject: Industrial Hemp Legislative Efforts

Industrial Hemp - Bills and Initiatives in the U.S.

Updated: January 7, 1998

Compiled by the Colorado Hemp Initiative Project

The following is a list of states that have either already introduced
industrial hemp legislation or are likely to do so in the future.

Please send any updates or corrections to cohip@levellers.org.




1) Colorado
Rep. Kay Alexander (R-Montrose)
State Capitol Building
200 E. Colfax Ave.
Denver, CO 80203
(303) 866-2955
Status: Bills in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were killed due to intimidation by
the DEA. Bill will be re-introduced in January 1998.


2) Hawaii
Rep. Cynthia Thielen (R - Kailau Kameohe)
State Capitol Bldg.
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 586-6480
Email: thielen@aloha.net
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.

Also, contact:
Rep. David Tarnas
Email: dtarnas@aloha.net


3) Iowa
Rep. Cecelia Burnett (D-Ames)
State Capitol Bldg.
Des Moines, IA 50319
Phone: (515) 232-2710
Email: cburnet@legis.state.ia.us
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.


4) Kansas
Sen. David Corbin
Statehouse - Room 120-S
Topeka, KS, 66612
(913) 296 7388
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.


5) Kentucky
Sen. Barry Metcalf
141 Alycia Dr.
Richmond, KY 40475
(606) 624-8387
Status: Unknown.


6) Minnesota
Rep. Phyllis Kahn
367 State Office Bldg.
St. Paul, MN 55155
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.
Email: rep.phyllis.kahn@house.leg.state.mn.us

Rep. Steven Wensel (D)
Minnesota House of Representatives
State Office Building
Room 487
100 Constitution Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55155


7) Missouri
Sen. Jerry T. Howard (D-Dexter)
P.O. Box 279
Dexter, MO 63841
(573) 624-8778
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.


8) North Dakota
Rep. Monson (R-Osnabrock)
State Capitol
600 East Blvd.
Bismarck, ND 58505
Phone: (701) 328-3373
(701) 328-3506
Email: notes.dmonson@ranch.state.nd.us

Status: Bill passed and signed by Governor authorizing NDSU to study the
feasibility of industrial hemp. The bill did not mandate a test plot of


9) Oregon
Rep. Floyd Prozanski
P.O. Box 11511
Eugene, OR 97440
(541) 342-2447
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.


10) South Dakota
Sen. Frank J. Kloucek
R.R. # 1, Box 56
Scotland, SD 57059
(605) 583-4468
Status: Unknown.


11) Vermont
Rep. Fred Maslack (R - Poultney)
State House
Montpelier, VT 05602
(802) 828-2256
Status: Bill passed in 1996 authorizing a feasiblility study.
"Alternative Agricultural Strategies in Vermont: The Case of Industrial
Hemp" is directly available on my web site using the following url:

Update (12/6/97): Senator Hull Maynard (R) and Senator Elizabeth Ready (D)
filed a draft bill in the state capitol to provide for the liscencing of
farmers interested in growing industrial hemp.
The Vermont House of Representatives is expected to also introduce
legislation ( through the Agricultural Committee) in January.

To contact the original House sponsor of the 1996 Hemp Bill:
Rep. Fred Maslack
115 State Street
State House
Montpelier, VT 05633-5201
(802) 828-2231
(802) 828-2424 fax


12) Virginia
Delegate Mitchell Van Yahress (D-Charlottesville)
223 Main St.
Charlottesville, VA 22902
(804) 293-6483
Status: Killed in 1997 legislative session.


13) Wisconsin
No details are available.
Bud Sholts
Wisconsin Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708-8911
(608) 224-5135
Email: sholtea@wheel.datcp.state.wi.us




California Industrial Hemp Act of 1998
- ballot initiative to allow commercial cultivation of industrial hemp in

Status: Will begin collecting signatures on the ballot initiative in
January or February.

Sam H. Clauder II
Californians for Industrial Renewal
12922 Harbor Boulevard
Garden Grove, CA 92840
Phone: (714) 89-2-CAIR
Fax: 894-8010
Email: cair@gte.net


Provided as a public service by the:
Colorado Hemp Initiative Project
P.O. Box 729, Nederland, CO 80466
Hotline: (303) 784-5632
Web: http://www.welcomehome.org/cohip.html
"Fighting over 60 years of lies and dis-information
	 with 10,000 years of history and fact."


	To be added to or removed from our mailing list,
send email with the word SUBSCRIBE or UNSUBSCRIBE in the title.


Humboldt Brewing Making Beer With Hemp - Naturally (Former Oakland Raiders
Star Mario Celotto Owns Brewery In Arcata, California, Using Hemp Seeds)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 22:41:40 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US CA: Humboldt Brewing Making Beer With Hemp -- Naturally
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Source: Oakland Tribune
Author: Bill Brand
Note: Staff writer William Brand publishes What's on Tap, a consumer craft
beer and cider newsletter. He can be reached at whatsontap@value.net
Section: Food Section
Contact: triblet@angnewspapers.com


THERE'S a new strong ale coming from Arcata's Humboldt Brewing Co.,
brewers of the popular Red Nectar Ale, that's a real zinger: Hemp Ale.

It's true. Hemp seeds are an ingredient in the beer, says Humboldt
president Mario Celotto, the former Oakland Raiders star who moved north to
Arcata and started Humboldt a decade ago.

The seeds are added in substantial quantity to the mash, the mixture of hot
water and ground barley that begins the beer-making process.

"Of course, you can't get high from these seeds," Celotto says. As anyone
who has sampled the illegal weed knows, THC, the potent narcotic chemical,
is found in quantity only in the leaves, buds and flowers of the female
hemp plant, not in the seeds.

Hemp and marijuana are different names for the same plant: cannabis
sativia. Human-kind for centuries has grown the male hemp plant for fiber
for rope and clothing. The female plant is useless for fiber, but good for
other uses, in-cluding these days - beer.

"The government requires us to use sterile seeds," Celotto explains. "But
they add a spicy flavor - it's like adding pepper to a dish. The hemp is
not going to change the body of the beer or the hop characteristics - but
it definitely makes a difference."

Humboldt Hemp Ale is scheduled to reach Bay Area taverns and other on-tap
accounts in two weeks. It should be available in bottles in liquor stores
and supermarkets in early February. But thanks to Celotto, we received an
advance sample.

Humboldt Hemp Ale is much more than a sales gimmick. The beer, formulated
by Celotto and brewed by Larry Lesterud is a big, 6.5-percent alcohol by
volume, unpasteurized, dark brown ale topped with a thick, creamy head.
Drink it cold from the refrigerator and it's a nice beer with a bit of
spice. But let it warm slightly to its proper drinking temperature around
45 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit and you're looking at a real winner.

The flavor is very rounded -a fine balance of dark crystal and chocolate
barley malts and hops. The hemp seeds add an interesting dimension,
slightly sweet and definitely spicy, but blending well with the Willamette
and Tetmanger hops, which are also spicy. The finish is appropriately
hoppy. Rating: 90.

It's no wonder the marijuana seeds and the hops blend so nicely. Unlike
more traditional modern spices like cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, both hops
and hemp are members of the same Cannabinacea plant family.

Humboldt Is the second commercial brewery to make a hemp beer. The first
was Frederick Brewing of Frederick, Md., which brought out Hempen Ale in
1996, then in-troduced Hempen Gold last year. Frederick has sold as much
hemp beer as it can make since day one.

Neither beer is available regularly in the Bay Area, although Beverages, &
more outlets sometimes have them. Hempen Ale is a malty, light brown ale
with a pleasing spicy note. It won the bronze medal in the herb/spice
category last October at the Great American Beer Festival. Hempen Gold, is
a brewpub standard golden beer, light to the taste with a sweet spiciness.
We rated Hempen Ale 88. Hempen Gold gets an 80. It's a well-made golden
with that interesting spicy note.

Brewer and Frederick Brewing co-founder Steve Nordahi, who is a University
of California at Davis graduate and former Danville resident, says the
brewery obtains hemp seeds from Eastern Europe and China. The seeds are
sterilized under government supervision.

Naturally, Celotto says Humboldt's seeds come from select Northern
California hemp fields. He admits with a trace of humor that considering
Humboldt County's reputation for raising cash crops of the illegal weed,
brewing a legal hemp beer was an almost irresistible temptation.

Celotto said Humboldt Hemp Is the start of a big push to make its beers
widely available in California. He has moved his wife and family back to
Oakland and Is making the East Bay the center of sales operations. The
company had announced a merger with another brewer who wanted to create a
national chain of craft brewers. Humboldt backed out to concentrate on its
natural market: California.

County Drug Court Idea Worth Study (Anderson, Indiana High-School Student
Challenges Mandatory Urine Test)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 22:15:44 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: US IN: County Drug Court Idea Worth Study
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: cmday@indy.ne
Source: Anderson Herald Bulletin
Contact: thb@indol.com the main editor's address is jirby@indol.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998


Student begins suspension

BY KEN de la BASTIDE Staff Reporter

ANDERSON - Buddy Willis stay home from school Monday as he began serving a
five-day suspension for refusing to take a mandatory urine drug test.

"Buddy" Willis began serving the suspension at Anderson High School after
losing a federal court battle Friday. Friday. He had sought a temporary
restraining order to permit him to attend classes.

The Indiana Civil Liberties Union last week filed suit on Willis' behalf
against Anderson Community Schools claiming the school's policy, that
requires students who have been suspended for more than three days to
submit to a drug test before being allowed back in school, as

Willis was suspended for five days prior to the Christmas recess for fighting.

U.S. District Court Judge John Tinder last week rejected Willis' request
for a temporary restraining order that would have let him go back to school
until the constitutionality of the policy is resolved.

Tinder ruled that ACS officials were able to show a connection between
behavior and possible drug use based on statistics from the Carmel school
system. ACS based its policy on the one used in Carmel schools.

He also ruled that because the drug tests are only used for counseling of
students and not punishment, it is not a violation of the Fourth Amendment
to the Constitution against unreasonable search and seizure.

Randy Willis, Buddy's father, said the ICLU has filed an appeal with the
Seventh Circuit Court of Appeal in Chicago to seek a preliminary injunction
to allow his son back into school.

"I plan on appearing before the school board tonight (Tuesday) to point out
some moral and ethical problems with the policy," he said. "The school
should look at all the other factors. There is no reasonable suspicion to
test him (Buddy) for drugs."

Willis said he has no problem having his son take a drug test to
participate in athletics or if there is evidence that a drug test is
necessary because of behavioral problems.

AHS Principal James Regenold said Buddy Willis didn't appear at school on

Regenold and Highland High School Principal Lennon Brown said no other
student has refused to take the drug test to be readmitted to school.

Superintendent Jane Kendrick said the policy is to suspend a student for
five days if he refuses to take the drug test.

Regenold said Willis will be readmitted to AHS as soon as he agrees to take
the drug test.

The current suspension runs through Jan. 9 and if Willis again refuses to
take the drug test he will be suspended for an additional five days.

ICLU attorney Ken Falk, representing the Willis family, did not return two
telephone calls to The Herald Bulletin.

US Government Brings First Tobacco Criminal Case (Justice Department Alleges
DNA Plant Technology, A California Biotechnology Firm, Conspired With
Brown & Williamson To Develop High-Nicotine Tobacco Plant)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 21:58:52 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: US: WIRE: U.S. Government Brings First Tobacco Criminal Case
Newshawk: shug 
Source: Reuters
Pubdate: Wed, 7 Jan 1998
Author: James Vicini


WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. government Wednesday brought the first
criminal charges in its tobacco industry investigation, alleging a
California biotechnology firm conspired with a cigarette maker to secretly
develop a high-nicotine tobacco plant.

Justice Department officials said DNA Plant Technology Corp., which
develops new plant varieties, has agreed to plead guilty to one count of
conspiring to violate the tobacco seed export law and to cooperate in the
3-year-old probe.

The officials said Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., the nation's third
largest cigarette maker and a unit of B.A.T Industries Plc of Britain, was
an unindicted co-conspirator in the alleged scheme to develop a genetically
altered tobacco plant with a higher nicotine content.

According to court papers, DNA Plant Technology conspired with Brown &
Williamson and its Brazilian affiliate to violate a law that bars tobacco
seed exports from the United States without a permit. The alleged
violations took place between 1984 and 1991, when the law was repealed.

The department charged that one of Brown & Williamson's goals was to
develop a reliable source of high-nicotine tobacco it could use to control
nicotine levels in its cigarettes. It said one variety, code named Y-1,
had a nicotine level of 6 percent, about twice that of normal flue-cured

It said Brown & Williamson gave the variety to the Oakland-based company,
which specializes in developing new plant varieties through genetic
engineering and advanced breeding techniques.

The department said Y-1 was allegedly grown in Brazil and other countries
to help conceal its development. Federal regulations barred the commercial
growth of such high-nicotine tobacco in the United States.

It charged that the two companies also illegally exported seeds to other
nations, including Nicaragua, Honduras, Chile, Nigeria, Costa Rica,
Argentina, Zimbabwe and Canada to explore whether they were good locations
to grow Y-1 tobacco.

The department said the two companies used code words in internal documents
to conceal the tobacco seed exports. The plantings in Brazil were called
``winter trials'' while the seeds were ``special material.''

The Department also said DNA Plant Technology deliberately concealed from
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) information about its contract with
Brown and Williamson to develop the tobacco.

The department charged that employees of the biotech firm and Brown &
Williamson illegally shipped seeds by air express or courier and smuggled
them when they traveled to Brazil.

The maximum penalty that DNA Plant faces is a $200,000 fine or twice the
gain it received under the contract. The charges were filed in federal
court in Washington, D.C.

The charges were brought as Congress prepares in the next few months to
take up a proposed national settlement under which the tobacco companies
would pay $368.5 billion in a deal negotiated last June with state

Congressional sources said the case would not likely have a direct impact
on congressional action, but could strengthen tobacco foes fighting an
industry whose public image has grown ever more tarnished.

Congressman Marty Meehan, a Massachusetts Democrat who sought the tobacco
investigation, applauded the bringing of the first case. ``I anticipate
that this is just the tip of the iceberg,'' he said.

A plea agreement is expected to be filed soon, department officials said,
adding that DNA Plant has agreed to tell what it knows about Brown &
Williamson's activities.

DNA Plant said it has agreed to cooperate in the probe and added that its
research agreement with the cigarette maker involving the Y-1 variety ended
in 1994. It said the Justice Department asked it not to comment further
because of the ongoing investigation.

Sources close to the probe said the department has been negotiating with
the biotech company in recent weeks about the terms of the plea deal.

In 1994, FDA Commissioner David Kessler testified before Congress that
Brown and Williamson had shipped Y-1 tobacco to the United States from
Brazil for use in five cigarette brands -- two varieties of Viceroy, two
varieties of Richland and Raleigh Lights King Size.


Biotech Company Admits Developing High-Nicotine Tobacco
('San Jose Mercury News' Version)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 22:08:31 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: US: Biotech company admits developing high-nicotine tobacco
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff
Source: San Jose Mercury News
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998


The U.S. government today brought the first criminal charges in its tobacco
industry investigation, alleging an Oakland-based biotechnology firm
conspired with a cigarette maker to secretly develop a high-nicotine
tobacco plant.

Justice Department officials said DNA Plant Technology Corp., which
develops new plant varieties, has agreed to plead guilty to one count of
conspiring to violate the tobacco seed export law and to cooperate in the
3-year-old probe. The officials said Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., the
nation's third largest cigarette maker, was an unindicted co-conspirator in
the alleged scheme to develop a genetically altered tobacco plant with a
higher nicotine content.

According to court papers, DNA Plant Technology conspired with Brown &
Williamson and its Brazilian affiliate to violate a law that bars tobacco
seed exports from the United States without a permit. The department
charged that one of Brown & Williamson's goals was to develop a reliable
source of high-nicotine tobacco it could use to control nicotine levels in
its cigarettes. The Department also said DNA Plan Technology deliberately
concealed from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) information about its
contract with Brown and Williamson to develop the tobacco.

The maximum penalty that DNA Plant faces is a $200,000 fine or twice the
gain it received under the contract. The charges were filed in federal
court in Washington, D.C.

US Company Charged With Plot To Develop High-Nicotine Tobacco
('Ottawa Citizen' Version)

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 22:22:32 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: U.S. Company Charged With Plot To Develop High-Nicotine Tobacco
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk:Steven Zikopoulos, szikopou@ccs.carleton.ca
Source: Ottawa Citizen
Contact: letters@thecitizen.southam.ca
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998


WASHINGTON (AP) =AD A U.S. biotechnology company agreed Wednesday to plead
guilty to conspiring with an unnamed tobacco company to grow and improve
tobacco with a high nicotine content, court papers showed.

It is the first charge filed in the Justice Department's broad
investigation of the tobacco industry. The charge was laid against DNA
Plant Technology Corp. of Oakland, Calif. The company agreed to co-operate
with the investigation.

The government cited the tobacco company as an unindicted co-conspirator
but refused to identify it by name.

The tobacco company and the biotech firm devised a scheme to secretly
improve the high-nicotine tobacco in Brazil and other foreign countries,
the government said. The two companies sent seeds to Canada and other
countries to see if they would be suitable places for growing high-nicotine

It is illegal to commercially grow high-nicotine tobacco in the United States.

The government said the tobacco company's goal was to develop a reliable
source of high-nicotine tobacco that it could use to control and manipulate
the nicotine levels of its cigarettes.

The government said the biotech company, known as DNAP, made a deal with
the tobacco company in 1983.

The tobacco company gave DNAP a strain of flue-cured tobacco, coded named
Y-1, to grow and improve. Y-1 had a nicotine level of about six per cent,
about twice the normal nicotine level of flue-cured tobacco, the Justice
Department said.

On many occasions between 1984 and 1991, the Justice Department said,
employees of the two companies illegally exported Y-1 and other tobacco
seeds to Brazil and other countries, including Canada, Nicaragua, Honduras,
Chile, Nigeria, Costa Rica, Argentina and Zimbabwe. The aim was to explore
whether these were good locations for growing Y-1 tobacco.

DNAP was charged with one misdemeanor count of conspiracy to violate the
Tobacco Seed Export law, which prohibits exporting tobacco seed without a
permit. The law prohibiting such exports was repealed in 1991.

Box Mailed To 'Miami Herald' Contained More Than $1Million Worth Of Cocaine,
Heroin (Sent From Colombia To The Paper's Business Department)

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 14:19:19 -0800
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: US FL: Box Mailed to Miami Herald
Contained More Than $1Million Worth of Cocaine, Heroin
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: "Frank S. World" 
Source: Associated Press
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998


MIAMI (January 7, 1998 08:54 a.m. EST http://www.nando.net) -- A business
editor who opened two heavy cartons mailed to The Miami Herald said she
thought they contained books. She instead found packages of cocaine and
heroin believed to be worth $1 million.

The 53 pounds of drugs wrapped in duct tape were mailed to the paper's
business department but not addressed to anyone in particular. The return
address included a man's name and a Bogota, Colombia, address.

Federal drug agents had followed the package into The Herald's building to
see who would claim it, according to the Wednesday edition of the

"This was a U.S. Customs operation," said Herald attorney Sam Terilli.
"They called. We cooperated. Our role was simple: Explain our procedures,
give them access to the building and get out of the way."

Investigators questioned the editor who opened the box, which was marked
"libros," Spanish for books. They said the woman, who was not named, was
not considered a suspect.

The Herald said it will await the outcome of a possible criminal case
before starting its own investigation.

Legal Booze Is No Excuse For Legalizing Drugs
(Misleading Letter To Editor Of 'Miami Herald')

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 06:26:23 -0800 (PST)
From: arandell@islandnet.com (Alan Randell)
Subject: Legal booze is no excuse for legalizing drugs
Resent-From: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Pubdate: January 7, 1998
Source: Miami Herald
Contact: HeraldEd@aol.com
URL: http://www.herald.com/opinion/letdocs/044174.htm

Legal booze is no excuse for legalizing drugs

A Readers' Forum letter writer uses the slaying of a Drug
Enforcement Administration agent by a drunk colleague with a
history of alcohol problems as an excuse to disband the DEA
"Alcohol is a drug, Dec. 27". The convoluted logic is that
alcohol is also a drug and that it and other drugs are a social
problem, not a legal problem. Nonsense!

Drug addiction and its physiological and psychological
consequences are medical issues. The anti-social and violent
behavior of those under its influence is a criminal-justice
issue. An August 1997 study published in the Journal of the
American Medical Association indicated that nondrug users who
live with illegal-drug users have more than an 11 times greater
chance of being the victim of a homicide than if they lived in
a drug-free home. It was 1.7 times higher if they lived with an
alcohol user.

A May 1997 study of domestic violence reported in JAMA found
that 92 percent of the assailants in the study reportedly had
used alcohol or other drugs on the day of the assault. Common
sense applies. Are people more likely to assault their loved
ones, get in bar fights, have accidents, commit crimes, etc.,
intoxicated or sober? Alcohol is legal, and dealing with crimes
committed by those under its influence is the most expensive
single expenditure of law-enforcement funds and assets. An
estimated seven to 10 times as many Americans use alcohol as
use illegal drugs. If as many people were using illegal drugs
as are using alcohol, the current rate of crime would pale by
comparison. We live with the harm of alcohol, but that is no
reason to legalize more mind-altering drugs.

We need to reduce the demand for drugs by improving and
expanding law enforcement, education, prevention, research, and
rehabilitation-and-recovery programs.

Wayne J. Roques
Pembroke Pines

JAMA Articles Referred To By 'Miami Herald' Letter To Editor (Two Studies
On Domestic Violence Associated With Illegal Drugs Report Vast Majority
Of Disturbances Involve 'Alcohol And Other Drugs,' Suicide, Weapons;
44 Percent Previously Arrested For Violent Acts; 'Use' Undifferentiated
From 'Abuse' In JAMA Terminology, Also Violence Due To Prohibition
Rather Than Illegal Substances Themselves)

Date: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 07:37:51 -0500
To: mattalk@islandnet.com
From: (Anonymous)
Subject: Re: Legal booze is no excuse for legalizing drugs (LONG)

Hi, all.

Thought you might like to read these, since they were referenced in the
letter that was published (and posted by Alan). In the first study, I
can't figure out why they didn't report the odds ratio for homicide for
drug/alcohol users living with other drug/alcohol users (they only talk
about drug/alcohol users living with non-drug/alcohol users -- probably
only a small proportion of their sample). I'd like to see the actual study
this was based on for that type of info, but the AMA isn't *that* liberal
with JAMA articles online.

See also the science news update at the end of each abstract.


JAMA Abstracts - August 20, 1997

Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse and the Risk of Violent Death in the Home

Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH; Beth A. Mueller, DrPH; Grant Somes, PhD;
Carmen T. Mendoza, MSPH; Norman B. Rushforth, PhD; Arthur L. Kellermann,

Context.-While acute alcohol and illicit drug use are common in homicide
and suicide victims, the role of chronic substance use in violent death is

Objective.-To measure the magnitude of risk of violent death in the home
associated with alcohol use or chronic abuse and use of illicit drugs.

Data Sources.-Data obtained from a case-control study of risk factors for
homicide and suicide in 3 large metropolitan areas of the United States.

Design.-Matched case-control study including 388 homicide cases, 438
suicide cases, and equal numbers of controls matched for age, sex, race,
neighborhood, and county. Data were analyzed by means of conditional
logistic regressions in which other potential risk factors for violent
death were also considered.

Outcome and Exposure Measures.-Homicide and suicide victims were identified
from medical examiner reports in Shelby County, Tennessee; King County,
Washington; and Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Structured interviews were conducted
with proxy respondents close to the decedents to obtain information about
alcohol or illicit drug use, and history of alcohol-related hospitalization
or trouble at work because of drinking by the subject. Data about alcohol
use by others living in the same house as the subject were also obtained.

Results.-The risks of homicide and suicide associated with alcohol or
illicit drug use were elevated, as were the risks of violent death
associated with several indicators of chronic alcohol abuse. In addition,
nondrinkers living in a home with alcohol users were at increased risk of
homicide (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-3.0), and
non-drug-using individuals residing in homes with illicit drug users were
at greatly increased risk of homicide (odds ratio, 11.3; 95% confidence
interval, 4.4-28.8).

Conclusions.-Alcohol and illicit drug use appear to be associated with an
increased risk of violent death. The risk of homicide was increased for
non-substance-abusing individuals living in households in which other
members abused alcohol or drugs. The concept of the individual at risk of
homicide should be broadened to include not only the abuser but also those
who may be at risk because of their exposure to others.

JAMA. 1997;278:569-575

>From the Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Seattle, Wash
(Drs Rivara and Mueller); Department of Epidemiology, University of
Washington, Seattle (Drs Rivara and Mueller and Ms Mendoza); Department of
Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis (Dr Somes);
Department of Biology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and
Center for Adolescent Health, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland,
Ohio (Dr Rushforth); and Emory Center for Injury Control, Emory University,
Atlanta, Ga (Dr Kellermann).

EDITOR'S NOTE.-The authors of this study found that alcohol and illicit
drug abuse are strong risk factors for violent death in the home. The risk
of violent death was observed to be greatest for the abusers themselves,
but the risk was also elevated for other members of the household who did
not abuse alcohol or illicit drugs. This elevated risk was independent of
the presence of a gun in the home.

Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH, Contributing Editor

Science News Update:

elevated for other household members

CHICAGO-Not only are alcohol and illicit drug users at increased risk for
violent death, but so are members of their household, according to an
article in the August 20 issue of The Journal of the American Medical
Association (JAMA).

Frederick P. Rivara, M.D., M.P.H., from the Harborview Injury Prevention
and Research Center, Seattle, Wash., and colleagues studied data from 438
suicides and 388 homicides to determine the risk of violent death in the
home associated with alcohol and illicit drug use. These cases were
compared to an equal number of non-substance users.

The authors write: "In this study, a history of alcohol and drug use by the
subject was strongly associated with increased risks of both homicide and
suicide, and increases were generally observed among all sex and racial
subgroups examined."

They found that subjects using both alcohol and other drugs have 12 times
the risk of being murdered and 16.6 times the risk of suicide as that of
non-substance users. Those who had trouble at work related to drinking had
17.9 times the risk of being killed.

The researchers add that those living in the same household as substance
abusers are also at increased risk of homicide. They found that nondrinkers
face 1.7 times the risk of homicide when living with alcohol users while
non-drug users face 11.3 times the risk of homicide when living with
illicit drug users.

Alcohol is a factor in a large proportion of violent deaths, including both
homicides and suicides. Homicide studies in the United States and other
countries have reported high rates of alcohol use by the victim,
perpetrator or both. Similar rates of alcoholism and other drugs have been
detected in suicide victims, according to information cited in the study.

The authors state: "This study supports the need to address alcohol and
drug abuse and its relationship to risk of violent death. The problem of
substance abuse should be addressed on multiple levels, including primary
and secondary prevention, and should include screening for alcohol and
substance abuse problems in the emergency department, particularly in
trauma patients, or at other points of contact, as well as in other
settings for persons with depression, mental illness or suicide attempts.
Brief interventions by primary care physicians can have a significant
effect on weekly excessive alcohol use and binge drinking. In addition,
people with alcoholism should be assessed for concomitant depression and
treated accordingly."

They continue: "Our concept of the individual at risk for violent death
should be broadened to include not only the substance abuser, but also
those who may be at risk because of the presence of others within the
household who are substance abusers."

They conclude: "The problems of violence in our society is a complex one
and will require multifaceted solutions. This study indicates that
addressing the problem of substance abuse on many levels may have a
substantial impact on rates of violence and should be pursued." (JAMA.


JAMA Abstracts - May 7, 1997

Characteristics of Participants in Domestic Violence

Assessment at the Scene of Domestic Assault

Daniel Brookoff, MD, PhD; Kimberly K. O'Brien; Charles S. Cook, MA; Terry
D. Thompson; Charles Williams, PhD

Objective.--To evaluate the characteristics of victims and perpetrators of
domestic assault.

Design and Setting.--Consecutive-sample survey study conducted at the
scenes of police calls for domestic assault in Memphis, Tenn, in 1995.

Participants.--A total of 136 participants (72 victims and 64 assailants)
involved in 62 incidents of domestic violence and 75 adult family members
at the scene.

Main Outcome Measures.--Participants' responses to a confidential survey
and review of police records.

Results.--Of 62 episodes of domestic assault, 42 (68%) involved weapons and
11 (15%) resulted in serious injury. Fifty-five (89%) of 62 assault victims
reported previous assaults by their current assailants, 19 (35%) of them on
a daily basis. Although nearly all assault victims had called the police
for help on previous occasions, only 12 (22%) reported having ever sought
medical care, counseling, or shelter because of domestic assault. Sixty
(92%) of the 64 assailants reportedly used alcohol or other drugs on the
day of the assault. Of the assailants, 28 (44%) had a history of arrest for
charges related to violence, and 46 (72%) had an arrest for substance
abuse. Eleven (15%) of the victims were children. Children directly
witnessed 53 (85%) of the assaults.

Conclusions.--Most victims of domestic violence who had called the police
rarely used medical or mental health facilities for problems related to
family violence despite frequent assaults. Victims and assailants were
willing to discuss their histories of family violence and undergo
assessments at the scenes of police calls.

JAMA. 1997;277:1369-1373

Science News Update:

domestic assaults involve alcohol; many involve weapons

CHICAGO--Despite repeated assaults, most domestic violence victims who call
police in a crisis rarely use medical or mental health facilities to help
ease problems in the family, according to an article in this week's issue
of The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Daniel Brookoff, M.D., Ph.D., of Methodist Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee,
and colleagues confidentially surveyed 72 domestic violence victims and 42
accused assailants at the scenes of the domestic assaults, in November 1995.

The research team , which included a physician and a nurse or paramedic,
looked at 62 episodes of domestic assault. They found that police were
often the only authorities contacted by victims: "Although nearly all
assault victims had called the police for help on previous occasions, only
12 (22 percent) reported having ever sought medical care, counseling or
shelter because of domestic assault."

Among other findings of the study:

68 percent of the domestic assault incidents involved weapons. 15 percent
resulted in serious injury. 89 percent of assaulted victims reported
previous assaults by their current assailants--35 percent of them on a
daily basis. 92 percent of assailants reportedly used alcohol or other
drugs on the day of the assault.

Despite obvious injuries, many female victims asked the survey team to
intercede with the police to stop the arrest of their assailants. The
researchers write: "One barrier to seeking help that victims mentioned was
the prospect that seeking care or assistance in the prosecution of their
assailants would escalate the violence."

Children were directly involved in a number of incidents: "Eight victims
(11 percent) were younger than 12 years; all of them were the children of
female victims who witnessed or had attempted to intervene in the assault
of their mothers." In many cases, the researchers observed children--some
as young as two--emulating violent behavior.

They conclude: "Without timely identification and intervention, children
who witness family violence may perceive such behavior as usual or
acceptable, thus ensuring that the violence will continue."

Detecting Partner Violence in the Emergency Department

Three brief questions can detect a large number of women with a history of
partner abuse, according to another study in this week's issue of JAMA.

Kim M. Feldhaus, M.D., of the Denver Health Medical Center, Colorado, and
colleagues developed a three-question instrument called the partner
violence screen (PVS). It was tested in the emergency departments at Denver
General Hospital and University Hospital in Denver in the summer of 1994.
Three hundred twenty-two women who sought emergency care during selected
time blocks took part in the study.

Research assistants using the PVS asked the women these questions:

(1) "Have you been hit, kicked, punched or otherwise hurt by someone within
the past year? If so, by whom?" (2) "Do you feel safe in your current
relationship?" (3) "Is there a partner from a previous relationship who is
making you feel unsafe now?"

The women were then asked to complete the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) which
measures the severity of physical and nonphysical abuse inflicted on a
woman by her partner. Finally, the women were questioned using the Conflict
Tactics Scale (CTS), which measures the use of reasoning, verbal
aggression, and physical violence in resolving family conflicts.

The researchers found the brief PVS to be quite effective: "The three
questions took an average of 20 seconds to administer, far less time than
measuring the patient's routine vital signs. The three questions detected
71.4 percent of women identified as abused by the detailed 19-item CTS. The
PVS also detected 64.5 percent of women who were identified as abused on
the 30-item ISA."

The researchers point out that "the highest prevalence rate of partner
violence was noted among women with only a previous relationship and no
current partner."

They conclude: "All women seeking care in emergency departments should be
asked directly about partner violence, regardless of marital status or
current relationships ... Patients with positive screens should have this
history documented in the medical record, and they should be offered
support, counseling, or at the very least, referrals to safe shelters and
an action plan to ensure their future safety."

Editorial: Learning From the Paradoxes of Domestic Violence

In an accompanying editorial in this week's JAMA, Anne Flitcraft, M.D., of
the University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, describes domestic
violence as "a phenomenon built on the apparent contradiction of love and

She points to some of the paradoxes--including an incident mentioned by
Brookoff and colleagues, in which the assailant actually calls the police,
and the victim appears to protect the assailant when investigators arrive.

She notes that Feldhaus and colleagues make an important point: "Ending the
violence is not simply about ending the relationship. To the contrary, of
women seen in emergency departments who reported feeling unsafe ... more
than half attributed their fears to ongoing abuse by a past partner."

Emphasizing that domestic violence is a major cause of injury, disability,
homicide, homelessness, addiction, attempted suicide and child abuse, Dr.
Flitcraft concludes that these studies remind us of "the need to address
the status of health, justice and human rights in our communities."

Behind Bars (Public Broadcasting's 'NewsHour with Jim Lehrer'
Reports On New CASA Study Alleging 80 Percent Of America's 1.7 Million
Prisoners Are There Due To 'Abuse' Of Alcohol, Other Drugs)

Date: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 19:26:14 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US: PBS NewsHour Transcript: Behind Bars - Califano & McCollum
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Source: The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, PBS
Contact: newshour@pbs.org
Pubdate: Thursday, 7 Jan 1998


Of 1.7 million people in prison in the US, 1.4 million cases involve
substance abuse a Columbia University study reported. Alcohol abuse is
especially widespread among our nation's criminals. Treatment programs
within prisons are being used to fight this growing problem. Jim Lehrer
spoke to Rep. Bill McCollum (R) Florida, and Joseph Califano.

JIM LEHRER: Now to today's report stating drug and alcohol abuse are
involved in the incarceration of 80 percent of the people now in American
prisons. Joseph Califano is chairman and president of Columbia University's
National Center on Addiction & Substance Abuse which issued the report.
He's joined tonight by Congressman Bill McCollum, Republican of Florida,
chairman of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime.

Mr. Califano, how strong are these connections between the 80 percent of
the prisoners and drug and alcohol abuse?

JOSEPH CALIFANO, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse: Well,
they're very strong. We have 1.7 million people in prison in this country;
1.4 million are there either because they violated drug and alcohol laws,
because they were high at the time that they committed their crime, were on
alcohol or drugs, because they stole money to buy drugs, or because they
have a history of alcohol and drug abuse. So really we have prisons that
are wall-to-wall with individuals with drug and alcohol problems.

JIM LEHRER: And is it--is your report and your study, has it concluded that
those people wouldn't be in prison if they had not been alcohol and drug

JOSEPH CALIFANO: Two--of the 1.4 million 200,000 are drug dealers who do
not use drugs. The other 1.2 million are people hundreds of thousands of
whom would not be in prison if they did not use drugs and alcohol. And when
we release them from prison without treating them, what we're really doing
is visiting on society alcoholics and drug addicts who will commit crimes,
who are visiting criminals on society. And when we release drug addicts
without treating them, we're releasing from prison individuals who are
supporting drug dealers and the drug market.

JIM LEHRER: All right. I want to get to that part of it in a moment, but I
want to first go back to--I want to go to Congressman McCollum. Do you
dispute the basic finding, the 80 percent finding?

REP. BILL McCOLLUM, (R) Florida: Well, first of all, I want to say that I
have a great deal of respect for Joseph Califano. He has had a tremendous
record and does right now on trying to fight the war on drugs and do it the
right way. And I think this report--in general, what I know about it--is an
excellent report. But I would say that there are some questionable facets
to it. For example, the report, itself, says that the 80 percent figure is
based upon the implication of drug involvement by a great many of these
people. And it defines what implication to drugs means. And part of that
definition includes those who have had regular use, which are further
defined as little as one dose or one use of marijuana a week for a month.

Now, I don't doubt that most of the people who are in jail say--and prisons
around this country have some connection with the drug problem, and they
should be treated, and they need to be treated. In fact, in the federal
system the good news is that by the end of this fiscal year, by the 1st of
October this year we're in right now every single eligible prisoner in the
federal prison system will be in a drug treatment program. That's the good
news. And the states now are not necessarily in that state of affairs. And
the bad news also is that even in the federal system the effectiveness, the
success rate of these treatment programs is only about 10 percent, better
than the private side, but not nearly as good as it should be.

JIM LEHRER: Mr. Califano, what did your study find about the treatment and
the effectiveness of treatment in federal, state, and also compared to

JOSEPH CALIFANO: Let me--also, I'd like to clarify just one thing for Rep.
McCollum, who is also a great battler in this important war for our
country. Regular drug use is defined as it's traditionally defined, which
is the use of drugs twice a week at a minimum for a period of at least a
month. Of the roughly several hundred thousand regular drug users that are
in prison most of them were regular drug users in the month prior to their
arrest, and most of them were tested positive for drugs. And the drugs they
tested positive for were by and large heroin and cocaine and not marijuana.
Secondly, alcohol is the drug most connected with violent crime, which the
report indicates. On your question with respect to treatment, basically the
federal budget in fiscal 1997, .9 of 1 percent of the prison budget, $25
million, was spent for treatment. That is going up as Congressman McCollum
knows. With respect to the states, basically the need for treatment has
gone up. And, remember, of the 1.7 million prisoners 1.6 million are in
state prisoners. The federal part of this problem is the tail of the dog.
And as the need for treatment has gone up roughly eight hundred and fifty,
eight hundred and sixty thousand people who need treatment, those who are
getting treatment has gone down. Less than 150,000 got treatment. And what
is called treatment in prison, in state prisons, is often woefully
inadequate. It's a little education; it's a little of this. The kind of
treatment we think is needed is an intensive residential treatment for most
of these people, along with job training and literacy training, whatever
they need to get them up to a high school equivalency.

JIM LEHRER: Congressman, do you agree with that, that treatment in prison
of these billions of prisoners could do tremendous things?

REP. BILL McCOLLUM: I think that it would, now not alone, but it is very
important that it happen. And it's not happening well today. As I said
earlier, I think the figure I used is correct, that only about a 10 percent
success rate exists in any of these treatment programs, that being higher
again out in the civil world, where drug treatment programs don't have
prisoners incarcerated. So I agree with that part of the report. I also
think it's important, though, to know that as we go through this process,
the violent criminal is being incarcerated for longer and longer periods of
time for justification and good reason, and that, in fact, the person who's
there and being treated, the treatment alone is not the sole answer. In
other words, we need to have a combination of photos.

We need, as Mr. Califano said, to be sure we have prison industry programs
at work, job training programs at work; when the prisoners go out, they are
followed, which they're not today--in most of our prison systems when
they're released to the degree necessary. There's a lot to this. And right
now one of the more remarkable things is that we have seen the crime rate,
the violent crime rate, coming down I think in large measure because we
have extended the length of stay in prisons for many people who are
involved in these violent crimes and serious drug trafficking offenses by
the truth and sentencing laws that most--more than 50 percent of the states
now have passed and the federal government has--it says you have to serve
at least 85 percent of your sentences to stop the revolving door that was
in presence in this country for so long in the prison system.

JIM LEHRER: Congressman--

JOSEPH CALIFANO: We have slowed the revolving door. We haven't stopped it.
I think it is important to note that, on average, people get out of prison
in one and a half to four years; that even with the sentences that
Congressman McCollum is talking about people for crimes like aggravated
assault are getting out on an average in three years, so that if we want to
continue to use crime in this country, we've got to make sure that when
these people are released, we have given them the treatment and training
they need to become taxpaying, law abiding citizens, and that we're not
simply releasing more criminals on society because they are getting out.

JIM LEHRER: Congressman McCollum, what about Mr. Califano's earlier point
that, that it's--that the violent crime is being committed more by alcohol
abusers than drug abusers--does that jibe with your subcommittee's finding
as well?

REP. BILL McCOLLUM: Well, I haven't studied his report and I'm looking
forward to be able to see it in detail, but what we see out there is that
drugs and alcohol are definitely involved, but I'm not ready to say that
our studies have shown up to this point the connection that he's saying his
report does show. What I do--

JOSEPH CALIFANO: Our analysis is to--our analysis, and we will--the report,
I think, is in your office.

REP. BILL McCOLLUM: We're looking forward to reading it in detail. JOSEPH
CALIFANO: And we want to work with you on it. 21 percent of the individuals
in state prison who are incarcerated for violent crime were high on alcohol
only at the time of their crime. 3 percent were high on crack cocaine only
and 1 percent on heroin only. In the jails it's about 26 percent in
comparable lower percentages.

REP. BILL McCOLLUM: I also want to say, if I could, Mr. Califano, that I
don't disagree with your numbers with respect to the amount of people
getting out earlier than they really should be. But the reality is that we
need to get the other half of the states to go to this 85 percent
sentencing rule to get truth in sentencing throughout the nation. And that
would make a huge difference in this, but it does require, in addition to
that, everything you've said about the need to come forward with better
drug treatment programs, more drug treatment programs in the states, as
well as the prison training, and the opportunity to get jobs when they get

JIM LEHRER: What about his point also, Congressman, that--and the report's
point--that if these folks are not treated, they go to prison only, even if
they stay for many years, they come back out still addicted to either
alcohol or drugs, and just become--become repeat customers, or out on the

REP. BILL McCOLLUM: I think that's absolutely correct, but I think that
there's something that's not in this report that needs to be said too
because the report didn't try to cover this apparently. And that is that in
those few states where we really have good prison industry systems and
they're not as complete anyway as we'd like, the recidivism rate where
those states exist with these programs is very low, compared to where they
don't. And we need very, very much to have prison industries reviewed. I
think that is equally important to the drug treatment issue as is the
question of how we deal with drug treatment in those who are addicted, or
those who are alcoholics.

JIM LEHRER: Mr. Califano, you've issued your report--250 pages. How long
did your folks work on this, three years?

JOSEPH CALIFANO: It took three years to do this.

JIM LEHRER: Three years. Okay. Now, what happens? What happens now?

JOSEPH CALIFANO: I think now what happens, fortunately, a couple of good
things happen. One, I'd like to say treatment and training in prison is a
tremendously sound investment for taxpayers. We estimate that if we treated
all of those 1.2 million prisoners, it would cost about $7.8 billion, about
$6500 each. And the return on that investment in the first year would be
more than $8 billion, and we'd have tremendous returns thereafter. What
happens now, one, I think largely because of our report, the drug czar
announced today that he's going to call a conference in March of experts in
the treatment and training area. And Mr. McConnell is exactly right.
Training and work is very important to go along with this. And that will
lead to a conference in October or November with several hundred people
from all the states in this country.

JIM LEHRER: All right.

JOSEPH CALIFANO: We need a revolution in the way we think about people in
prison, and we need, as I said in the report, a second front in the war on



JIM LEHRER: We have to leave it there. Gentlemen, thank you both very much.

Crackdown On The Border Is Paying Off, Officials Say ('Operation Rio Grande'
Along South Texas Border Said To Result In 'A Dramatic Drop In Arrests
Of Illegal Immigrants,' Although 'Marijuana And Cocaine Seizures
Have Increased,' Operation 'Has Failed To Shut Down The Principal
Smuggling Corridor On US 77' - 'It's A Slow Process,' Says Commander)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 22:11:40 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US TX: Crackdown On The Border Is Paying Off, Officials Say
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: Art Smart 
Source: Houston Chronicle
Page: Page One, Front Page
Author: James Pinkerton
Contact: viewpoints@chron.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.chron.com/

Crackdown on the border is paying off, officials say

McALLEN -- Border Patrol officials said Tuesday that it is too early to
pronounce Operation Rio Grande a success, but claimed a dramatic drop in
arrests of illegal immigrants is attributable to the unprecedented federal
buildup in South Texas that began in August.

Moreover, Border Patrol agents for the first time are confident that
Washington has given them adequate tools -- hundreds of new officers,
vehicles and an array of high-tech equipment -- to begin controlling a
notoriously porous and violent stretch of the Texas-Mexico border.
Shootouts with drug traffickers and immigrant smugglers are so common in
the McAllen sector that agents must wear bulletproof vests and carry
military assault rifles on the river.

"I'm very, very satisfied with what's going on, but it's going to take time
-- it's a slow process," said Chief Joe Garza, who heads the McAllen
sector, which includes 282 miles along the Rio Grande.

The Border Patrol sector chief said crime has decreased in Brownsville, the
largest city in the Rio Grande Valley, a drop city police attribute to the
increased federal presence in city streets. Since the operation began,
arrests of illegal immigrants in the 17,000-square-mile sector have dropped
by as much as 5,400 a month, when compared with the same time in 1996.

However, Garza emphasized the operation has failed to shut down the
principal smuggling corridor on U.S. 77, used by an estimated 75 percent of
undocumented immigrants who cross the border. Smugglers operate safe houses
in and around the community of Raymondville, and walk their clients around
the Border Patrol's highway checkpoint farther north.

Garza said his Raymondville detail arrested 97 illegal immigrants Monday
night, and noted the arrest rate has dropped slightly so far this year.
Garza said that in the past, Border Patrol operations in his sector would
be launched and "two or three days later we would be out of gas, out of
time or out of money, and we'd have to go back to business as usual and the
smugglers would just wait us out."

Operation Rio Grande, launched in Brownsville last Aug. 25, has massed
hundreds of Border Patrol agents along the Rio Grande in traditional
crossing areas. The number of personnel has increased from 498 in 1995 to
849 today.

Along with the additional agents, 38 batteries of floodlights are trained
on the brush river banks, and a trio of long-range, low- light telescopes
have been mounted in strategic buildings and now scan the border.

"With Operation Rio Grande, we have changed our mindset," Garza said at a
Tuesday news briefing. "I think we have the will ... and the resources and
the support -- not only from the community, but from our own people, our
administration in Washington plus our Congress -- to take control of the

Marijuana and cocaine seizures have increased since the operation got under
way as agents stop more vehicles driving away from the river and uncover
more drug caches along the border.

Meanwhile, immigration officials who are stationed at the Valley's
international bridges report a record number of immigrants using false
documents, including 67 arrested over New Year's weekend. Since the
operation began, 2,278 people using fraudulent or borrowed documents have
been arrested.

An Immigration and Naturalization Service official speculated that many of
those arrested were trying to avoid Operation Rio Grande.

But Operation Rio Grande has it critics, including immigration rights
groups. Activists say it has not cut down on the flow of illegals but has
been a boon to the "coyotes," as immigrant smugglers are known.

"Well, more than anything it is pushing people out west" into remote
brushlands up river, said Nathan Selzer, with the Valley Coalition for
Justice. "There is a concern if you push people away from the populated
areas, there will be more risks."

Garza, the Border Patrol sector chief, said there was not a single abuse
complaint during Operation Rio Grande that has been substantiated. However,
Selzer said his group is investigating five incidents including a man who
claims Border Patrol agents broke his arm after his arrest.

"What we've run into is a great reluctance of people to go forward to the
government with allegations of abuse ... there is very little faith they
won't be retaliated against," said Selzer, who works out of Harlingen.

Operation Rio Grande is the third intensive operation this decade by the
Border Patrol where agents are placed within sight of each other along the
border, and is similar in some respects to earlier efforts in El Paso and
San Diego. In all three instances, the operations have been popular with
merchants in border cities who have for years put up with shoplifters,
petty thieves and burglars who slip across the border to commit crimes.

"The Border Patrol presence downtown has contributed in a positive way to
decreasing the crime rate in Brownsville," said local police Lt. Henry

"It runs the whole array. You have strong-arm robbers holding up people and
running back to Mexico, and at night we used to have burglars who broke
into businesses through the roofs. And that has decreased," he said.

As in El Paso, gone are the scruffy squads of Mexican youths who stationed
themselves on busy Brownsville intersections and washed windshields or
juggled balls, asking for a few coins in return.

Fatal Heroin Overdose Rattles Family Of Haltom City Man
(Alcohol Impaired Recovering Texas Addict,
Sister-In-Law Tells 'Dallas Morning News')

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 20:49:13 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US TX: Fatal Heroin Overdose Rattles Family Of Haltom City Man
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: adbryan@onramp.net
Source: Dallas Morning News
Author: Dave Michaels, The Dallas Morning News
Contact: letterstoeditor@dallasnews.com
Pubdate: Wed, 7 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.dallasnews.com


Alcohol Impaired Recovering Addict, Sister-in-law Says

As a recovering drug abuser, Robert Hampton seemed to have adjusted his
path from crooked to straight. The 51-year-old plumber was driving a new
truck, taking care of his ailing mother and saving money, relatives said.

Doing heroin seemed like the last thing on his mind.

But, impaired by a night of drinking whiskey-and-Cokes, the Haltom City
resident turned to heroin one last time, said Shirley Hampton, his
sister-in-law. About five hours later, Mrs. Hampton found him dead, slumped
over in a bathroom with a charred spoon, a belt and a syringe at his side,
police said.

Mr. Hampton's Dec. 30 death was the second suspected fatal heroin overdose
in Tarrant County in a week, authorities said. Eric Lee Higgins, 20, of
Bedford, was found dead in his bedroom Dec. 29. Friends and relatives have
said Mr. Higgins had used heroin that night.

Additionally, authorities are awaiting toxicology results to determine
whether a third death - that of Keller resident Bruce Allen Fann, 36, on
Friday - may have been linked to heroin abuse, said Keller police Lt. Tommy

Heroin is also considered the cause of a near-fatal overdose Sunday in
Hurst, where a 17-year-old was found at a friend's house in the 1700 block
of Renee Drive in a "crisis state," police said. He was treated at North
Hills Medical Center and later released, Detective Doug Blue said.

It was the second close call for the youth, who was treated at a Bedford
hospital for a heroin overdose in late November, police said.

Detective Kyle Barton, a Haltom City police spokesman, said authorities are
awaiting toxicology results on Mr. Hampton and on residue found on the
spoon, though drug paraphernalia that was found suggests he injected heroin
before dying.

But Mrs. Hampton said her brother-in-law seemed to have abandoned the vice
at least a year ago.

"I think what happened is he had been drinking whiskey. Real stiff drinks,
like one-fourth a cup of soda pop and the rest whiskey and ice," Mrs.
Hampton, 55, said. "If he did [overdose], I think it was an accident. He
was too drunk to know what he was doing. But, of course, he shouldn't have
been doing it anyway."

Family members never suspected that Mr. Hampton still used heroin, they
said, if only because he looked healthy and worked hard. A large man with a
healthy appetite, he was a "caring, forgiving man, a sweet person," Mrs.
Hampton said.

He leaves behind two grown sons, a stepdaughter and four grandchildren, she
said. One of the grandchildren was born the night he died, she said.

"Stay away from heroin. Nothing but harm comes from it," she said.
"Watching this episode take place, it is just so hard on the family. Your
family suffers, not just you."

Mr. Hampton's niece, Cynthia Kellar, said her uncle's death offers lessons
for others thinking of experimenting with heroin.

"To all the kids to who think drugs are a joke, it's just like playing
Russian roulette. You don't ever know if this is the one time the bullet
rolls around," said Ms. Kellar, 26. "No matter what, life is too precious
to waste for a few seconds of pleasure."

Administrator Says Hospital 'Vindicated' - Riverside's
Substance Abuse Funding Will Be Reimbursed By State Commission
(Texas Commission On Alcohol And Drug Abuse Will Pay Houston Hospital
$2 Million For Treatment Provided While Its Sate Funding Was Suspended
During A Three-Year, $6 Million Investigation Into Alleged Misuse Of Funds
By Scores Of TCADA Contractors, Which Turned Up Nothing)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 22:15:01 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US TX: Riverside's Substance Abuse Funding
Will Be Reimbursed By State Commission
Newshawk: Art Smart 
Source: Houston Chronicle
Author: Mark Smith
Contact: viewpoints@chron.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.chron.com/

Administrator says hospital 'vindicated'


The Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse will reimburse Houston's
Riverside General Hospital for substance abuse treatment it provided while
its state funding was suspended during an investigation.

A Riverside official said Tuesday that the hospital expects to receive some
$2 million in back claims for services rendered but not reimbursed during
an investigation of Riverside and other TCADA contractors.

In a letter last month to Riverside officials, TCADA Executive Director
Terry Faye Bleier said the hospital is now in good standing with the agency.

TCADA agreed in November to reinstate up to $1.6 million budgeted for
Riverside in the current fiscal year, pending financial and program reviews.

Riverside General and its administrator, Earnest Gibson, were key targets
in the statewide investigation into alleged misuse of funds by scores of
TCADA contractors. During the probe, TCADA withheld payments on existing
contracts with Riverside General.

"I feel the hospital and myself have been vindicated following the state's
investigation," Gibson said. "I think it was clear the hospital provided
exceptional services to this community.

"We were hopeful that it would take no more than 90 days to resolve the
dispute, but it dragged on nearly three years," Gibson said. "My real
regret is the devastating effect this had on the substance abuse industry
in the state of Texas. I believe it was all unnecessary."

TCADA administers state funds used to pay contractors who provide substance
abuse treatment. During the probe, state investigators and auditors
questioned claims totaling more than $50 million by 158 TCADA contractors.
Riverside's questioned claims totaled about $7 million.

Texas Department of Public Safety investigators said that more than 22
programs statewide would be referred to local authorities for possible

And a legislative committee investigating allegations of wrongdoing among
TCADA contractors even hired a private detective to probe Gibson's
financial compensation.

But only a few indictments were returned. And though Texas Rangers
presented Harris County prosecutors with evidence against six Houston-area
providers, including Riverside General, none was indicted.

The $7 million in questioned claims at Riverside has been whittled to
$238,000, and the hospital is challenging that. The $50 million questioned
statewide has shrunk to $6.8 million.

The rest turned out to be legitimate and adequately documented under state
guidelines, TCADA officials now say.

In all, the investigation cost thousands of man-hours and more than $6
million, including $3.6 million paid to a private auditing firm.

Bleier's letter appears to follow the recommendation of a senior
administrative law judge. After listening to more than a month of testimony
last year, Earl Corbitt, a senior administrative law judge with the State
Office of Administrative Hearings, found that TCADA did not act in good
faith during negotiations prior to terminating Riverside General's
contracts. The judge also found that TCADA's decision was "arbitrary and

Corbitt recommended that TCADA reinstate all of Riverside's contracts
except an outpatient program for women, and said that one could be
reinstated if Riverside met certain management and personnel conditions.

The judge's recommendation was submitted to the TCADA Board for a final
decision, but it never came to a board vote because of the agreement
between Riverside and TCADA staff to restore this year's fiscal year funding.

Marijuana Is Medicine (Letter To Editor Of 'Lethbridge Herald'
In Canada About History Of Cannabis As Herbal Medicine)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 17:36:07
From: Kathy galbraith 
Subject: Marijuana is medicine
Resent-Sender: mattalk-request@listserv.islandnet.com
To: editor@lis.ab.ca
From: Kathy galbraith 
Subject: Marijuana is medicine

The Lethbridge Herald, Jan. 7, 1998.

Dear Editor,

In response to your article of Dec.11, "Portions of
marijuana law unconstitutional, judge rules", of course this
herbal medicine should be available for proper and responsible

As a long-time student and practitioner of herbal medicine
and natural healing methods, I wondered why most herbal texts do
not even mention marijuana/cannabis/hemp. The best and most
comprehensive text in my library, School of Natural Healing, by
Dr. John R. Christopher, lists it as a sleep aid,
relaxant, pain killer, antispasmodic, and female corrective. Latest
evidence shows it is effective for relieving the pain and spasms
of MS, seizures of epilepsy, migraines, ghost-pain of amputees,
chronic pain of some sorts, some depressions, premenstrual disorder,
glaucoma, AIDS wasting & nausea, and cancer nausea. Queen Victoria
used it, as prescribed by her physician for PMS and migraines.

The British Medical Association and the New England
Journal of Medicine have both asked that it be made available
to those who need it immediately, and patients who have been denied
it have been desperate enough to get themselves arrested just to
protest the status quo.(Lynn Harichy, mother, grandmother, medical
student, and MS sufferer in London, Ont.)

No one has ever died from a pot overdose, it does not kill
or harm the cells of the body. There are many ways to use it besides
smoking; a chronic pain patient from Halifax says one mj brownie lasts
and works better than several Tylenol 3's.

Surely it is time to adopt a rational, compassionate approach
instead of allowing pot sales to line the pockets of biker-gangs
who don't care whether they sell to a cancer patient or a child in the
school yard. Recent polls show the majority of Canadians favor
changing the law to allow responsible use.

Regulation would put cannabis/mj where it belongs - in the
drugstore, health food store and herb garden, alongside the other
herbs God gave us to use, like parsley, sage, garlic, and mint.

Kathy Galbraith
Midwife, teacher,
student of natural healing.


Kathy Galbraith e-mail: GALBRAITH@upanet.uleth.ca
Public Access Internet
The University of Lethbridge

Suing For Peace In The War On Drugs (A Vancouver, BC, Constable
Concludes That Prohibition Just Won't Work)

Source: Globe and Mail (Toronto)
Contact: letters@globeandmail.ca
Published: Wednesday, January 7, 1998
Author: Robert Matas in Vancouver


After 15 years in the trenches, a constable concludes that prohibition
just won't work

Vancouver -- PUSHERS, addicts and the hapless victims of drug-related
crime -- they have all drawn their share of media attention. But
consider for a moment the perspective of the person the public sends
to the front line in the war on drugs: the police officer.

Thanks in large part to Hollywood, the stereotype is that of the
crusading cop who tracks down dealers against insurmountable odds and
rarely appears to be troubled by the strung-out junkies encountered
along the way. This image of indifference to the human cost of drug
use is so pervasive that it's a shock when a real cop speaks out and
expresses sympathy for those tangled up with narcotics.

Gil Puder has done that and much more. Last week, he stepped out of
his role as a Vancouver police constable and called publicly for the
decriminalization of heroin and cocaine. In an article in a local
newspaper, he maintained that drug abuse is a health issue, rather
than a criminal one.

But Const. Puder did not stop there. He also pointed fingers, accusing
federal Health Minister Alan Rock of ducking the issue and suggesting
that B.C. Attorney-General Ujjal Dosanjh "would rather talk tough and
count the bodies."

He wondered whether the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police has
been silent on the issue because its members have built their careers
on drug enforcement.

Even his own force has not escaped criticism. Last month it raided The
Cannabis Cafe, a local diner that provides customers with pipes to
smoke marijuana, although it does not sell the drug.

Const. Puder likens the raid to a Keystone Kops episode. "I was
there," he said in an interview, "doing crowd control." The goal of
the exercise, he suspects, was not just to enforce the law but to put
the controversial cafe‚ -- an attraction for visitors from the United
States and the rest of Canada -- out of business.

"Most of the guys just shrugged their shoulders and wondered why they
were there."

The article in the Vancouver Sun was written, says Const. Puder,
because, after 15 years on duty, he was finally fed up.

Drugs and violence have been part of his entire career. A few years
after joining the police, he shot and killed an addict who was robbing
a bank. In 1987, a friend, Sergeant Larry Young, was shot during a
drug raid. This year he spent New Year's Day in a flop house, watching
an ambulance team trying to save a junkie's life.

But the incident that really hit home happened back in November. A
young addict had died and he had to break the news to his mother. A
recent immigrant from Eastern Europe, she was already mourning the
unexpected death of her husband and now found herself all alone in a
strange land. She started talking about suicide.

According to Const. Puder, a police officer always finds it easier to
depersonalize a situation and just do his or her job. But after this
incident, he felt truly tired of repeatedly having to cope with
violent death.

Unfortunately, he says, no one seems prepared to address the
situation. Officials agree that the drug problem finances criminal
organizations, drives Vancouver's HIV epidemic, and perpetuates the
petty and major crimes that swamp the courts. They recognize that
prohibition of drugs has its limitations, and acknowledge that tighter
enforcement has proved futile.

Nevertheless, he contends, the federal government appears to be more
frightened by the opposition Reform Party -- and its get-tough
policies -- than it is by the drug problem.

Such outspokenness on the part of a police officer is rare -- with
good reason, given law enforcement's quasi-military tradition and the
ever-present potential for disciplinary action.

But Const. Puder insists that such tactics would not work on him. He
is ready to stand up to anyone who tries to deny him his right to free
speech. As for intimidation, "I'm 6-foot-4, 220 pounds, a black belt
in karate and former boxer. I teach the use of force. If someone wants
to meet me in the back alley, just tell me and I'll show up."

But he need not worry. After the article appeared, he received hand
shakes and messages of support from dozens of his colleagues. Still,
he realizes that publicizing his views may not be the best of career
moves. "But I'm not trying to be chief," he admitted. "I'm happy with
my career."

At 38, he works part-time with the force, patrolling the downtown
district, and part-time as an instructor at the B.C. Police Academy
and Langara College. (A specialist in the use of force, he has
designed training manuals for private security programs and trains
other instructors.)

This arrangement, he says, is flexible and offers more time to spend
with his family (he has two sons, 3 and 9).

His experience, he feels, allows him to speak out on the
decriminalization of narcotics without coming across as "a
bleeding-heart wimp." But he'd like to see others take a more active
role in the debate.

"Social workers speak up. We [the police] directly interact with the
issue every day. Why cannot we speak up? Are we just supposed to shut
up, say nothing, just grit our teeth?"

But even if he stands alone, Const. Puder intends to keep pressing his
case. "This is just something that has to be kept on the front
Robert Matas is a member of The Globe and Mail's Vancouver bureau.

Cause for concern

When a member of their police force speaks out on drugs, Vancouverites
have good reason to pay attention.

The east side of their downtown area has been identified as the worst
spot in the developed world for the rapid spread of the AIDS virus,
mainly because there are so many drug addicts sharing dirty needles.

Also, Vancouver is believed to have 10 times as many drug traffickers
as any other place in Canada. In the past five years, about 1,470
people have died in British Columbia from overdosing on an illegal

The regional health unit has declared a medical emergency, and Mayor
Philip Owen has stepped up law enforcement. In an effort to stem a
wave of property crimes, he is moving up to 100 members of the police
force from desk jobs to the streets.


CClist, the electronic news and information service of CANNABIS CANADA,
"Canada's National Magazine of Marijuana & Hemp"

Subscribe to Cannabis Canada! Call 1-800-330-HEMP for info.
Write to: Suite 504, 21 Water St., Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6B 1A1
Visit Cannabis Canada online at http://www.hempbc.com/

To subscribe to the list send an e-mail to majordomo@netnation.com
with the words "subscribe cclist" in the body of the message.

Kingston, Ontario, Police Bust Erewhon, Off The Cuff Hemp Stores (Allegedly
Disregarding Ontario Supreme Court By Confiscating Literature, Hemp Products)

Date: Thu, 8 Jan 1998 05:39:10 -0400 (AST)
From: Chris Donald 
To: Matt Elrod 
cc: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: More Hemp Stores busted by police

Looks like any public beacon of support for the evil weed is being
systematically suppressed by the machinery of the state to me. Talk about
closing the barn door after the horse is gone.

On Wed, 7 Jan 1998, Matt Elrod wrote:

-------- Forwarded message --------
Date: Tue, 07 Jan 1997 17:22:50 +0100
From: Dan (chaplain@hempbc.com)

Please Post the following to CCList & Mattalk --


By Dan Loehndorf

Ontario Supreme Court rulings mean nothing to police in Kingston who
recently raided Bill Stevenson's hemp store, Erehwon . On January 7,
1998, police entered the store with a warrant which quoted 462.2 of the
Criminal Code, stating that the store owner did knowingly promote or
sell an instrument for drug use , namely a hash pipe and screen. But
they took everything.

Cannabis Canada, High Times, marijuana cultivation handbooks, hemp
clothing and wallets, black lights, key chains, anything with a hemp
leaf or the words marijuana or hemp on it - all went into the back
of a police van.

Store owner Bill Stevenson approached the police one by one and read to
them from a recent article in Cannabis Canada. Don t you know about the
Ontario Supreme Court Ruling? he asked.

In 1994, Ontario Supreme Court Judge Ellen J MacDonald ruled that
cannabis literature was not illegal, and that the sections of 462.2
pertaining to cannabis literature contradicted the Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms. Hemp clothing was explicitly legalized by the
Senate Committee appointed to address Bill C-8 in 96, which recommended
that mature cannabis stalks, that do not include leaves, flowers, seeds
or branches, be exempted from the definition of marijuana, along with
any fibres derived from such stalks.

The police hid behind hierarchy. My boss told me to take everything,
was enough justification for trained officers of the law to vandalize
and steal from Mr. Stevenson s store.

I sort of expected them to show up here sooner or later, said Mr.
Stevenson, But the way they did it ... They didn't care to listen to
what I had to say.

The same day, police also raided Kingston's other hemp store, Off the
Cuff. With the recent raids of HempBC in Vancouver, and The Plant
in Edmonton, Hemp store owners are becoming even more adamant to dig in
their heels - they are being united by oppression.

Police use the threat of deadly weapons, superior numbers, and authority
to conduct what amounts to nothing less than armed robbery. Hemp store
owners have only nonviolent protest, determination, and truth on their
side. I m betting on the hemp store owners.

Editorial - Cuckoo's Nest ('Ottawa Citizen' Disapproves
Of Tobacco Prohibitionists In California, Colorado)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 22:32:39 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: Editorial: CUCKOO'S NEST
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Source: Ottawa Citizen
Section: Editorial
Contact: letters@thecitizen.southam.ca
Pubdate: Wednesday 7 January 1998
Website: http://www.ottawacitizen.com/


The shrinkage of private space continues apace. On Jan. 1, California --
that strange place where the future arrives on the planet -- refined the
modern social-engineering project even further by banning cigarette smoking
almost everywhere except in the home. No doubt, bylaws for home smoking are
just a matter of time.

In fact, Colorado legislators are drawing up a bill that would make it
illegal to smoke in a car that also contained a child. Soon, it seems, as
the armies of the new puritanism conquer more and more psychic territory,
there will be no private space left where we can indulge what habits we
like. As a consequence, we predict a great increase in mental illness.

Which, of course, will require an even greater state presence in our lives.
A corps of visiting Nurse Ratcheds, perhaps.

End Marijuana Prohibition (Britisher's Letter To Editor Of 'The European')

Date: Wed, 7 Jan 1998 21:50:43 -0800
From: jwjohnson@netmagic.net (Joel W. Johnson)
Subject: MN: UK: PUB LTE: End Marijuana Prohibition
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: webbooks@paston.co.uk (CLCIA)
Source : The European
Contact: letters@the-european.com
Pubdate: Wed, 7 Jan 1998
Newshawk Comment : This letter was also published in The Independent on
Monday 5th January (as a result of e-mailing it to dozens of papers at once).


I am once again appalled at the amount of time and public money being spent
prosecuting a person for an offence involving a virtually harmless plant -

By now it should be quite clear that cannabis is remarkably safe. This has
been confirmed by every major Government and scientific investigation
including our own 1968 Royal Commission Report.

Our laws are meant to protect people and society, not simply impose the
will of the Government on its citizens. Recently they have banned beef on
the bone - that, like cannabis, has been declared dangerous. Yet known
poisons and dangers, not only the likes of alcohol and tobacco but also
mercury fillings, clingfilm, pesticides, pollutants and food additives, are

Let's get the matter straight. The act of the Minister's son in supplying
cannabis, had no victim, nobody was hurt (except possibly the pride of his
farther). Millions of people have supplied each other with cannabis since
this case has been in the press, both supplier and supplied being happy to
be involved and with no harm done. The only victims will be the lad
himself - a victim of a nonsense law - and the public who will foot the

What we need is truth, not the hidden agenda or some sort of Nanny State
run by hypocritical individuals who seem hardly capable of living within
their own rules.


Ann Clarke
45 Mount Pleasant

Time To Take Pot Luck (Editorial Columnist At 'The Scotsman'
Says The Law On Cannabis Is Not Working And The British Prime Minister
Should Establish A Royal Commission To Consider Legalisation)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 21:14:14 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: OPED: Time To Take Pot Luck
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: shug 
Source: The Scotsman
Author: Allan Massie
Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com
Pubdate: Wed, 7 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.scotsman.com


COMMENTARY: The Law On Cannabis Is Not Working. Mr Blair should accept this
and consider legalisation, says Allan Massie

IN A speech on the rejection of the Reform Bill, the Liberal clergyman
Sydney Smith compared the efforts of the House of Lords to block the
progress of reform to the attempts of a Mrs Partington to keep out the
Atlantic with a mop, during a great storm at Sidmouth in 1824. This
prompted a famous cartoon by (I think) Cruikshank in which Mrs Partington
was given the features of the Duke of Wellington, the most obdurate
opponent of parliamentary reform.

Mrs Partington is still with us, though now she wears the features of Tony
Blair or Jack Straw as they try to push back the incoming Atlantic of drugs
with their little mops.

Alternatively, their conduct of the war against drugs resembles Hitler's
conduct of the war on the Eastern Front.

Barbarossa has failed, the Battle of Stalingrad has been lost, but still
demented orders are issued from the bunker forbidding any withdrawal. And
yet the retreat goes on, the war is being lost. It is being lost because it
has become unwinnable. Does anyone seriously suppose otherwise? Presumably
Mr Blair and Mr Straw do, for they propose to intensify the war. They have
appointed a new commander, ludicrously styled a czar. Don't they remember
what happened to the last czar of all the Russias?

We know how the war-song goes. Cannabis (which, incidentally, was made
illegal only in 1928) is bad in itself. Furthermore, cannabis addiction
leads to addiction to harder and still more harmful drugs such as heroin
and cocaine (I am not quite sure where ecstasy fits in the catalogue.)
Therefore to decriminalise or legalise cannabis will open the door to new

Now, this may or may not be true. There is certainly no inevitability about
it. That is obvious. It is more than 30 years since cannabis became a
fashionable drug in universities, 30 years since the young Bill Clinton
smoked a joint, but famously (or feebly) did not inhale. Though Jack Straw
spoke out against drugs even when he was president of the National Union of
Students, I should be incredulous if anyone claimed that there was nobody
in Mr Blair's Cabinet who had experimented with drugs in their dizzy youth.
I should think several did. But I would find it equally hard to believe
that any Cabinet minister was now a cocaine or heroin addict.

Nobody of sense denies that prolonged and intensive smoking of cannabis is
harmful. It makes people goofy and incapable of concentration. It destroys
their ability to work, and their ability to relate intelligently and
sensitively to other people. That is to say, it is damaging in much the
same way as prolonged and intensive drinking of alcohol is damaging. But
"recreational" smokers of cannabis don't reach this condition, any more
than recreational drinkers of alcohol do.

There is another side to addiction: it is not necessarily altogether
harmful. It damages, but it may also enrich - if you survive it, and escape
from it. I speak as one addicted, not only to caffeine and nicotine, both
of which I still use because, though they may damage the health, they do
not derange, but also to alcohol, from which I now abstain. Addiction can
lead to self-knowledge; the struggle against it can strengthen you. I have
known a good many alcoholics; some of my best friends were drunks. Some of
them are, sadly, dead. I don't regard that as a reason for banning alcohol.
Some have survived, and many of these are stronger and better people as a
result of the experience. I suppose the same may be said of recovered drug

Concerning drugs, we are in a state of mental and moral confusion. On the
one hand, most of us recognise that the present law is not working.
Estimates of the number of regular users of cannabis can be no more than
guesses. Some put the figure as high as two million. I have no idea whether
this is about right or wildly wrong. What is obvious is that the present
legislation puts hundreds of thousands of otherwise law-abiding young
people on the wrong side of the law. This breeds (since the law is so
difficult to enforce) indifference to law itself, and contempt for it too.
It leads them to think of the police as their enemies - even though it is a
law which, I suppose, a good many policemen and policewomen themselves
break. The mental and moral confusion reaches right up to the top. Even
without asking how many of our judges, fiscals, advocates and legislators
have themselves dabbled with drugs, if only in their youth, we may still
shake our heads in amazement at the spectacle presented by our Prime
Minister, Mr Having-it- both-ways Blair. One week he appoints a czar to
lead the war against drugs; the next, as it were, he invites rock stars who
openly parade their use of drugs to his celebrity parties at Downing
Street. It is grotesque. It would make the most solemn cat split its sides
with laughing.

Some will call this hypocrisy. I am not so unkind. I say it is merely an
example of the mental and moral confusion which Mr Blair finds himself in.
He can't be blamed for that. We are, most of us, in the same boat.

That is why it is imperative that, as this newspaper and Sir David Steel
have recommended, Mr Blair sets up a Royal Commission to examine the case
for and against our present drugs laws, and to consider whether cannabis at
least should be legalised. Note that I say "legalised". The worst possible
decision would be merely to decriminalise cannabis. Decriminalisation would
leave supply in the hands of the dealers, who also deal in other, more
immediately dangerous drugs; and who have the incentive sometimes to be, or
to pretend to be, out of cannabis, or out of good quality cannabis, in
order to lure their clients on to experiment with harder drugs.

Legalisation, however, removes supply from the criminal world, and hands it
over to licensed vendors. It makes it possible to control the quality of
cannabis they sell. It makes it possible to tax the drug, as alcohol and
tobacco are taxed.

The Royal Commission, having examined all the evidence, might recommend
that the law stays as it is. That would satisfy many parents, few of whom
hand their sons or daughters a joint as they might hand them a can of lager
or a gin and tonic. It would justify the Government's continuation of its
"war against drugs", however unlikely victory in that war may be.

But it would be a mistake. There is little point in a law which is so
difficult to enforce and which manifestly runs counter to what so many
think justified. In this respect our drugs law differs from other laws
which may be hard to enforce. Drunk drivers, rapists and murderers may all
experience guilt; someone copped for possession or even supplying of
cannabis is unlikely to do so.

In these matters I am a liberal. The Government should trust the people.
Individuals should be permitted to go their own way, even to the hell of
addiction. A Royal Commission might decide otherwise, but it would be good
if it advised Mrs Partington-Blair and Mrs Partington-Straw to put their
mops away. Nannies belong in the nursery, not in Downing Street.

Request For Help From Europe (Prime Minister's Command
To All 60 British Labour EU MPs May Swing European Policy
Away From Harm Reduction To Swedish Model)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Request for help from Europe (fwd)
Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 14:39:19 -0800
Lines: 24

From: mario lap (mario@lap.nl)
To: press@drugtext.nl

Dear Friends,

I just got off the phone talking to Hedy D'Ancona, Social Democrat, former
Dutch health minister and European MP.

You may know that Mrs D'Ancona chaired the EU parliamentary commission on
drugs that produced the recent report calling for EU harm reduction
policies, room for regional solutions and studies of alternatives.

Now believe it or not, this report is going to be voted down because all
60 British Labour EU MP were ordered to vote against it directly from
Downing Street 10 and even worse they were also ordered to back up the
Swedish amendments which will turn the whole thing into a disaster for
humane drug policies.

So it is now or never. Let's make a difference. Do you want Swedish
drug policy?


Date: Fri, 09 Jan 1998 07:17:49 -0500
To: mattalk@islandnet.com
From: webbooks@paston.co.uk (CLCIA) (by way of Richard Lake, rlake@mapinc.org)
Subject: Re: MEPs

I mailed the list of MEPs emails posted here yesterday, several of which
bounced. I have had the following reply:

This is the list of the one's that DID NOT bounce; the original list came
from the Eupepean Parliament Labour Party site, obviously out of date.

Copy this list to Bcc your message to them


Hundreds of books on cannabis, including Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts,
now available for purchase on-line through the Campaigner's Guide below:

Campaign to Legalise Cannabis International Association (CLCIA)
54C Peacock Street, Norwich, Norfolk, NR3 1TB, UK

campaigners' guide : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/index.html
home page : http://www.foobar.co.uk/users/ukcia/groups/clcia.html

"The use of cannabis ought to be a matter of choice, not of law."

The drugtext press list.
News on substance use related issues, drugs and drug policy

In Panama, Sounds Like More Of Same (No Latin American Country Has Announced
Participation In New 'International Drug-Interdiction Center'
At Howard Air Force Base, Where Up To 2,000 US Troops Will Stay After 1999)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 21:17:30 -0500
To: DrugSense News Service 
From: Richard Lake 
Subject: MN: US: In Panama, Sounds Like More Of Same
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Newshawk: "Frank S. World" 
Source: San Francisco Chronicle
Author: Lewis Dolinsky
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Pubdate: Wed, 07 Jan 1998
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/


The United States is closing its bases in the Canal Zone but (big surprise)
has a tentative agreement with Panama to operate an international
drug-interdiction center at Howard Air Force Base with as many as 2,000
U.S. troops. Newsday's Geoffrey Mohan quotes Miguel Antonio Bernal, a
University of Panama constitutional law professor, as saying, ``They can
put any name they want on it. The monkey, even if it is dressed in silk, is
still a monkey. This will be a military base in disguise, and all of Panama
knows it.''

In Mohan's report, Everett Briggs, a former U.S. ambassador to Panama,
questions ``the crying need for a continued American presence there.'' And
drug policy expert Peter Smith, who is director of UC San Diego's Center
for Iberian and Latin American Studies, wonders which priority is pushing

--do we want to be in Panama because of the drug war or is the drug war a
justification for having troops in Panama?

No Latin American country has announced that it will play a part in this
``international center,'' but canal users seem pleased that the United
States will stay.

Part of the U.S. center's proposed mission is to train paramilitary police
forces, but to do what? In Latin America, the drug war and plain-old
counterinsurgency often overlap -- and result in the killing of civilians.
U.S. Air Force Colonel David Hunt told Mohan, ``How these are melded in the
country involved is something that has to be determined by these countries

We just train them -- what they do isn't our responsibility.

DrugSense Weekly, Number 28 (Summary Of Drug Policy News
For Activists)

Date: Wed, 07 Jan 1998 12:59:53 -0800
From: Mark Greer (MGreer@mapinc.org)
Subject: DrugSense Weekly January 7, 1998 #028

DrugSense Weekly January 7, 1998 #028

A DrugSense publication


* Feature Article
The Drug Civil War
by Cliff and Margaret Thornton and
Comment on the Drug Civil War by Nora Callahan

* Weekly News In Review

Domestic News -


Taking A Fresh Look At DARE


Purer, Cheaper, Snortable Heroin Floods U.S.

Medical Marijuana

Alternative Pot Club Shuts Down
S.F. Club's Style Rankles Medical Pot Advocates
High Times: Freedom Fighter of the Month
The Year In Review Medical Marijuana


The Dangerous Expansion Of Forfeiture Laws

The War On Drugs

Nonabstinence Programs Seem To Work For
Many Alcoholics And Addicts
Sending Stories Home From Prison
Number Jumble Clouds Judgment of Drug War
Key Findings: Drug Abuse Warning Network

International News -

UK: Eight In 10 Britons Favour An Easing Of The Law
Australia: We're Losing Drugs War, Police Admit
Canada: OPED: A Cop's Plea To Decriminalize Drugs
France Will Allow Certain Medical Use Of Marijuana

* Hot Off The 'Net

Women's Christian Temperance Union At It Again

* Tip Of The Week

A Message From Mark Greer



The Drug Civil War

by Cliff and Margaret Thornton, Efficacy

Our government declared war on drugs over a quarter century ago, but the war
is really against Americans who choose to use certain drugs - people not
inanimate objects. Regardless of what they claim, we are engaged in a
strange sort of civil war - the drug civil war.

The government would say that the war is not against the people who use
drugs, but those who sell them, as if there is some wide gap between the
two. Whether users of dealers, both all are people. In addition, millions of
American lives have been destroyed by charges relating to simple use or
possession of drugs.

America has declared war on its own people three times. The first was when
the North invaded the South to prevent it from seceding over the issue of
slavery. (It can be debated that this conflict, as well, could have been
resolved without the terrible bloodshed of war.)

The second time was to attempt to prohibit the consumption of alcohol in
1921, which led to the most violent period of street crime we ever endured
until recently. The War on Drugs is the third war. It has been a politically
conceived, irrational reaction to what should be considered a public health
problem. The battlegrounds of the second and third wars were (are) the
streets of our cities.

If any President had ever said he wanted to declare a violent war on some of
the most sick and unfortunate Americans, he would not have had much support.
The declared war on drugs, however, has received support from all sides.
Inanimate substances were the perfect enemy for a society that seems to
require an enemy in order to feel secure. With the threat of communism
vanishing, the timing was perfect and the politics "correct."

When Martin Luther King said, "the greatest purveyor of violence in the
world today, my own government," he was referring to the war in Vietnam. Our
government has since turned its violence inward on its most vulnerable
people, minorities, the young, and the poor. Like all Civil Wars, this one
is fought between different groups of Americans, including government

Belief in neighborhood block watches seems to be growing, even after
volunteers have been killed on the streets. This thinking is the result of
the need for an illusion of control. This is psychological control -
reinforcing the "us" vs. "them" attitude. Many minority people make their
livings as drug warriors. Minorities involved in or using drugs are
considered enemies. War rhetoric is strong in minority communities. It is
divisive and dehumanizing. It helps people cope with the brutality of war.
Remember Gooks, Krauts, and Japs? Now they are roaches who run from the

When government commandos use helicopters and assault weapons and crash
through doors of Americans, it is war. The people inside the doors did not
look like dangerous enemies at first. They were sick and pathetic - until
they began to arm themselves. Violence and drugs were never connected until
the government introduced the violence. No matter what anti-crime bills we
pass, the cycle of violence will continue until we substantially change the
role of our government with regard to drugs.

When we trace the per capita level of violence in American history, we see
that it jumped in 1921 and continued to escalate until 1933. It then
declined rather dramatically and was quite stable until the 1970's. During
the Depression, crime rates fell. Poverty, it seems, does not cause crime to
the extent that prohibitive law enforcement does.

"People... locked up for drug use are really political prisoners. For it is
only politics that makes their drug use a crime while the leaders of the
world are toasting with champagne," says Marloes Elings of Amnesty
International. When the government uses hypocrisy and violence to control
the behavior of citizens, the citizens become vicious. Government sets the
tone by declaring war - as a result the drug civil war rages.

Cliff and Margaret Thorton head Efficacy, a drug policy reform group based
in Connecticut.


>From a discussion on the Alliance of Reform Organizations:

Since we already know what the drug war is I looked up the other relevant

civil: 1. of citizens 5. pertaining to the private rights of the individuals
and to legal proceedings connected with these.

civil war: 1. a war between factions within the same country

Quite revealing. We do indeed have us a drug civil war raging as we speak.

Nora Callahan in a post to Robert Field, January 1998.



Domestic News



Subj: US CA: Taking A Fresh Look At DARE
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n011.a09.html
Source: Los Angeles Times
Contact: letters@latimes.com
Pubdate: 04 Jan 1998

Questions about the cost and effectiveness of the main anti-drug program
taught in Orange County elementary and middle schools are prompting a
reexamination of the curriculum.

Proponents of DARE, or Drug Abuse Resistance Education, say the large number
of cities using the program across the country demonstrates support for
having uniformed police enter the classroom and discuss the dangers of
cocaine, alcohol and other drugs.

But, in recent years, the decision of cities such as Seattle, Spokane and
Oakland to drop DARE indicates that some officials are wondering if the
lectures to schoolchildren do deter them from drugs.

Several Orange County school districts are taking fresh looks at the
program, which is a good idea.

There should be no rush to end DARE, but looking for possible supplemental
programs to help it operate more effectively is warranted.

A DARE spokesman said the program, which began in Los Angeles more than a
decade ago, was never expected to solve America's drug problem. Seventeen
one-hour lessons in fifth grade are no match for the availability of drugs.

[continues: 30 lines]



Subj: WIRE: Purer, Cheaper, Snortable Heroin Floods U.S.
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n002.a01.html
Source: Wire
Pubdate: Wed, December 31, 1997

BOSTON (Reuters) - Purer product, cheaper prices and savvy marketing have
given deadly Colombian heroin the lion's share of the U.S. market with New
England the fastest growing segment, Drug Enforcement Administration
officials said Wednesday.

George Festa, the DEA special agent in charge of New England, attributed the
resurgence of heroin to "a lack of memory on the part of youth, celebrity
heroin chic and the fact that you no longer have to inject it.

The purity is so incredible, you can snort it.

"The ability to snort heroin like cocaine means that it eliminates needles
and the risk of AIDS. So its use is spreading. These people don't realize
that heroin is not cocaine. Heroin is not a recreational drug," Festa said.

The Colombians use their well-established cocaine distribution networks to
offer free samples of the drug and make it available in smaller, cheaper

The result is that after decades of a market once dominated by Southeast and
Southwest Asian drugs, Colombian heroin now accounts for more than 60
percent of the heroin smuggled into the country, the DEA said.

[continues: 44 lines]


Medical Marijuana

Subj: US CA: Alternative Pot Club Shuts Down
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n008.a05.html
Source: San Francisco Chronicle
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Pubdate: Sat, 3 Jan 1998

Feeling the heat from law enforcement, a leading alternative to Dennis
Peron's Cannabis Cultivator's Club in San Francisco has shut its doors.

Cannabis Helping Alleviate Medical Problems, or CHAMP, which provided
marijuana to 500 members from its headquarters at 194 Church Street, shut
down for good Wednesday.

"We didn't feel a lot of support from the city to support its clubs," said
Victor Hernandez, CHAMP executive director.

Hernandez said members of the staff at the club were upset about a two-week
period of surveillance by unidentified plainclothes police, who videotaped
outside the club and trailed staff members.

"The biggest culprit in this thing is Dan Lungren, who refuses to carry out
the will of the voters who passed Proposition 215," said Hernandez.

Members of the organization were permitted to smoke marijuana for their
medical conditions at the facility, but it did not foster a night club
atmosphere like Peron's club.

Hernandez said he sees nothing wrong with Peron's approach. "In Dennis'
situation, people seemed to be in much better spirits than they would be
somewhere else," he said.

Hernandez said the club offices will be open next week from Wednesday
through Thursday, noon to 7 p.m., for members to pick up their medical


Subj: US CA: S.F. Club's Style Rankles Medical Pot Advocates
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n008.a04.html
Source: San Francisco Chronicle
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Pubdate: Sat, 3 Jan 1998

At the close of a long interview at his Cannabis Cultivators Club in San
Francisco, the affable Dennis Peron offered to roll a reporter a joint. The
offer was politely declined, and the proffered buds of a substance that
might have been marijuana were drawn back to the desk of club founder Peron,
who has recently declared himself a Republican candidate for governor of

It was a typical, and not wholly unexpected gesture from the bad boy of pot
politics, but it underscored a tendency that is making Peron's colleagues in
the medical marijuana business very nervous - he bends the rules, and
sometimes, they break.

Peron's antics and incessant activism have fractured the coalition that in
November 1996 engineered a decisive victory for Proposition 215, which made
legal the personal use of marijuana in California for medical purposes with
a doctor's prescription.

[continues: 112 lines]


Subj: High Times: Freedom Fighter of the Month
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n002.a09.html
Source: High Times
Pubdate: Jan., 1998
Contact: letters@hightimes.com
Website: http://www.hightimes.com/

Photo: by Jean E. Taddie shows James Dawson followed by Jack Rickert, in
wheelchairs, captioned: "Wisconsin Journey for Justice marchers (Jackie
Rickert, second) start another day."


Madison, WI - Fifteen medical-marijuana patients spent a week last September
marching 210 miles from the small town of Mondovi to the state capitol here,
in a follow-up to last May's "Journey for Justice" in Ohio.

The march's arrival on Sept. 18 coincided with the introduction of a
medical-marijuana bill in the state legislature by Rep. Frank Boyle
(D-Superior). Boyle's bill would reschedule cannabis as a Schedule III drug
- equating it with Tylenol/codeine, rather than with heroin - and create a
medical-necessity defense for patients with "acute, chronic, incurable or
terminal" illnesses, if their doctors say conventional treatment "is either
not effective or is causing severe side-effects."

Rep. Boyle says he decided to sponsor the bill because medical-marijuana
patients "convinced me this was more than worth the political risk." He
argues there's "absolutely no rational" to deny people medication that
improves their lives, especially when drugs like steroids, barbiturates and
codeine are legal and frequently prescribed.

[continues: 46 lines]


Subj: US CA: The Year In Review Medical Marijuana
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n005.a02.html
Source: Orange County Register
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Pubdate: 28 Dec 97

Last year California voters, by passing Proposition 215, made it clear that
they want marijuana, when used for medical purposes under the supervision of
a doctor, to be removed from the criminal arena - although most voters are
not interested in across-the-board legalization. During 1997, implementation
of the mandate was shakey. The year began with federal officials hinting
they might pull the licenses of doctors who recommended marijuana for their
patients, but they backed off, reinforced by a federal court decision.

In California, several cannabis clubs continued to dispense marijuana, but
their ability to do so legally was called into question by a 1st District
Court of Appeals decision Dec. 12 that reinstated an injunction that shut
down the Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco. Most observers, led by
Attorney General Dan Lungren, interpreted the decision as reaffirming state
law that prohibits anyone, even a non-profit organization, from selling
marijuana or possessing it for sale.

If that's the case, however, the result in practice will be that medical
patients with a doctor's recommendation will be able to possess marijuana
legally, but will only be able to obtain it on the black market, unless they
grow it themselves. Thus the black market will be reinforced. The voters,
perhaps relying on a clause in the initiative declaring one purpose to be
"to encourage the federal and state governments to implement a plan to
provide for the safe and affordable distribution of marijuana to all
patients in medical need," thought they were voting for a small scale legal
"white market" in medical marijuana.

A few localities have made efforts. The city of Arcata came up with a
detailed plan that could easily be adopted or adapted by other cities. San
Mateo flirted with the idea of distributing pot confiscated in drug busts,
and one Northern California city discussed the idea of using a vacant lot
behind the police station to do it. Santa Ana is having the issue thrust in
its face through prosecution of people involved with a cannabis buyers'

A closer reading of the 1st District's decision shows the court virtually
invited local governments to come up with safe and legal distribution plans
and delineated several criteria that would have to be met. Next year, then,
the ball will be in the hands of local governments.



Subj: US: The Dangerous Expansion Of Forfeiture Laws
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n009.a01.html
Source: Wall Street Journal
Contact: editors@interactive.wsj.com
Pubdate: Monday, 29 December, 1997

Asset forfeiture laws have been spreading like a computer virus through the
nation's statute books. Until a decade or two ago, such laws targeted
primarily customs violators, but today more than 100 federal laws authorize
federal agents to confiscate private property allegedly involved in
violations of statutes on wildlife, gambling, narcotics, immigration, money
laundering, etc.

The vast expansion of government's forfeiture power epitomizes the demise of
property rights in modem America. Federal agents can confiscate private
property with no court order and no proof of legal violations.

Law-enforcement officials love forfeiture laws because a hefty percentage of
the takings often go directly to their coffers. The Justice Department alone
bequeathed $163 million in confiscated assets to state and local law
enforcement last year.

[continues: 117 lines]


The War On Drugs

Subj: US: OPED: Nonabstinence Programs Seem To Work
For Many Alcoholics And Addicts
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n007.a01.html
Source: San Francisco Examiner
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Pubdate: Fri, 02 Jan 1998

Your toddler throws tantrums - whose does not? - so you give him time-outs,
speak sternly, cancel a dessert. But not every time he acts up. Like most
parents, you choose your battles and skip some.

That's the thinking behind providing shelter for chronic alcoholics or drug
addicts without requiring that they abstain or enter treatment.

It's called "harm reduction." It makes sense to keep people alive until, one
day perhaps, they sober up. In the meanwhile, they are prevented from dying
on the streets.

Most of us have a hard time with the measures and implications of harm
reduction. Beyond our tendency to moralize and blame victims, no one wants
to encourage deadly habits.

Naturally, the approach has opponents in the substance abuse treatment
field, where a single-minded insistence on abstinence has saved millions of
lives. Tempers flare when reformers suggest a more flexible approach may
help others.

[continues: 156 lines]


Subj: US IL: Sending Stories Home From Prison
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n006.a01.html
Source: San Jose Mercury News
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Pubdate: Fri, 2 Jan 1998

LINCOLN, Ill. - Erika Gonzales is reading to her 2-year-old boy, Jimmy. It's
a simple book about the simple things children do: visit the corner, take
the bus to Grandma's, go to first grade.

But barely a sentence along, she tosses the book down.

Crying and swiping at tears with the palms of her hands, she whispers, "I
can't read it."

Then she gathers herself and starts reading again - into a cold, black tape
recorder. Jimmy is 125 miles away in Joliet. Gonzales is in prison.

"Mommy misses you and loves you," she tells the recorder. "She's going to
read you a book to let you know this is me and I love you."

She soon finishes the story, then gives the recording to the volunteers who
will make sure it is mailed.

[continues: 67 lines]


Subj: US: Number Jumble Clouds Judgment Of Drug War
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n003.a02.html
Source: Washington Post
Pubdate: Friday, 2 Jan 1998
Contact: http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/edit/letters/letterform.htm

As the election season began gearing up in late 1991, President George Bush
got an unsettling bit of front-page news:

The number of habitual cocaine users in the United States had jumped an
astounding 29 percent in a single year, from 662,000 to 855,000, according
to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Bush had aggressively pushed
his administration's anti-drug effort. Now, he had little to show for it.

But the bad news, widely reported by newspapers across the country, was
wrong. NIDA had miscounted in its annual National Household Survey on Drug
Abuse, one of the nation's "leading drug indicators." A year later, without
fanfare, the number of habitual users was revised back down to 625,000.

"Problems with statistical imputation," the General Accounting Office
concluded in a 1993 report on the miscalculation that received little public
attention. "We certainly think that more adequate quality control procedures
could have caught findings of such significant policy relevance."

[continues: 406 lines]


Subj: US: Key Findings: Drug Abuse Warning Network
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n001.a04.html
Source: San Jose Mercury News
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Pubdate: Wed, 31 Dec 1997

Among key findings announced Tuesday by the federal government's Drug Abuse
Warning Network:

In 1996, there were 487,600 drug-related hospital emergency-department
episodes overall, down significantly from 1994 (518,500) and 1995 (517,800).

There was no statistically significant change in the total of
cocaine-related cases between 1995 (138,000) and 1996 (144,200).

Between 1995 and 1996, there were no changes in either cocaine or
heroin-related episodes by age, sex or race and ethnicity. However, between
1994 and 1996, there was a 21 percent increase in cocaine cases and a 20
percent increase in heroin cases among those 35 and older.

Although heroin-related episodes had increased steadily since the early
1980s, there was no change in the number of heroin-related episodes reported
from 1995 (72,200) to 1996 (70,463). However, between 1990 and 1996, there
was a 108 percent increase, from 33,900 to 70,500.

Marijuana/hashish episodes rose from 40,200 in 1994 to 50,000 in 1996, an
increase of 25 percent. Since 1990, such incidents have increased 219

Between 1995 and 1996, there were no changes in marijuana/hashish cases by
age, sex or race/ethnicity. However, between 1994 and 1996,
marijuana-related episodes have increased 33 percent among those 12 to 17;
27 percent among those 26 to 34; and 41 percent among those 35 and older.

Methamphetamine-related episodes dropped from 16,200 in 1995 to 10,800 in

Health officials attributed the increases among older Americans to their
higher vulnerability to a range of age-related health problems and to a
greater likelihood that they would seek professional care.


International News

Subj: UK: Cannabis Campaign: Eight In 10 Britons Favour An Easing Of The Law
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n010.a04.html
Pubdate: Sunday, 4 Jan 1998
Source: Independent on Sunday
Contact: cannabis@independent.co.uk

If Jack Straw decides to back the decriminalising of cannabis, he will find
that the overwhelming majority of Britons are behind him, to judge from a
Mori poll for the Independent on Sunday which revealed that 80 per cent want
the law relaxed.

Almost half of those polled (45 per cent) said they were in favour of the
law being changed for those who need cannabis for medicinal purposes, while
35 per cent wanted cannabis legalised for recreational use. Only one in six
(17 per cent) approved of the Government's policy of maintaining the status

Mr Straw would be particularly popular among under-45s, 45 per cent of whom
believe cannabis should be available for personal use. The belief among
ministers and their advisers that our campaign appeals chiefly to
middle-class intellectuals was not borne out by the poll. More than half of
working-classrespondents (55 per cent) thought a debate on a change in the
law was a good idea.

Further evidence that the Government is wrong to dismiss the cross-class
support for decriminilisation came from a phone-in poll published around the
same time of the IoS Mori poll. The Labour-supporting Mirror showed its
readers voting by nearly two to one in favour of decriminalisation.

Nearly six out of 10 (59 per cent) Conservative voters and seven out of 10
(68 per cent) of Labour were in favour of a debate; 64 per cent applauded
the unprecedented call by Lord Bingham, the Lord Chief Justice, last October
for an open debate on legalising cannabis.



Subj: Australia: We're Losing Drugs War, Police Admit
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n007.a08.html
Source: Financial Review, Australia
Pubdate: Sat, 3 Jan 1998
Contact: edletters@afr.fairfax.com.au
Website: http://www.afr.com.au/

Australia's police chiefs have endorsed a milestone report which concedes
that police are having almost no impact on the trade in illegal drugs and in
many cases are making the situation worse.

The 160-page report, compiled by the Australian Bureau of Criminal
Intelligence, looks at decriminalisation and more police tolerance of drug
use. It also warns that "policing cannabis may be pushing cannabis users
towards harder drugs."

The Australian Illicit Drug Report gives a comprehensive overview of the
drug scene, noting the cost of abuse is estimated at $1.6 billion.

Meanwhile, the price of most drugs has remained stable or fallen and
supplies have been steady or grown - strong indications of the
ineffectiveness of police activity.

The ABCI's board comprises all of Australia's police chiefs and is chaired
by the Victorian Police Commissioner, Mr Neil Comrie.

[continues: 52 lines]


Subj: Canada: OPED: A Cop's Plea To Decriminalize Drugs
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n001.a02.html
Source: Vancouver Sun
Contact: sunletters@pacpress.southam.ca
Pubdate: Dec. 31, 1997

A Vancouver police officer doesn't want to tell one more mother of a son's
overdose death. He writes that a public-health crisis, not a law-enforcement
challenge, is besieging us all.


Recently, I had to tell a woman her son had died from a drug overdose.
Leaving her world shattered by tragedy, I asked myself what our society is
doing to help other mothers whose children are at risk. Absolutely nothing,
I'm embarrassed to say. And with seven Vancouver residents dying in one
24-hour period from drug overdoses - nine in less than two weeks - that's
not good enough.

Rather than constructive action, however, lawmakers frantically rearrange
deck chairs on the modern social Titanic. My hope for 1998 is that Santa has
left a large measure of courage and wisdom in a number of stockings, so that
our children can mark this year as the one when we finally began treating
drug abuse as a health issue, rather than a criminal industry.

[continues: 104 lines]


Subj: France: France Will Allow Certain Medical Use Of Marijuana
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n009.a09.html
Source: San Francisco Examiner
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Pubdate: 21 Dec 1997

PARIS - The French government will approve the experimental medical use of
marijuana in hospitals next year as a first tentative step toward relaxing
the country's Draconian drug laws.

Discussions also are to be held early next year on the abolition of prison
sentences for possession of small quantities of marijuana and other 'soft'
drugs - perhaps eventually leading to decriminalization of cannabis use,
government officials say.

Although the government has ruled out any formal change in drug laws in the
near future, it is contemplating administrative changes to soften the harsh
French rules.

To help counter political opposition, the government has commissioned a
scientific study of the relative dangers of marijuana and other illegal
substances, including comparisons with legal drugs such as alcohol and

[continues: 46 lines]



Women's Christian Temperance Union At It Again

The Women's Christian Temperance Union, the organization primarily behind
alchol prohibition continues today. One of its new issues is drug policy.
They have been reported lobbying against medical marijuana in various
states. You can visit their web site at: http://www.wctu.org

Having the WCTU against us is a great way to highlight the historical
relationship between today's drug prohibition and the failed alcohol



A Message From Mark Greer

A little thought: If a reformer spends an hour on a letter, emails it to ten
papers and it gets published in one with a modest circulation of 500,000
readers (many major publications have a circulation in the millions) the
reformer is earning $3,500 for the movement (that is what it would cost to
purchase the space of a typical letter in such a newspaper).

Who knows that letter may influence: a local politician, a senator, a local
businessman, the next George Soros not to mention the effect the other nine
letters have on educating the editors who read them (this may actually have
a higher value than the published letters over the long haul)

Write those letter's, folks. It's a huge return on your time investment.

It's not what others do, it's what YOU do.


DS Weekly is one of the many free educational services DrugSense offers our
members. Watch this feature to learn more about what DrugSense can do for

Editor: Tom Hawkins, thawkins@mapinc.org
Senior Editor: Mark Greer, mgreer@mapinc.org

We wish to thank each and every one of our contributors.

NOTICE: In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is
distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

Mark Greer
Media Awareness Project (MAP) inc.
d/b/a DrugSense



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