------------------------------------------------------------------- NORML Weekly News Release, January 15, 1998 (US Files Civil Suits To Shut Down California Cannabis Buyers' Clubs; State Senator Calls For Summit On 'Responsible Medical Marijuana Distribution'; HHS To Conduct Binding Review Of Marijuana's Prohibitive Status) From: NORMLFNDTN (NORMLFNDTN@aol.com) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 16:15:18 EST Subject: NORML WPR 1/15/98 (II) Organization: AOL (http://www.aol.com) A NON-PROFIT LEGAL, RESEARCH, AND EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION THE NORML FOUNDATION 1001 CONNECTICUT AVENUE NW SUITE 710 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 T 202-483-8751 o F 202-483-0057 E-MAIL NORMLFNDTN@AOL.COM Internet http://www.norml.org . . . a weekly service for the media on news items related to marijuana prohibition. January 15, 1998 U.S. Files Civil Suits To Shut Down California Cannabis Buyers' Clubs January 15, 1998, Washington, D.C.: Department of Justice attorneys filed six civil lawsuits to shut down several of California's largest medical marijuana clubs. The lawsuits, announced by Northern California U.S. Attorney Michael Yamaguchi this past Friday, target the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivators' Club, the Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Club, San Francisco Flower Therapy, the Marin Alliance for Medical Marijuana, the Santa Cruz Cannabis Buyers' Club, and the Ukiah Cannabis Buyers' Club. "California's medical marijuana statute ... has no effect on the applicability of federal drug laws," Yamaguchi said. "The issue is not the medical use of marijuana; it is the persistent violation of federal law." California NORML Coordinator Dale Gieringer denounced the U.S. government's action and proclaimed that the organization will do everything possible to support legal efforts to keep the clubs open. In addition, an emergency legal defense fund to help support medical marijuana patients, caregivers, and dispensaries against federal litigation has been established at The NORML Foundation. "These federal lawsuits present the greatest peril to medical marijuana patients [in recent memory,] Gieringer said. "These six clubs serve over 10,000 patients. To close them down now would be an intolerable public health and safety disaster." Gieringer said that the Ninth and Tenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution limit federal powers and protect Californians' right to medical marijuana under Proposition 215. "The federal government is trying to turn the Constitution on its head," he argued. "Nowhere does the Constitution give the federal government power to tell the states what kind of medicine their citizens may use." The clubs have 20 days to reply to the government's lawsuits in court. Should the court grants the injunctions, the clubs will risk federal criminal charges if they continue to operate. NORML Executive Director R. Keith Stroup, Esq. said that cannabis buyers' clubs serve a vital role in the lives of many seriously ill Californians and called efforts to shut them down unconscionable. "Cannabis buyers' clubs remain the only viable source of medical marijuana in California short of home cultivation or purchasing marijuana on the street," Stroup said. "To close these clubs would force thousands of seriously ill patients to suffer needlessly and force many patients to enter the black market or go without the medicine they need to survive." For more information, please contact either Tanya Kangas, Esq. of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751 or Dale Gieringer of California NORML @ (415) 563-5858. Those wishing to contribute to the Medical Marijuana Patients' and Caregivers' Fund may send donations to the NORML Foundation. *** State Senator Calls For Summit On "Responsible Medical Marijuana Distribution" January 15, 1998, Sacramento, CA: State Sen. John Vasconcellos (D-Santa Clara) denounced federal efforts to shut down California's medical marijuana clubs, and called on state and federal officials to attend an upcoming Public Safety Committee summit on the "safe, responsible distribution of medical marijuana." "I'm appalled," Vasconcellos announced at a January 12 press conference. "[I'm] dismayed our state and federal governments have acted so arrogantly in the face of California voters' decisive support of Proposition 215. I'm particularly angry that a president who won this state by a smaller margin than voters who approved Proposition 215 has the temerity to send his federal law enforcement into our state to undo the decision of our citizens." Vasconcellos -- who introduced unsuccessful legislation in 1997 to establish a Medical Marijuana Research Center at a campus of the University of California -- announced a six-point program to uphold the spirit of Proposition 215. In the first piece of the program, Vasconcellos is inviting Gov. Pete Wilson, California Attorney General Dan Lungren, and U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno to join the Public Safety Committee in convening a statewide summit on medical marijuana distribution. "While local governments and law enforcement from Arcata to Los Angeles have spent the last year working with providers of medical marijuana to ensure responsible, compassionate implementation of 215, the state and federal governments have shown no leadership on the essential if complicated issue of distribution," he said. "We who are policy makers and purport to be leaders have an obligation to swiftly, smartly effectuate the will of the voters." Vasconcellos also promised renewed efforts to move legislation facilitating medical marijuana research and distribution through the state Assembly. In addition, he promised to circulate a letter to President Clinton urging him to reverse the U.S. Department of Justice's position against California cannabis buyers' clubs. For more information, please contact either Dale Gieringer of California NORML or Rand Martin of Sen. John Vasconcellos' office @ (916) 445-9740. *** HHS To Conduct Binding Review Of Marijuana's Prohibitive Status January 15, 1998, Washington, D.C.: The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently determined that sufficient grounds exist to justify proceedings re-evaluating marijuana's prohibitive Schedule I status. As a result, the agency has formally requested the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to conduct "a scientific and medical evaluation of the available data and provide a scheduling recommendation" for marijuana and other cannabinoid drugs. The DEA's action is in response to an administrative petition filed by former NORML National Director Jon Gettman and Trans High Corporation -- publisher of High Times Magazine -- on July 10, 1995. The petition argues that marijuana and cannabinoid drugs lack the "high potential for abuse" required for Schedule I and Schedule II drugs under the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Gettman notes that the DEA has never before voluntarily referred a marijuana petition to HHS for binding review. "People are sent to jail every day because of mistaken assumptions about the abuse potential of marijuana," Gettman said. "[This] petition observes that HHS has never produced a finding that marijuana actually has the high potential for abuse similar to heroin or cocaine required for Schedule I or Schedule II status. Furthermore, the legislative history of the CSA indicates that Congress only intended for marijuana to remain in Schedule I or Schedule II if such a finding could be produced. This petition challenges the government to produce such a finding or be legally required to end marijuana prohibition by removing marijuana from Schedule I." Gettman initially asked the Department of Justice in 1994 to request this evaluation from HHS. At that time, DEA Administrator Thomas Constantine argued that the agency was "unaware of any new scientific studies of marijuana that would lead [it] to re-evaluate [marijuana's] classification at this time." Constantine then challenged Gettman to provide documentation indicating that new research had taken place. Gettman responded by filing his 1995 petition. "The recent referral of the petition to HHS is an acknowledgment by DEA of deficiencies in their familiarity with scientific studies of marijuana, and of the validity of [my] argument and its documented scientific basis," Gettman said. Petitioners are represented by Michael Kennedy, Esq. of New York City, a member of the NORML Legal Committee. For more information, please contact either the law offices of Michael Kennedy @ (212) 935-4500 or Allen St. Pierre of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751. MORE THAN 11 MILLION MARIJUANA ARRESTS SINCE 1965 ANOTHER EVERY 49 SECONDS!
------------------------------------------------------------------- DEA Marijuana Decision - More Sober Assessments (By Kevin Zeese, Rick Doblin) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 10:35:21 -0800 (PST) From: Uzondu Jibuike (email@example.com) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MAPS: DEA marijuana decision: more sober assessments (fwd) --- Forwarded message --- Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 09:50:50 -0500 (EST) From: Rick Doblin (RickMAPS@aol.com) To: email@example.com Subject: MAPS: DEA marijuana decision To All: Here is a more sober statement about the implications of the DEA decision regarding marijuana's abuse potential. This is by Kevin Zeese, the co-founder of the Drug Policy Foundation and former director of NORML. *** This [The press release] is exaggeration and public relations. It is good to keep the issue alive, but there is no change in policy. In the late 70s we/NORML won an appeal to the US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit when the DEA refused to send the NORML rescheduling petition to HHS for comment. The court required this as a step in the review process. All DEA is doing is what the court required -- sending Gettman's petition to HHS for comment. It does not mean DEA agrees with anything in the petition or that it finds anything in the petition at all convincing. It is good that Jon Gettman is keeping the fires burning and stirring the pot, but it does not mean a change on the horizon. Political pressure will force change. The facts will provide cover. Kevin Here is my assessment of the implications: The definition of abuse potential was at issue in the MDMA scheduling hearings that were held in 1985 before DEA Administrative Judge Francis Young. According to DEA's lawyers, abuse potential can be determined simply by counting the number of people who are using the drug for non-medical purposes or even for medical purposes outside of FDA-approved contexts. In other words, MDMA had a high potential for abuse because lots of people used it, even though there was virtually no evidence of abuse. The potential was there, however, because lots of people used it. The key word was "potential", not "abuse." While Judge Young did not accept this reasoning, DEA overruled his recommendation that MDMA be placed in Schedule 3 and put it in Schedule 1, where it remains. As far as what this means for the HHS review of marijuana's potential for abuse, my guess is that HHS will not even break a sweat to declare that marijuana has a high potential for abuse. After all, what about the supposed 200,000 people a year who are in treatment for marijuana dependency? Regardless of whether most were compelled to go to drug treatment and are not harmed by their use of marijuana, this statistic alone will enable HHS to justify keeping marijuana in Schedule 1. Jon Gettman's efforts are important for keeping the pressure on the DEA and HHS to justify the status quo. But it can be demoralizing to think that a strategy will work on a more sweeping level and then be emotionally depressed when that degree of change was blocked. Better to have a more realistic view of the chances for success so that the long-term struggle can be less emotionally draining and more endurable, perhaps even enjoyable somehow. Rick
------------------------------------------------------------------- Jon Gettman Responds To Zeese And Doblin's Negative Assessments (Of His DEA Petition To Reschedule Marijuana) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 19:31:24 EST Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Jon Gettman
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: Re: Zeese and Doblin on the Gettman Petition First of all, I have a lot of respect for both Rick Doblin and Kevin Zeese. Second, to the extent my petition is successful at anything, a large part of the credit belongs to Kevin and the other NORML lawyers for the legal precedents they established in the first petition. However, they are just flat out incorrect in their reserved comments about my petition. 1) Zeese on the referral being just a part of the process. What Kevin does not allow for is that not only have things changed since the 1970's petition, things have changed because of the 1970's petition. The DEA review process is not a pro forma handoff to HHS. Ask Carl Olsen, for example. DEA has internal protocols for reviewing petitions according to strict criteria, and DEA's own language indicates the meaning of the referral. Kevin is correct that the referral doesn't mean DEA agrees, but is incorrect re: whether DEA found the petition convincing. They found it convincing enough that they couldn't reject it. The petition provides "sufficient grounds", I agree that DEA's decision provides no more than that, BUT it also provides no less than that. 2) Doblin is correct about the how abuse potential was determined for the MDMA suit, and for that matter the same bogus reasoning was used for the marijuana evaluation in the early 1980's, and for marinol, and for nabilone. What Rick is apparently not aware of if that the protocols for assessing abuse potential changed in the mid-1980's. The evaluation of abuse is no longer a subjective process, it is now a scientifically objective process. The key word is not potential, not abuse, the key words are consistent scientific standards, standards now applied evenly to all drugs reviewed by HHS. 3) As far as the emotional roller coaster for placing too much hope into any particular strategy, I agree that expectations should be kept on an even keel. However my petition does not rely on a strategy, it relies on the law. I do not think it is demoralizing to have faith in the rule of law, or that the rule of law can produce sweeping change. Finally, with all due respect to Rick and Kevin, the two prior actions they have experience with have not exhausted the legal or scientific arguments that can used to take advantage of the rule-making process. The fact is that the rejection of Judge Young's decision by the DEA completely demoralized the movement, and completely turned off anyone's interest in this arcane but legally crucial process. The comments of Rick's and Kevin's in some ways reflect conventional wisdom in the wake of Judge Young's decision. So I want to emphasize two points. There is no tactful way to make the first point. After the last petition was finally dead, no one wanted to try again, and they felt any other attempt would be futile. I decided to take another look at the question myself, unencumbered by organizational politics, strategy, or other constraints. One of the things I did was extensively research the NEW protocols and standards for evaluating abuse potential. Another was to scrutinize the prior legal decisions. If the standards had not changed, the context Rick describes would in fact kill this or any other petition. BUT THE STANDARDS HAVE CHANGED, and for that matter so has the meaning of a DEA referral to HHS. I vent a little more about this in a PS at the end. The second point is that THE only reason I'm getting anywhere with this new petition is that I was trained by Kevin Zeese, Arnold Trebach, and many others who were key players in the first petition, and unlike them I have the benefit of studying the first proceeding. Finally, while DEA has not changed their position, they have acknowledged that I have presented a new and formidable argument. The abuse potential argument is not yet the prevailing argument, but is now a relevant argument. If it wasn't, DEA could have and would have denied the petition. Kevin and Rick are absolutely right, though, about keeping this in perspective. This does keep pressure on DEA and HHS, and it provides activists with a new argument to keep applying that pressure. This development adds legitimacy to those who have been trying to convince local govt. officials that marijuana isn't as dangerous as they have believed. This re-opens an issue that dates back to 1970 - that marijuana doesn't even belong in schedule II, as the Nixon Administration admitted to Congress. But it does not guarantee that marijuana arrests will end anytime soon. The HHS review will take over a year, maybe two. Even if HHS AND DEA decide they have to reschedule cannabis, anti-marijuana advocates will challenge this in court. This process is the proverbial slow boat to China, and while I think it is a valuable tool and a valuable contribution, it's a slow yield over a long period of time. So yes, the petition can work on a sweeping level, but NOT FOR A LONG TIME. However I would hope that this latest development will add to the accumulation of movement accomplishments that sustain us all for this long and hard fight. I will provide an example of these new abuse potential evaluations from the Federal Register in a separate post, in a little while. Jon Gettman PS I welcome criticism, especially from within the movement. I take it seriously, and I give it some thought. However, if anyone wants to criticize the petition: PLEASE READ THE PETITION FIRST. For example, the petition discusses the new standards for assessing abuse potential, and anyone familiar with the 1st section of the petition would know that the bogus statistic of 200,000 people a year seeking treatment will NOT alone "enable HHS to justify keeping marijuana in Schedule I." Rick's guess that "HHS will not even break a sweat to declare marijuana has a high potential for abuse" is a nice knee-jerk opinion, but it reveals total unfamiliarity with the HHS review process and the standards by which dependence liability is determined. Rick Doblin is a smart guy; but I think we all need to be reminded to always check out the things we assume to be true. *** Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 20:05:31 EST From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: DEA Referral: Policy Change? Kevin Zeese is right when he says that the referral "is no change in policy." I think I know what has confused people on this point. Neither press release was meant in any way to suggest that DEA had changed US policy on marijuana. The longer press release has a section entitled "DEA Reversal of Position." The reversal of position is the change from: a) Thomas Constantine stating in a letter of 3/1/995 "Therefore, while a reassessment of the abuse potential of marijuana might be of interest to some, the outcome would not affect what can be done through administrative proceedings" because "accepted medical use" is the only issue of importance. to b) DEA acknowledging in a letter of 12/19/97 that a petition based on the abuse potential of marijuana has determined to provide "sufficient grounds" to continue with administrative proceedings by way of a referral to HHS for an official scientific and medical evaluation. By the way, the evaluation is not an evaluation of marijuana as they see fit to conduct, it is an evaluation of the PETITION as well as an accompanying evaluation of marijuana in the context of the overall petition evaluation. Knowing the HHS evaluation standards for abuse potential, the petition was written to insure that the minimum scope was sufficiently wide as to prevent the bogus reasoning used in the 1970's and early 1980's. The petition contained enough scientific substance to render Constantine's 3/1/95 position inoperable and superceded by the act of the referral. This was never meant to imply a DEA policy change, unless one considers stonewalling any marijuana petition a DEA policy. On the other hand, the feds may realize that the end of prohibition is near, not because of the petition but because of what Kevin Zeese mentioned -- "political pressure will force change, the facts will provide the cover," because of the sum total of all the movement's work, especially the Californians. While I am prepared for a long legal fight, truth be told I'm just giving the feds the factual cover to do what they know is inevitable, and the excuse to double-cross the anti-marijuana advocates they have been inflaming all these years. Can't you just see them wringing their hands and bemoaning how they 'didn't want to take marijuana out of schedule I, but those damn legalizers with their damn Park Avenue Lawyers figured out the law and there was just no way to stop them . . we tried to put this off by using the NIH and IOM reviews as delaying tactics, after which we could have taken five years to finally get around to changing or not changing the rules . . . but this Gettman guy had too much time on his hands one year and he managed to force our hand'. As much as I disagree with the anti-marijuana forces, it will be pathetic to see the government abandon them and switch sides. Of course, we know how self-serving the government can be, but it will be a shock for some others to find this out the hard way. Jon Gettman *** Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 20:43:48 EST Sender: email@example.com From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) Subject: Example of an Abuse Evaluation Here is the context: A petition is submitted to DEA with a proposed rule. DEA determines if there are sufficient grounds to enact the proposed rule. If there are sufficient grounds HHS does an evaluation and gives it to DEA. DEA takes the evaluation, and does their own supplemental evaluation, and then DEA prepares and publishes a proposed rule. No matter what DEA's proposed rule is, it can be challenged in Court. This recent proposed rule for a Schedule IV substance includes a summary of scientific and medical evidence used to justify the scheduling of the substance. Please note the standards used to establish the abuse potential of this schedule IV substance. Imagine the same description changed to include the relevant facts concerning marijuana, which by the way also indirectly fires an opiod receptor system. Note also that prior proceedings such as this one, and all the ones over the last ten years or so, provide a sort of 'case law' that provides standards with which to challenge evaluations based on bogus, unscientific or incomplete analysis. The purpose of the petition was to trigger this kind of on-the-record evaluation of marijuana under these more objective standards. And in this respect, the petition is a total success, because the HHS evaluation has been requested. *** Federal Register: July 10, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 132) Proposed Rules [Page 37004-37007] >From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [DEA No. 166P] 21 CFR Part 1308 Schedules of Controlled Substances: Proposed Placement of Butorphanol into Schedule IV AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. *** SUMMARY: This proposed rule is issued by the Acting Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to istant Secretary was a scientific and medical evaluation prepared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The document contained a review of the factors which the CSA requires the Secretary to consider [21 U.S.C. 811(b)]. Correspondence from the Acting Assistant Secretary for Health dated June 19, 1997, confirmed that the DHHS recommendation included the substance butorphanol and its salts and isomers. The factors considered by the Assistant Secretary for Health and the DEA with respect to butorphanol were: (1) Its actual or relative potential for abuse; (2) Scientific evidence of its pharmacological effect; (3) The state of current scientific knowledge regarding the drug ; (4) Its history and current pattern of abuse; (5) The scope, duration, and significance of abuse; (6) What, if any, risk there is to the public health; (7) Its psychic or physiological dependence liability; and (8) Whether the substance is an immediate precursor of a substance already controlled under this subchapter. The following are summaries of the abuse potential and actual abuse of butorphanol based on the information reviewed by the DEA, including the scientific and medical evaluation of the DHHS. Summary of Abuse Potential Butorphanol's profile of effects resembles that of an opioid with either mixed agonist-antagonist actions or partial agonist effects, rather than full mu agonist effects, like morphine. Butorphanol's actions are mediated via three different opioid receptor subtypes: mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors, showing a 12:1 mu:kappa and 34:1 mu:delta selectivity. Butorphanol's selectivity for mu receptors is consistent with its mu agonist discriminative stimulus, self-administration and antinociceptive profile of effects which are similar to those of morphine, codeine and fentanyl, all Schedule II controlled substances. Butorphanol's selectivity for kappa receptors is consistent with its sedation and respiratory depression which are similar to those of kappa agonists such as pentazocine, a Schedule IV substance under the CSA. Preclinical and clinical studies show that butorphanol produces reinforcing effects that are less than those of morphine. Butorphanol administered transnasally, intramuscularly, or intravenously in either normal volunteers or former opioid abusers produces positive mood and reinforcing effects in humans (i.e., high, drug -liking). In both opiate-abusing and normal volunteer subjects, butorphanol's subjective effects differ from those of full mu opiate agonists. Compared to an equivalent dose of morphine, butorphanol produces equivalent positive subjective effects, but greater aversive or dysphoric effects, including greater disruption of behavior, sedation, confusion, and difficulty concentrating. Butorphanol administered transnasally or intramuscularly produces similar onsets of effects, rates of elimination, and profiles of effects, however, the magnitudes of effects were greater after intramuscularly administered butorphanol. These studies show that the abuse potential of butorphanol does not differ depending upon the route of administration or preparation, and that the abuse potential of butorphanol is lower than that of morphine and similar to that of pentazocine. Butorphanol can induce physical and psychological dependence in animals and humans. There is evidence that use of butorphanol produces tolerance and dependence, results in drug -seeking and craving, and its abrupt discontinuation produces an opioid-like withdrawal syndrome. During clinical trials, three percent of the 161 patients who used butorphanol for two months or longer reported behavioral symptoms suggesting possible abuse, and approximately one percent of these patients reported significant overuse. Chronic use of butorphanol results in reports of abuse and self-reported addiction and discontinuation results in a mild withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal such as anxiety, agitation, and diarrhea are observed. The physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome produced by butorphanol are similar to those observed after long term administration of pentazocine. Consistent with its partial antagonist effects, butorphanol can precipitate withdrawal in animals and humans maintained on mu agonists. Summary of Actual Abuse and Diversion For about a decade after butorphanol was first approved for marketing as an injectable product in the United States, reports of abuse were received only occasionally. This was likely due to its limited availability and therapeutic indication. However, following the introduction of the nasal spray product in the United States in 1992, abuse dramatically increased. Many of the abuse reports came from state authorities. At their November 1996 annual meeting, the National Association of State Controlled Substances Authorities (NASCA) recognized that the increasing abuse and diversion of butorphanol warranted its scheduling. Furthermore at this meeting, NASCA passed a resolution urging FDA and DEA to expeditiously place butorphanol into Schedule III of the CSA. Butorphanol has been a source of increasing incidents of abuse and diversion since 1992. DEA has received reports from 44 states indicating that butorphanol is being abused, diverted and trafficked. These reports have been received from DEA Diversion Investigators, physicians, State Boards of Pharmacies, the National Association of State Controlled Substances Authorities, and State Drug Enforcement officials. They show that butorphanol is stolen from retail and hospital pharmacies and is diverted through forged and altered prescriptions, improper prescribing and inappropriate dispensing, doctor shopping, and requests for early refills. Additionally, butorphanol abuse is associated with escalating use and drug seeking behavior. In response to increasing reports of abuse and diversion, six U.S. states and Canada have administratively scheduled butorphanol, and several other states have proposals pending to schedule butorphanol. Some individual hospital pharmacies handle butorphanol as a controlled substance requiring the same recordkeeping, change of shift audits, and security as though the products were already scheduled. In many cases, the initial use of butorphanol is for pain relief, however, escalation of dose and drug seeking of butorphanol have been reported. In 1994 the FDA, in consultation with the DEA, conducted a survey of State Drug Program Directors, Boards of Pharmacy, and Drug Enforcement officials to provide information on the abuse, trafficking, and diversion of butorphanol. The results of the FDA's survey of the states on the ``Abuse, Misuse, Diversion of Stabol Injectable and Stadol Nasal Spray'' confirm the reports of increasing abuse of butorphanol. State Boards of Pharmacy, State Drug Program Directors, and State Drug Enforcement officials from 46 states and Guam responded to the survey. In November 1995, the FDA issued a final report on this survey. Eighty-three percent of the respondents stated that they were aware of non-medical use, diversion or abuse of butorphonol in their state. Fifteen percent of the states have attempted to regulate butorphanol as a controlled substance, and 44 percent of the states reported that non-regulatory entities, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics have found it necessary to institute special controls beyond those of normal prescription drugs to limit access to the drug . Of the states that responded, 74 percent reported that the nasal spray was abused and 52 percent reported that the injectable was abused. Approximately 60 percent of the states cited that the drug 's source was from overprescribing, 55 percent from forged or altered prescriptions and six percent from ``the street''. Twenty-five percent of the states were aware of excessive prescription refill data from health insurance payment plans. Forty-eight percent of the states were aware of thefts of butorphanol and 11 percent of the states reported product tampering. The survey provided information that butorphanol abusers crossed all socioeconomic levels. Relying on the scientific and medical evaluation and the recommendation of the Assistant Secretary for Health, received in accordance with section 201 (b) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 811 (b)), and the independent review of the DEA, the Acting Deputy Administrator of the DEA, pursuant to sections 201(a) and 201(b) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 811(a) and 811(b)), finds that: (1) Based on information now available, butorphanol has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in Schedule III; (2) Butorphanol has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and (3) Abuse of butorphanol may lead to limited physical dependence and psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in Schedule III. Based on these findings, the Acting Deputy Administrator of the DEA concludes that butorphanol, including its salts and isomers, warrants control in Schedule IV of the CSA. Interested persons are invited to submit their comments, objections or requests for a hearing, in writing, with regard to this proposal. Requests for a hearing should state, with particularity, the issues concerning which the person desires to be heard. All correspondence regarding this matter should be submitted to the Acting Deputy Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration , Washington, D.C. 20537. Attention: DEA Federal Register Representative/CCR. In the event that comments, objections, or requests for a hearing raise one or more issues which the Acting Deputy Administrator finds warrants a hearing, the Acting Deputy Administrator shall other a public hearing by notice in the Federal Register, summarizing the issues to be heard and setting the time for the hearing. In accordance with the provisions of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811(a)), this action is a formal rulemaking ``on the record after opportunity for a hearing.'' Such proceedings are conducted pursuant to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. 556 and 557 and, as such, are exempt from review by the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 12866, section 3(d)(1). The Acting Deputy Administrator, in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 605(b)), has reviewed this proposed rule and by approving it certifies that it will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small-business entities. Butorphanol products are prescription drugs used to treat moderate to severe pain. Handlers of butorphanol also handle other opiate analgesics which are controlled substances and are already subject to the regulatory requirements of the CSA. This rule will not result in the expenditure by State, local and tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100,000,000 or more in any one year, and it will not significantly or uniquely affect small governments. Therefore, no actions were deemed necessary under provisions of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. This rule is not a major rule as defined by section 804 of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996. This rule will not result in an annual effect on the economy of $100,000,000 or more; a major increase in costs or prices; or significant adverse effects on competitions, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on the ability of the United States-based companies to compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and export markets. This rule will not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. Therefore, in accordance with E.O. 12612, it is determined that this rule, if finalized, will not have sufficient federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism Assessment. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 1308 Administrative practice and procedure, drug traffic control, narcotics, prescription drugs. Under the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 210(a) of the CSA [21 U.S.C. 811(a)], and delegated to the Administrator of the DEA by the Department of Justice regulations (28 CFR 0.100) and redelegated to the Acting Deputy Administrator pursuant to 28 CFR 0.104, the Acting Deputy Administrator hereby proposes that 21 CFR part 1308 be amended as follows: PART 1308--[AMENDED] 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 1308 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 811, 812, 871(b) unless otherwise noted. 2. Section 1308.14 is proposed to be amended by adding a new paragraph (f)(2) to read as follows: [[Page 37007]] Sec. 1308.14 Schedule IV. * * * * * (f) * * * (2) Butorphanol (including its optical isomers). * * * * * Dated: July 2, 1997. James S. Milford, Acting Deputy Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration . [FR Doc. 97-17961 Filed 7-9-97; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4410-09-M *** Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 20:52:26 EST Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: Petition on the Web High Times has some important materials on the petition at their web site: http://www.hightimes.com/ht/welcome.html NORML has had the petition on-line for several years. The petition is at: http://www.natlnorml.org/activist/gettman/ A Table of Contents for Related Exhibits and Articles, including the OTA report that introduced me to the new standards is at: http://www.norml.org/research/aa/aaMSPP_cont.html And an article updating the scientific findings on the nuerobiological effects of marijuana introduces the material above at: http://www.norml.org/MSPP.shtml *** Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 12:02:49 EST Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: The Carl Eric Olsen DEA Petition I made a reference in another post that the DEA doesn't pass petitions along to HHS as a knee-jerk exercise, and I used Carl Olsen's rejected petition as a reference point. Carl's petition was also a contributing factor in the referral of my petition. Carl had a good argument. The DEA had to figure out a way to deny his petition, and petitions like it, because they don't want it to be easy to start an HHS review. To deny Carl's petition, the DEA had have a basis for arguing that it was not sufficient grounds for rescheduling and there was no reason to refer it to HHS for evaluation. Like the NORML petition, Carl's petition helped soften them up for this assault. Carl's individual efforts in the first petition were an inspiration to me in filing this petition. Jon Gettman *** Date: Tue, 17 Feb 1998 23:03:46 EST Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Jon Gettman (Gettman_J@mediasoft.net) To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: Medical vs. All Marijuana Use Under the Law Neil Jensen and Rick Killian have brought up the issue of how medical marijuana overlooks the issue of all marijuana use. My successful petition for a HHS review and rescheduling recommendation for marijuana and other cannabinoids concerns all marijuana laws, not just instances of medical use. In fact, medical use is not argued in the petition; it is based on the issue of whether or not marijuana has a high potential for abuse. This issue does have relevance to medical use in that it goes to the heart of the credibility of patient anecdotal reports of therapeutic use. However it also goes to the heart of the fundamental basis of marijuana laws. Peter Webster has offered the opinion that prohibitions on hedonism are the result of fundamentalists minorities and are ultimately inconsistent with a free society. I believe the public in the US would agree with this if not for the fundamental premise of prohibition - that marijuana has a high potential for abuse. For this reason the public believes that hedonistic intent should be subject to criminal sanctions; such hedonistic activity leads to addiction that is harmful to public health. A recognition that marijuana does not have the abuse potential required for schedule I or II status provides a finding that contradicts this fundamental excuse for accepting the treatment of marijuana use by the criminal justice system as a whole, by what I referred to as law enforcement culture earlier. The medical marijuana issue is important for two reasons. Many people use marijuana by choice, and these days that choice includes acceptance of the risks that accompany violation of the laws. Medical patients use marijuana by necessity, and are also less able to bear the burden than those who adopt it by choice. Second, public understanding of the legitimacy of therapeutic intent will contribute to a broader reconsideration of why people use marijuana and just what the actual risks really are. In practical terms, I don't think the government can justify a lot of their present anti-marijuana positions and penalties if marijuana were anything other than a schedule I drug. It is the flag of legitimacy for marijuana prohibition; it is up for grabs. Jon Gettman *** Date: Wed, 13 May 1998 08:36:50 EDT Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Jon Gettman To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: Re: need help w FDA project on tobacco & cannabis At 12:45 AM 5/13/98 EDT, Robert Bennett wrote: >Arthur Livermore wrote: > >> >If FDA takes no action to dispute the claim that marijuana and tobacco >> >cigarettes are "medical devices", how will their position alter the >> >thinking of the DEA administrator? > >I believe that the DEA has referred the issue of medical marijuana to the >Department of Health and Human Services: See the Hightimes article at : > >http://www.hightimes.com/ht/new/index.html A quote from this article >follows: > >"The DEA has affirmed that sufficient grounds exist to investigate whether >marijuana should be made available for medical use, and the matter has been >sent to the Department of Health and Human Services for a binding review. " > >Does anyone know if this is being acted on by HHS? Yes, the petition is being acted on my HHS however I expect the review to take quite some time. I haven't had time to give Robert Goodman's interesting observations the thought they deserve. A few observations. There is a difference in the government's authority to regulate a substance and a vendor's authority to sell and market it. The US Court of Appeals ruled that a drug or substance does not require FDA approval of a NDA (New Drug Application) as a pre-requisite to scheduling considerations. We can, should, and will debate and speculate on the intricacies of fedeal regulatory procedures and precedents. But let us not confuse the issue of handicaping the conflict (by predicting what will happen) with the process of making the system work the way it is supposed to. All speculation aside, the blunt reality of the situation is that the petition gives me legal standing to press a demand that the users of all drugs be accorded equal treatment and protection under the law, a demand I will vigorously pursue. Under present law, alcohol and tobacco are exempt from CSA regulations, and as such it may not matter much what decisions are made regarding tobacco and delivery devices, etc. But it should matter, and I encourage further discussion on this issue. The real issue under present law is whether or not users of marijuana are afforded the same regulatory protection as other drug users, rephrased - is marijuana regulated according to the same standards as other scheduled drugs? The petition documents that when it comes to the pre-eminent finding of abuse potential, it is clear that marijuana is scheduled according to a different standard. Please continue to think about these matters, and I'm very interested in discussion and speculation about these issues. Jon Gettman *** Date: Wed, 13 May 1998 09:00:40 EDT Errors-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: Gettman_J@mediasoft.net Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jon Gettman To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: Re: need help w FDA project on tobacco & cannabis X-Listprocessor-Version: 6.0 -- ListProcessor by Anastasios Kotsikonas X-Comment: DRCTalk is the planning forum for DRCNet. >Arthur Livermore wrote: > >> >If FDA takes no action to dispute the claim that marijuana and tobacco >> >cigarettes are "medical devices", how will their position alter the >> >thinking of the DEA administrator? Robert Bennett wrote: >I believe that the DEA has referred the issue of medical marijuana to the >Department of Health and Human Services: See the High Times article at : I neglected to clarify something. After the HHS review, the issue goes back to DEA and at that point the DEA Administrator has to make some decisions. Art and others raise the question of how developments with tobacco will affect that future decision. My other post on this subject is meant to address that in general terms. For those readers who, unlike Art, are unaware of the petition, here is a quick synopsis: I filed it in 1995. The DEA reviewed it until late 1997, and referred it to HHS. The HHS evaluation is binding on DEA as to scientific and medical issues. When the HHS evaluation is done, DEA will propose new rules about marijuana and all cannabinoids. Anyone who doesn't like the proposed new rules can call for a hearing. If a hearing takes place, an administrative law judge will make a recommendation based on the hearing record. DEA then issues a final rule, making a case to accept or reject the law judge recommendation. If anyone doesn't like the final rule, they can challenge it in the US Court of Appeals. A prior petition took 22 years to resolve, and it took ten years to have the petition referred from DEA to HHS, apprx. 3 years for a HHS review, and apprx. 3 years to organize hearings and get a recommendation from an administrative law judge. This was then rejected by DEA and unsuccessfully challenged in court for 4 years. The current petition took 2.5 years to go from DEA to HHS. The major areas of speculation are: What will the HHS review contain? Will DEA disregard the HHS review if it recommends reform, and if so on what grounds? How will supporters of marijuana's schedule I status react to a reform recommendation from HHS? This is a fascinating question because many of these people sincerely believe marijuana belongs in schedule I, and their opposition to reform is based on sincere respect for the rule of law and the findings of the scientific process. We'll see for real who are the partisans and who are the patriots. Who will be supporting and opposing the new rule in hearings before an administrative law. judge? What will the law judge recommend? What basis will DEA have to disregard the adm. law judge recommendation? How will the US Court of Appeals rule on this issue? The possible outcomes all rest on the content of the HHS review, as well as on the development of other precedents. In this respect, the tobacco issue is very relevant because other precedents are emerging. That's enough out of me in this area for now. I'm more interested at this time in hearing discussion on these issues than I am in making my own assertions. Jon Gettman
------------------------------------------------------------------- Re - DEA Petition Story (Where To Find A One-Page Summary About The Case To Give To Media While Seeking Coverage) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 14:10:25 EST Sender: email@example.com From: "Kelly T. Conlon" (conlonkt@mcmail.CIS.McMaster.CA) Subject: Re: DEA Petition story On Thu, 15 Jan 1998, Jim Rosenfield wrote: > I think we need a one page essay that summarizes what this means, where it > comes from, > and the possible implications. This should go out with a pointer to the > detail, the petition itself, more history and a request that the story be > run, also with a short letter to editor on the subject. Most of that is already available on the NORML web site; see http://www.norml.org/research/aa/aaMSPP_cont.html KTC
------------------------------------------------------------------- HHS To Conduct Binding Review Of Marijuana (Press Release From American Medical Marijuana Organization) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 20:10:31 -0700 From: Steve Kubby (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: HHS To Conduct Binding Review Of Marijuana AMERICAN MEDICAL MARIJUANA ORGANIZATION (AMMO) Defending The Rights Of Medical Marijuana Patients Thursday. Jan 15, 1998 HHS To Conduct Binding Review Of Marijuana's Prohibitive Status January 15, 1998, Washington, D.C.: The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) recently determined that sufficient grounds exist to justify proceedings re-evaluating marijuana's prohibitive Schedule I status. As a result, the agency has formally requested the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to conduct "a scientific and medical evaluation of the available data and provide a scheduling recommendation" for marijuana and other cannabinoid drugs. The DEA's action is in response to an administrative petition filed by former NORML National Director Jon Gettman and Trans High Corporation -- publisher of High Times Magazine -- on July 10, 1995. The petition argues that marijuana and cannabinoid drugs lack the "high potential for abuse" required for Schedule I and Schedule II drugs under the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Gettman notes that the DEA has never before voluntarily referred a marijuana petition to HHS for binding review. "People are sent to jail every day because of mistaken assumptions about the abuse potential of marijuana," Gettman said. "[This] petition observes that HHS has never produced a finding that marijuana actually has the high potential for abuse similar to heroin or cocaine required for Schedule I or Schedule II status. Furthermore, the legislative history of the CSA indicates that Congress only intended for marijuana to remain in Schedule I or Schedule II if such a finding could be produced. This petition challenges the government to produce such a finding or be legally required to end marijuana prohibition by removing marijuana from Schedule I." Gettman initially asked the Department of Justice in 1994 to request this evaluation from HHS. At that time, DEA Administrator Thomas Constantine argued that the agency was "unaware of any new scientific studies of marijuana that would lead [it] to re-evaluate [marijuana's] classification at this time." Constantine then challenged Gettman to provide documentation indicating that new research had taken place. Gettman responded by filing his 1995 petition. "The recent referral of the petition to HHS is an acknowledgment by DEA of deficiencies in their familiarity with scientific studies of marijuana, and of the validity of [my] argument and its documented scientific basis," Gettman said. Petitioners are represented by Michael Kennedy, Esq. of New York City, a member of the NORML Legal Committee. For more information, please contact either the law offices of Michael Kennedy @ (212) 935-4500 or Allen St. Pierre of The NORML Foundation @ (202) 483-8751.
------------------------------------------------------------------- New Medicinal Marijuana Bill Hits Senate (Washington State Senator Jeanne Kohl, D-Seattle, Is Proposing Senate Bill 6271, To Give Patients Who Use Medical Marijuana - And Physicians Who Recommend It - Immunity From State Prosecution) From: "W.H.E.N."
Subject: HT: ART: Lt. Gov opposes new med mj bill Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 19:31:26 -0800 Sender: email@example.com New medicinal marijuana bill hits Senate * IMMUNITY: Senate Bill 6271 is designed to protect patients and doctors from state prosecution. By D. Eric Jones The Olympian Jan. 15, 1998 Only two months after a broad proposal to legalize several drugs for medical use was trounced by Washington voters, a bill to allow physician-advised marijuana has emerged in the state Senate. Sen. Jeanne Kohl, D-Seattle, is proposing Senate Bill 6271, a measure that would give marijuana users and doctors who advise its medical use immunity from state prosecution. "This will protect the physician and the patient in the state of Washington," said Rob Killian, a Tacoma physician who supports the measure. Killian had promoted Initiative 685, which included provisions to legalize medicinal use of marijuana, heroin and other drugs, as well as to require that some drug offenders ,were sent to treatment instead of prison. Voters rejected I-685 by a 3-to-2 ratio. ' By contrast, the new bill focuses on medical issues, restricting marijuana use to rare circumstances. Public use would be prohibited, and any use would be at the patient's expense. Patients who have the name and telephone number of a physician who advised them to use marijuana would be immune to state prosecution under the bill. And insurers would not have to reimburse users for the cost of the drug. But medical users of marijuana still could be charged with possession of marijuana under federal drug laws. However, Kohl said, federal prosecutors have not pursued such charges in California or Arizona, which have much broader marijuana-use laws than her bill proposes. Killian said marijuana could help people suffering the effects of HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Despite critics' claims of carcinogenic effects from smoking marijuana, Kohl said, providing access to the drug still is vital. "When we're talking about people who are in grave situations or who are dying, long-term effects of smoking may not be relevant," Kohl said. She said she did not support I-685, calling it "flawed." An adamant opponent of I-685, Lt. Gov. Brad Owen, said he also does not support the new bill. However, Owen said, he wants to show compassion to patients who are terminally ill or in extreme pain. He said he might submit his proposed changes to Kohl's office as early as next week. "It's still way too broad and it has too much of a sense of legalization to it," Owen said. "It would be a nightmare for law enforcement." Owen also questioned whether residents truly support medical use of marijuana, citing a long trend of misinformation by proponents. Marijuana is not a miracle drug and can do more harm than good for many patients, Owen said. Patients might be unaware of health risks associated with smoking marijuana, such as research indicating an increased risk of AIDS patients contracting bacterial pneumonia, he said. "The research says there's a lot more questions that need to be addressed before it should be approved," Owen said. "(And) no research supports using marijuana as a so-called medicine."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Medical Marijuana Patient Ralph Seeley Writes To Washington State Senator Deccio (Chair Of Health And Long Term Care Committee, On Senator Kohl's Senate Bill 6271 And Gettman's DEA Petition To Reschedule Cannabis) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 16:36:53 To: HEMP-TALK@hemp.net From: Ralph Seeley
Subject: HT: ltr to Deccio Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org [here is the letter I sent to Sen. Deccio, the chairman of the Health and Long Term Care Committee. -- Ralph Seeley] Dear Sen. Deccio, I am a cancer patient, now considered terminal after nearly 12 years of fighting it. I am also a lawyer, still practicing law part-time. Being a lawyer, it was not easy for me to "go public" by admitting to commission of a crime - using marijuana. But marijuana prohibition is such a corrupt, shameful blight on our society, I came to believe that if I were to consider myself a moral, deserving member of society, I could do no less. I want to thank you for scheduling hearings on Sen. Kohl's bill, before the committee you chair. I hope you and the other senators will be open to the information we can provide, and that you will vote the bill out of committee with a do-pass recommendation. (Have I got my sequence and terminology straight?) Here are a few paragraphs in summary: First, understand that chemotherapy-induced nausea is not just an upset tummy. For the first 11 years of my disease, without question the worst of it was the endless hours of helpless gagging and retching, which would end only with total exhaustion - until I discovered smoking marijuana. My doc agreed that smoking it would bypass my non-functioning digestive system and get the drug into my blood where it could help me - as opposed to taking THC pills and vomiting them up whole. I got some marijuana on "the street" before my next chemo session, and the results were absolutely amazing. Where before I had wound up curled in the fetal position in my own vomit and excrement, too exhausted to pull the "nurse call" cord dangling in front of my face, now I felt slightly nauseated, a bit dreamy, and I drifted off to sleep. The lifting of the psychological load - the dread before and exhaustion after - was just indescribably wonderful. This is real-life, genuine suffering, not something abstract or theoretical. The abstractions and circular theories are all on the other side of the scales - where the alleged benefits of continuing prohibition are weighed. The rhetoric has all been disproven, detail by detail; marijuana is not a "gateway" to hard drug abuse, doesn't cause major health problems in its own right, etc., etc. The genuine reasons for concern - shouldn't smoke it and drive, for example - are reasons it should be a prescription - as opposed to over-the-counter - drug. The federal DEA last month gave up the fight, and admitted that it can no longer justify keeping marijuana in Schedule I. It has requested a scientific analysis from HHS as to where it should be placed. (See press release, below, for details, if you can wade through the length of it.) Medical marijuana is the future, though the feds will no doubt take years to end the suffering. You and your fellow legislators have an opportunity to serve the citizens of the state by ending a prohibition brought on by hysteria and supported through the years by lies and distortions on the part of the very government that should be protecting the weakest and most helpless among us. I hope you all will have the courage to do the right thing. If I can be of any assistance, please don't hesitate to ask. Sincerely, Ralph Seeley Attorney at Law 1134 North L St. Tacoma WA 98403 253-572-6604 >A Press Release from the Law Offices of Michael Kennedy [snip]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Another Letter By Ralph Seeley (To Washington State Senator Dan McDonald) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 16:41:30 To: HEMP-TALK@hemp.net From: Ralph Seeley
Subject: HT: ltr to mcdonald Sender: email@example.com [at the suggestion of Sen. Kohl, I sent the below to Sen. Dan McDonald, the head R. He apparently said something on NPR about not thinking the bill would make it through in the aftermath of I-685. -- Ralph Seeley] Dear Sen. McDonald, I write as a cancer patient and lawyer with a fund of knowledge concerning medical marijuana, both from my personal use and from researching and pursuing a lawsuit against the state. I understand that you commented in the media that it was unlikely that the legislature could pass Sen. Kohl's medical marijuana bill, given the citizens' rejection of I-685 last fall. Numerous polls showed unambiguously that I-685 failed not because it dealt with medical marijuana, but because it included other Schedule I drugs (heroin and LSD were the ones drummed over and over by the opposition, or "pro-suffering" side), and permitted "convicted felons" to be released from prison early. And even with those shortcomings, a lot of people still voted for it - 9,787 voters in your district, for example. Numerous polls sponsored by several organizations show unambiguous majority support for a law permitting the regulated use of marijuana as medicine. The citizens are fed up with the distortions, hysteria and deceit that permit people to suffer so profoundly when relief is so easily available. The merits of marijuana as medicine are clearly established. Consider these two points: (1) The federal DEA has finally conceded that it cannot justify maintaining marijuana in Schedule I, and has asked the HHS department for a scientific analysis of where it should be put (see loooong press release, below, if you want details). (2) Even our state's most highly visible and politically connected anti-drug crusader, Lt. Gov. Brad Owen, stated during the I-685 campaign that he would support a straight medical marijuana law. Please don't let the suffering continue just because some citizen activists made a wrong decision to model an initiative campaign after Arizona's instead of California's. Sen. Kohl's bill is a good one. I ask - plead - for your support. If I can provide any assistance, please let me know. Thank you. Ralph Seeley 1134 North L St. Tacoma WA 98403 253 572-6604 [press release, snip]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ralph Seeley's Letter To Members Of Committee On Health And Long Term Care (On Why Washington Voters' Rejection Of I-685 Didn't Mean A Rejection Of Medical Marijuana) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 17:00:05 To: HEMP-TALK@hemp.net From: Ralph Seeley
Subject: HT: ltr to cmtee mbrs Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org [I sent the enclosed, at Sen. Kohl's suggestion, to each member of the Health and Long Term Care Committee. My thanks to whomever put together the web page at www.hemp.net/news/legislature.html. Slick. Good piece of work. Made my life ridiculously easy. -- Ralph Seeley] Dear Sen. [Wood, Franklin, etc.], I write to plead for your support of the medical marijuana bill now with the Health and Long Term Care Committee. I am a lawyer, so it was not without some trepidation I admitted publicly that I use marijuana during chemotherapy and other appropriate times during my 11-year battle with cancer. But it is time to speak the truth, loudly. Our citizens are entitled to an end to marijuana prohibition. It is a blight on our society. Thousands of people have suffered awful, horrible symptoms, gagging and retching uncontrollably for hours on end, vomiting up pills when the route for the drug into the bloodstream - the lungs - was so obviously the correct method to achieve relief. The prohibition is grinding to a halt, I am happy to say. I am attaching a press release to the end of this letter. I know, too long. In summary: The DEA has admitted that it cannot justify continuing to keep marijuana in "Schedule I," and has asked the Health and Human Services Administration for a scientific evaluation of where to put it. It will probably take the Feds a year or two to figure everything out and actually do something useful, but however long it takes, medical marijuana is the future reality. Meanwhile, forward-thinking legislators here can provide relief from horrible suffering for our citizens NOW. Sen. Kohl's bill does not involve other drugs or releasing "convicted felons" early (as the failed I-685 did, last fall), and it provides for a program to inform students that it's MEDICINE, not a recreational drug. During the I-685 campaign, even our most strident anti-drug warrior, Lt. Gov. Brad Owen, said he would support such a bill. Marijuana prohibition is a result of deceit, hypocrisy and misinformation - it not only promotes suffering (which concerns me as a cancer patient), but erodes respect for the rule of law (which distresses me as a lawyer). Please vote to pass the bill out of committee. It amounts to no more than doing the right thing. Sincerely, Ralph Seeley Attorney at Law 1134 North L St. Tacoma WA 98403 253-572-6604 A Press Release from the Law Offices of Michael Kennedy [snip]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Meth Tools Found On Roads (It's Not Drugs, It's Prohibition That Leads To Dumping Of Toxic Methamphetamine Byproducts Along Rural Washington State Roadways) From: "W.H.E.N."
Subject: HT: ART: Prohibition related dumping Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 19:58:25 -0800 Sender: email@example.com Meth tools found on roads * DUMPING: Seven tanks believed to be used to cook meth have been found since November. By Jennifer Olson The Olympian Jan. 15, 1998 Makers of methamphetamine have apparently found a new dumping ground for some of their toxic equipment: Thurston County roadways. Seven 5-gallon propane tanks believed to be used in the cooking of meth have been discovered along south county roads since mid-November, said Keith Eisner, a spokesman for the county's Roads and Transportation Department. Meth makers fill the tanks with rock salt, then add hydrochloric acid to form a gas as part of the manufacturing process, said Ron Holcomb, a state Department of Ecology spill responder. The gas can damage the lungs ' skin and mucous membranes such as the eyes, Holcomb said. Officials are concerned that residents might find one of the tanks and decide to use it. "We don't want citizens to come along and think 'Great, I could use one,"' he said. The roadside disposal is the latest wrinkle in the methamphetamine trade that has exploded in Thurston County. There were more than 25 raids on suspected labs through the first seven months of 1997. South Sound police say labs are on the rise in part because ingredients used in new meth recipes can be bought off the shelf at supermarkets or drug stores. Two of the propane tanks were found along Rainier Road Southeast in November. Last month, workers discovered tanks along Waldrick Road Southeast, 113th Avenue Southeast and McCorkle Road Southeast. On Jan. 5, a seventh tank was found on 93rd Avenue Southwest. Ephredine containers, lab glassware and toxic liquid were dumped along with that tank. All of those are common meth-making items, Holcomb said. "I've been involved in litter control for the past eight years, and I've seen nothing like this," said Steve Granger, community service and training coordinator for the Roads and Transportation Department. Inmate work crews discovered the first tank. Many in the crew considered it another piece of trash until one inmate told supervisors it probably was used in meth manufacturing. The state DOE's spill section, depressurized all the tanks and disposed of them and the acidic waste material found inside. Inspector Nick Patterson of the Mason County Sheriff's Department said he has not received reports of propane-tank dumping in Mason County. Patterson believes the tanks might come from a single group of meth manufacturers. "There are so many different recipes for crank," Patterson said. "It's probably somebody who's come up with a little different twist. That's my guess." Jennifer Olson covers Thurston County for The Olympian. She can be reached at 754-5427.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Dying Need Compassion (AIDS Patient Caregiver Writes To Editor Of 'Oakland Tribune' About Attorney General Lungren's Lack Of Compassion, Praises Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:25:34 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: Editorial: Dying Need Compassion Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Jerry Sutliff Source: Oakland Tribune Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Author: Robin Bryant DYING NEED COMPASSION In the past six years, I have lost two of my dearest friends to AIDS, and am now primary caregiver to a third. In the first two cases I was forced to find marijuana on the street to alleviate the dreadful symptoms of the final stages of this disease. This year is the first time I have been able to go to a secure, clean, well-lighted, professionally staffed and legal place to obtain medical marijuana. And now Attorney General Dan Lungren is telling me that I should have my dying friends grow their own when too often the effort of getting out of bed Is more than they can manage. Where Is the humanity or the compassion in such an alternative? California voters clearly stated their desire to provide medical marijuana to residents who are chronically ill and dying. As a sovereign state, Californians must stand up to federal pressure to abandon what we know is right in caring for our chronically ill and dying. With all due respect to Dennis Peron for his tireless work in getting the Marijuana Initiative on the ballot, his continued hippy-dippy style has a major negative impact in our fight to care for the sick in a professional and caring manner. Peron's mannerisms do not reflect the average Californian who needs medical marijuana. And Lungren's seeming personal vendetta against Peron discounts a large and meaningful population behind a circumstantially selected "Banner Boy." The Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative is stringent in its processing of potential candidates for medical marijuana. The building is in a business district with security guards posted at the doors, and in the marijuana room. All entrants are checked in and out of the building. No one but the patients and their caregivers are allowed in the marijuana room and a photo ID must be presented each time they enter. Unless and until someone comes up with a viable, humane, compassionate and feasible alternative for distributing medical marijuana in Oakland, or anywhere in California, these cooperatives should not be allowed to go out of operation. Dan Lungren must be either the luckiest man in the world or else he has no friends or family. Anyone in California in the forty-something bracket who has not lost a family member or friend to cancer or AIDS has to be either incredibly blessed or so totally isolated as to be completely out of touch with the real world. Lungren has apparently never held the head of a loved one while he vomited uncontrollably due to chemotherapy; cooked a special request meal, only to have to throw it away because his loved one lost his appetite due to wasting syndrome; or watched them sink into a vegetative depression which was unresponsive to prescription drugs. I'm sure he never had to catheterize a quadriplegic whose muscle spasms left him exhausted: or watch his mother go blind from glaucoma. That such a fortunate man should be so inhuman as to press his heartless agenda against the sick is beyond comprehension. It isn't death that is hard, It's the process of dying. Wake up, Dan Lungren, one of these days it will be your turn. Robin Bryant lives in Oakland.
------------------------------------------------------------------- San Francisco Pot Club Owner Starts Campaign - Peron's Gubernatorial Run Begins In Santa Cruz ('San Francisco Chronicle' Quotes Dennis Peron As He Bids For California GOP Nomination - 'Real Republicans Want Government To Butt Out Of Issues Like Sexual Choices And Marijuana Use') Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:17:45 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: Peron's Gubernatorial Run Begins in Santa Cruz Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: "Frank S. World"
Source: San Francisco Chronicle Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/ Author: Maria Alicia Gaura, Chronicle Staff Writer S.F. Pot Club Owner Starts Campaign PERON'S GUBERNATORIAL RUN BEGINS IN SANTA CRUZ With his neat white hair, wire- rim glasses and casually loosened tie, Dennis Peron looks everything like a ``candidate,'' and nothing like the biggest marijuana booster in California. But as he kicked off his campaign for governor of California yesterday in a Santa Cruz community center, the irrepressible Peron peppered his political rhetoric with jabs at the major parties, and made admissions probably never made before by a Republican candidate. ``I want to make this clear right here, I did sell marijuana to kids,'' said Peron, who made the sales through his San Francisco cannabis club. ``They were 16 and 17, they had cancer, and to the shame of America, they had AIDS.'' Peron went on to argue that real Republicans want the government to butt out of issues like sexual choices and marijuana use. ``Republicans stand for individual responsibility, and small government is good government,'' Peron said. ``The fundamentalist right . . . these guys are fake Republicans, using the (party) banner to oppress us with their moral agenda. ``I want to regain the soul of the Republican Party, the soul of America,'' Peron said, with a grin. ``And you know what else? It drives them crazy that I'm a Republican.'' Peron has a long way to go if he wants to make a serious bid for the GOP nomination. Attorney General Dan Lungren, a staunch opponent of any marijuana use, is the odds-on favorite to win the party primary in June. Peron said he chose to kick off his statewide campaign in Santa Cruz because of the city's solid support for medical marijuana and its close ties to San Francisco. Santa Cruz approved its own ordinance legalizing medical marijuana in 1992, and well over 70 percent of local voters approved the statewide medical marijuana initiative, Proposition 215, in 1996. Santa Cruz is solidly Democratic, with fewer than one in six registered voters a Republican -- and not a one of them was to be seen at yesterday's campaign event. But Peron urged voters of all persuasions to take advantage of California's new open primary law to put him on the November ballot as the Republican candidate. Peron volunteers are also working to gather the 10,000 signatures needed to waive the state's $6,000 election filing fee. Peron said he hopes to get elected without having to raise money. ``I don't really want your money,'' he said. ``We're not going to win the election by putting me on TV for 15 seconds. We're going to win (with events) just like this.'' The crowd of about 100 that filled a meeting room at the Louden Nelson Community Center applauded wildly as Peron lambasted the federal war on drugs, intrusive government and political parties. If elected, Peron vowed to open the border with Mexico and house all of the homeless, perhaps in large communal ``long houses.'' ``I feel compelled to run for office not just because of marijuana, but because of what they're doing to this country, using their police powers to intimidate the people who want social change,'' Peron said.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Inmate Population Outpaces Prisons, Jails (California's State Prisons And County Jails Have Not Kept Up With An Inmate Population That Has Increased Sixfold Since 1980, Reports 137-Page Study By 'Little Hoover Commission' - Despite A Boom In Construction That Has Crippled Funding For Schools And Public Services) . Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:18:47 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: Inmate Population Outpaces Prisons, Jails Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family
Source: San Jose Mercury News Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 INMATE P0PULATION OUTPACES PRISONS, JAILS SACRAMENTO (AP) -- Despite a construction boom, California's prisons have failed to keep up with a skyrocketing inmate population that has increased sixfold since 1980, a watchdog panel reported Wednesday. The Little Hoover Commission said county jails are in the same fix. ``The dramatic expansion of the state's jails and prisons has not kept pace with the growing inmate population,'' the commission said in a 137-page report. ``The state has two options: to rethink how it houses and deals with criminals, or to redouble its financial commitment to building and operating more jails and prisons,'' the commission said. In 1980, California had fewer than 25,000 inmates in a dozen prisons. Today, the state has about 154,000 prisoners in 33 prisons. The population is expected to reach 200,000 within five years. The jails have about 72,000 prisoners at any given time, with sentences averaging about three weeks. Since the early 1980s, California has spent about $5.7 billion to modernize the prison system, and about $3 billion on jails. About half the money was approved by voters; the rest was covered by lease-purchase bonds not requiring voter approval. Part of the crowding problem is that politicians, responding to voters' fears, are approving longer sentences for inmates. Also, an increasing number of inmates admitted to prisons are repeaters -- people who violated the conditions of parole or who are back in for a new crime, according to the commission. During 1996-97, the state prison system admitted nearly 133,000 inmates. Of those, only 49,000 were new prisoners. More than 82,000 prisoners -- two-thirds of the total number admitted to prison during that period -- were parole violators or repeat offenders.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Watchdogs Say Prisons And Jails Too Crowded (Report On California Corrections By The Little Hoover Commission) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:17:56 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: Watchdogs Say Prisons and Jails Too Crowded Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: John W.Black Source: Orange County Register Contact: email@example.com Pubdate:1-15-98 WATCHDOGS SAY PRISONS AND JAILS TOO CROWDED California's prisons have failed to keep up with an inmate population that has increased sixfold since 1980, a watchdog panel reported Wednesday. The Little Hoover Commission said county jails are in the same fix. It recommended programs such as electronic home detention.
------------------------------------------------------------------- What Does Charles Manson Know About Drugs In Prison That Bill Clinton Doesn't? (News Release From US Libertarian Party Denounces Proposed New $197 Million Federal Outlay And Failure Of War On Some Drugs) Date: Thu, 22 Jan 1998 04:09:37 -0800 (PST) From: Charles Stewart (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Subject: CnbsCL> LP National Release:Dugs in Prison (fwd) NEWS FROM THE LIBERTARIAN PARTY 2600 Virginia Avenue, NW, Suite 100 Washington DC 20037 For release: January 15, 1998 For additional information: George Getz, Press Secretary Phone: (202) 333-0008 Ext. 222 E-Mail: 76214.3676@Compuserve.com What does Charles Manson know about drugs in prison that Bill Clinton doesn't? WASHINGTON, DC -- How embarrassing: The government can't even keep drugs out of prisons. So President Bill Clinton proposed this week to spend another $197 million to try to solve that problem -- but all he's done is publicly confess that the War on Drugs isn't working, the Libertarian Party said today. "When even mass-murderer Charles Manson can buy drugs in prison, then it's time to admit the War on Drugs has failed utterly," said Steve Dasbach, the party's national chairman. "After all, if the government can't keep drugs away from prisoners who are locked in steel cages 24 hours a day, surrounded by barbed wire, watched by armed guards, drug-tested, strip-searched, X-rayed and videotaped -- how can it possibly stop the flow of drugs to 260 million other Americans?" he asked. That's a question the Clinton Administration didn't answer when it unveiled the new program to "combat drugs behind bars." The $197 million initiative includes stiffer sentences for prison drug dealers, allows states to spend more money for prison anti-drug programs, and requires states to measure drug use among prisoners. "With this new policy, Clinton has in effect admitted -- 197 million times -- that the War on Drugs has failed," said Dasbach. "And if he claims that just a little more money and a little more security will solve the problem, then we say in response: Charles Manson." Manson, America's most notorious serial killer, was caught with drugs last year -- despite the fact that he was locked down under tight security 24 hours a day. The 63-year-old killer was then transferred to another prison for treatment of his drug addiction. How do prisoners like Manson get access to drugs? In a word: Guards. "Inside or outside of prison, the first casualty of the Drug War is the honesty of the law enforcement system," said Dasbach. "Illegal drug profits invariably corrupt police officers, judges...and prison guards." For example, over a six-year period at the maximum-security Graterford State Prison near Philadelphia, 13 guards were charged with drug violations, 11 inmates died of overdoses, and even the state's top prison official was forced to admit that drug dealing had "spun out of control." "How can the government claim that prison rehabilitates drug users -- or stops drug trafficking -- when even guards are dealing drugs?" Dasbach asked. "Instead of pretending that just one more government program will solve the problem, it's time to admit that our nation's revolving-prison-door drug policy turns addicts into prisoners, prisoners into addicts, and guards into criminals," he said. And one more program in the government's endless and expensive War on Drugs won't make a difference, he said. Libertarians aren't the only ones who have reached that conclusion: A survey of 300 U.S. police chiefs in 1996 found that only 3% believed the government's drug war had been "very successful" at reducing the drug problem. "Throwing more Americans into jail is not a solution," said Dasbach. "Spending more money on ineffective programs is not progress. And the clang of a prison door slamming shut is not the sound of the War on Drugs being won -- it's the sound of failure." The Libertarian Party 2600 Virginia Ave. NW, Suite 100 Washington DC 20037 http://www.lp.org/ voice: 202-333-0008 fax: 202-333-0072 For subscription changes, please mail to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word "subscribe" or "unsubscribe" in the subject line -- or use the WWW form.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Defense Department To Urge End To Border Patrol (Senior US Defense Official Says 'It's Not Worth The Legal Liability For Our Soldiers, And The Actual Amount Of Drugs Seized' By Marines Along Texas Border 'Proved To Be Modest') Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:18:07 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: Defense Dept. to Urge End to Border Patrol Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: John W.Black Source: Orange County Register Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Thursday, January 15, 1998 DEFENSE DEPT. TO URGE END TO BORDER PATROL Defense Department officials will recommend permanently canceling armed military patrols along the Mexico border in the wake of a fatal shooting of a teen-age goatherd by a U.S. Marine last year, a senior defense official said Wednesday. "It's not worth the legal liability for our soldiers, and the actual amount of drugs seized throughout the performance of those missions proved to be modest," said senior defense official who spoke on the condition of anonymity. A study of the military's future role along the border has not yet been presented to Defense Secretary William Cohen. But it will advocate that support services including road building and intelligence gathering continue, while ground reconnaissance missions in the front lines of the drug war end, the official said.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Senate Votes To Censure Abernathy (The Democrat From Atlanta, Georgia, Son Of A Beloved Civil Rights Leader, May Still Face Impeachment Proceedings For Attempting To Conceal Marijuana In His Underpants After Flight Home From Jamaican Vacation) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 22:37:54 -0500 Subject: MN: US GA: Senate Votes To Censure Abernathy Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com Source: Atlanta Journal-Constitution Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.accessatlanta.com/news/ Author: Charles Walston, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution SENATE VOTES TO CENSURE ABERNATHY The debate was short and the decision swift, but the Georgia Senate's move to censure Sen. Ralph David Abernathy III on Wednesday could echo through the legislative session. The censure, which passed by a 51-2 vote, marked only the second time in modern history that the Senate had issued such a strong reprimand against one of its members. Afterward, Abernathy (D-Atlanta) said he was "prepared to move on," but that may be wishful thinking. A move in the House to impeach him shows no signs of abating. Abernathy, the son of a beloved civil rights leader, offered no resistance to the censure, which resulted from his attempt to conceal a small amount of marijuana in his underpants as he stepped off an airplane from Jamaica to Atlanta on Dec. 1. He sat silently at his desk and abstained from voting while his colleagues decided his fate. Leaders of both parties had urged Senate members to forego political grandstanding, and only three senators spoke on the matter. "His actions of smuggling drugs into this country is an inexcusable act," said Ethics Committee Chairman Sen. Eddie Madden (D-Elberton). "We are held to a higher standard, and he has betrayed that." Sen. Charles Clay (R-Marietta), the Republican leader in the Senate, said the censure brought no pleasure to anyone. "We cannot allow our feelings of like or dislike to force us to disregard our responsibility," said Clay. "It is the conduct we are judging." Clay attempted unsuccessfully to amend the censure resolution by naming Abernathy, rather than identifying him only by his district number -- a standard Senate practice. The censure was adopted quickly because Abernathy waived his right to dispute the allegations. He also resigned his Senate committee chairmanship, but retains all other Senate privileges. The last time a senator was censured was in 1976, when Roscoe Dean was reprimanded for misusing his state expense accounts. Unlike Abernathy, Dean demanded an airing of the charges. Lt. Gov. Pierre Howard, who at the time was a young senator, laid out the charges against Dean in a role similar to that of a prosecutor. Compared to that occasion, Howard said, Abernathy's censure was much less difficult. "I think it was handled in an appropriate way, and I'm glad it's behind us," said Howard. A censure is the strongest action the Senate can take on its own. Impeachment proceedings must begin in the House, which acts as a kind of grand jury. If the House votes to impeach, the matter would move to a trial in the Senate, with Supreme Court Chief Justice Robert Benham presiding. Clay said he would vote to impeach Abernathy if the matter returned to the Senate, and Madden has said there is "a probability" the Senate would vote for impeachment. Abernathy, who apologized on the Senate floor Monday, said he would work to regain the confidence of his colleagues and constituents. "I'm going to do all I can," said Abernathy.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Miami Schools Water Down Drug Tests ('Associated Press' Says Threat Of Lawsuit From Florida ACLU Persuades Miami-Dade County School District To Make Urine Tests Voluntary) Date: Sat, 17 Jan 1998 18:55:07 -0500 To: DrugSense News Service
From: Richard Lake Subject: MN: US FL: Wire: Miami Schools Water Down Drug Tests Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family Source: The Associated Press Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 MIAMI SCHOOLS WATER DOWN DRUG TESTS MIAMI (AP) -- Under threat of a lawsuit from the American Civil Liberties Union, the Miami-Dade County school district has watered down its drug testing program to allow high school students to refuse random checks. Even with the modifications made Wednesday night, the plan would be one of the most extensive drug testing programs in the nation. The Miami-Dade County School Board is expected to give it final approval in February. Tests would begin in March in grades nine through 12, but only on students whose parents have signed consent forms. If a student refused after his parents signed, the parents would be notified, but the student would face no other punishment. The ACLU's Florida chapter had threatened a lawsuit if students in the nation's fourth-largest district were not given the right to refuse. ``At least they've recognized that students are human beings and have constitutional rights,'' said Howard Simon, ACLU state executive director. School drug testing gained constitutional footing from a 1995 U.S. Supreme Court decision that public school athletes can be tested. None of the nation's three biggest school districts -- New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago -- has random drug testing. Onelia Lage, a University of Miami clinical pediatrics professor and member of the school board's health advisory committee, said administrators shouldn't expect the testing to be very useful. ``A teen-ager who consents to this is not the one we're worried about,'' Lage said. ``The goal should be treatment and intervention.''
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drug Suspect Shot by Undercover Officer (Local News From 'The Houston Chronicle') Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:18:28 -0800 Subject: MN: US TX: Drug Suspect Shot by Undercover Officer Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Art Smart
Source: Houston Chronicle Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/ DRUG SUSPECT SHOT BY UNDERCOVER OFFICER A suspected narcotics dealer was shot twice by an undercover Houston police officer during a drug bust gone awry in north Houston Wednesday. Two undercover officers had just bought some drugs about 8 p.m. when other undercover officers moved in for the arrest in the parking lot of a nightclub in the 100 block of East Crosstimbers, said HPD spokesman John Leggio. When the suspects realized they were about to be arrested, a scuffle broke out. One pulled a pistol and began firing at the undercover officers. Leggio said an officer drew his weapon and fired several times, hitting the suspect in the arm and grazing his head. Neither wound appeared to be life-threatening, Leggio said. No officer was injured. The wounded man was taken to an area hospital. The other was arrested at the scene. Leggio said nine ounces of cocaine were seized. Their names were withheld pending a formal filing of charges.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drinkers Who Start At An Early Age More Likely To Become Alcoholics, Study Says ('Associated Press' Reports On New Paper From US National Institutes Of Health) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:18:19 -0800 Subject: MN: US: Drinkers Who Start At An Early Age More Likely To Become Alcoholics, Study Says Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Art Smart
Source: Houston Chronicle Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/ Author: Kalpana Srinivasan, Associated Press DRINKERS WHO START AT AN EARLY AGE MORE LIKELY TO BECOME ALCOHOLICS, STUDY SAYS WASHINGTON -- Underage drinkers may have more to worry about than just breaking the law. A study by the National Institutes of Health shows that children who begin drinking before they turn 15 are four times as likely to develop alcoholism as those who start drinking at the legal age of 21. They also are twice as likely to abuse alcohol than people who start drinking later, says the study, conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, a component of the NIH. Some medical experts say early exposure to drinking, family pressures and alcohol advertisements have encouraged children to began drinking at earlier ages and make breaking the habit more difficult as they grow up. "It's hard to get away from the pervasiveness of alcohol in our culture," said Dr. Clarence Chen, medical director at New York's Gracie Square Hospital, a facility for treating alcohol and drug abuse. "Kids start drinking because they think it's the adult thing to do." Chen said an increasing number of his patients with alcohol problems report they started drinking by age 10. While older children often begin drinking because of social influences, younger children tend to take their cues from adults, he said. "Parents have to be aware they are role models for kids," Chen added. More freedom and access to alcohol may also contribute to the propensity of childhood drinking, says Dr. Morris Chafetz, director of the Health Education Foundation, who has worked on alcohol-related issues for more than 40 years. "Kids want to belong and at the same time want to be independent," Chafetz said. "My guess is that these kids are given opportunities we didn't have to test out these things." The study also shows the risk of alcohol dependence decreased by 14 percent for each year the start of drinking was delayed. The risk of lifetime alcohol abuse fell by 8 percent with each additional year. "It remains to be seen whether it is the delay in alcohol use or, possibly, other associated factors that explain the inverse relationship between age at drinking onset and lifetime risk for alcohol abuse and alcoholism," said Dr. Enoch Gordis, director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Of the people surveyed for the study, more than 40 percent who began drinking before they turned 15 eventually became addicted to alcohol. That compares with the 24.5 percent who began drinking at 17 and the roughly 10 percent who started at the ages of 21 or 22.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Anti-German Sentiment Aided Prohibition's Approval ('Milwaukee Journal Sentinel' Historical Piece On How Wisconsin Was 'Dragged Kicking And Screaming Into Temperance,' Although 'The Ink On The New Law Was All That Stayed Dry,' Part Of Series On Wisconsin's Sesquicentennial)Newshawk: "Frank S. World" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Author: Dennis McCann of the Journal Sentinel Contact: email@example.com Fax: (414) 224-8280 Website: http://www.jsonline.com/ Editor's note: Our newshawk writes: This is part of a series on Wisconsin's Sesquicentennial. There are some parallels here! ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT AIDED PROHIBITION'S APPROVAL It was the day the high life -- at least legally -- left Wisconsin. On Jan. 16, 1920, Prohibition signaled last call for 9,656 Wisconsin saloons, and the $67,000 the state chapter of the Anti-Saloon League of America had spent in pushing for a ban on beer and booze had paid off. At $6.93 per shuttered saloon, the league said, the high price of living couldn't touch "the low cost of dying for saloons. Let 'em die while the dying is cheap!" Of course, rumors of drinking's death were greatly exaggerated. Wisconsin was dragged kicking and screaming into temperance. Milwaukee breweries employed 6,000 workers and slaked a major share of the nation's thirst for beer. For the many immigrants from beer-drinking countries (78.3% of state residents "had an inherited wet predilection," dry forces calculated) beer-drinking was a cultural pleasure, not the vice opponents saw. But World War I tipped the balance by putting all Germans under suspicion, even those who cared only about hops, not the kaiser. True patriots argued grain should be made into bread for fighting men and not for liquor. Still, even as national laws made dry throats appear inevitable, the fight over ratification of the 18th amendment was biting. The brewing industry argued taxes on liquor were paying for more of the war effort than liberty bonds; the Anti-Saloon League called Milwaukee brewers "the worst of all our German enemies" and dubbed their beer "Kaiser brew." The Volstead Act banned intoxicating spirits in June 1919 and the amendment followed. Recognizing the noose had tightened around John Barleycorn's neck, Wisconsin gave its assent -- but only grudgingly. Ratification took the votes of 36 states; Wisconsin's was the 39th. Few expected Prohibition to last, but the last night of legal drinking was special nonetheless. Parties were also wakes; revelers, not yet dry, sang "How Dry I Am" and of course "Taps" was heard. But the ink on the new law was all that stayed dry. Low-alcohol beer was available, doctors wrote so many prescriptions for "medicinal" spirits it seemed an epidemic had broken out and home brew and bathtub gin were everywhere. Speakeasies sprang up, moonshine stills were built everywhere in rural areas, officials were paid to look the other way and the law was widely ignored. In 1925 Milwaukee state Sen. Bernard Gettelman, who vociferously defended home brewing as legal, dared Prohibition agents to arrest him. "Let them come in. Let them taste some of my wine," he said. "They can't prosecute me and they won't try. . . . The joke is on the Anti-Saloon League." "It must be terrible wine," a league official replied. "They tell me he makes it out of raisins and yeast and potatoes. I can't imagine how he can drink it. Such courage should be applied to legitimate ends."
------------------------------------------------------------------- National Smokers Alliance (Drug Policy Reformers Should Learn From Organization Promoting Rights Of Tobacco Consumers) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 15:16:28 EST Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jim Rosenfield
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: National Smokers Alliance I am just now in receipt of the latest monthly package from National Smokers Alliance. They are slick, and they are effectively rousing their large constituency to acts of civil disobedience, activism and lobbying. If you can get your hands on any of their material, I urge you to read it and help us distill lessons from it. If any one wants to see copies, send me your address and a couple of bucks and will send copies of a couple of back issues. I wish we could afford a campaign exactly like theirs. Impressive, inspiring and educational. These guys are propaganda pros and their issue is not so different from ours. Jim Rosenfield tel: 310-836-0926 fax: 310-836-0592 http://insightweb.com email@example.com
------------------------------------------------------------------- Lock Up Smokers (Sarcastic Letter To Editor Of California's 'San Luis Obispo New Times' Quotes Joe Califano Of CASA - Tobacco Is The True 'Gateway' Drug - 'With More Than 642,000 Arrests For Marijuana Last Year, Incarceration Is A Very Popular Program And Should Be Applied To Tobacco Smokers As Well') Date: Sun, 25 Jan 1998 00:39:02 -0800 Subject: MN: US CA: PUB LTE: Lock Up Smokers Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Jo-D Harrison Source: San Luis Obispo New Times Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Thursday, January 15, 1998 Page: 6, Opinion section Website: newtimes-slo.com LOCK UP SMOKERS If prohibition is good for marijuana users, then it ought to work for these irresponsible tobacco smokers. Obviously, with more than 642,000 arrests for marijuana last year(up from 300,000 arrests in 1991), incarceration is a very popular program for dealing with the scourge of pot and should be applied to the tobacco smokers as well in order to improve the nation's health and cut costs. In the recent study from Columbia University, publicized by no less a scholar then Joe Califano, the findings showed that tobacco is the true "gateway drug." The bast majority of heroin users reported starting their illicit drug-use careers by smoking tobacco. Clearly tobacco is the root cause of the heroin epidemic (the number of hard-drug addicts has remained essentially unchanged and minuscule for decades). Where busting pot-heads has made no difference in the number of heroin users, putting tobacco users in prison, seizing their assets, and saddling them with felony convictions is obviously appropriate for these scofflaws who are still not going along with our national priorities. Clearly they should be prevented from harming the rest of us with "side smoke". We should put them in prison - for their own good and to promote our national priorities. Jim Rosenfield Culver City
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cigarette Maker Targeted Teens, Records Suggest ('Los Angeles Times' Reports RJ Reynolds Tobacco Targeted Smokers As Young As 13 For The Past 25 Years, According To Internal Company Documents Released Yesterday) From: "W.H.E.N." (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: HT: ART: Cig makers targeted teens Date: Tue, 13 Jan 1998 20:02:05 -0800 Sender: email@example.com The Seattle Times Thursday, January 15, 1998 Cigarette maker targeted teens, records suggest by Henry Weinstein Los Angeles Times Despite repeated denials, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, the second leading U.S. cigarette manufacturer, targeted teenage smokers as young as 13 in an attempt to regain market share during the past 25 years, according to internal company documents released yesterday. One memo from 1987, stamped "RJR secret," describes a plan to develop a new wide Camel cigarette targeted at "younger adult male smokers," primarily the 13-24 age group, then smoking Marlboro, Philip Morris' leading brand. RJR subsequently brought Camel Wides to market. Another memo from a 1974 presentation to the board of RJR Industries by C.A. Tucker, the vice president of marketing, said: "This young adult market, the 14-24 age group . . . represent(s) tomorrow's cigarette business. As this 14-24 age group matures, they will account for a key share of the total cigarette volume - for at least the next 25 years." After the papers, spanning 1973 to 1992, were released, Reynolds continued to deny it targeted underage smokers and said the documents were being taken out of context. The documents were released by Rep. Henry Waxman, D-Calif., a longtime industry critic. He got the papers from attorneys in California who obtained them from RJR in a case - settled last September - that accused the company of using deceptive marketing practices. The papers' release also heighten the possibility that the proposed $368.5 billion national tobacco settlement will be stiffened in Congress, in particular enhancing penalties on tobacco companies if they fail to reduce youth smoking. The documents also are likely to have an impact on the Justice Department's criminal investigation of the industry and numerous lawsuits against the cigarette companies, including Minnesota's massive suit against the industry, which is scheduled to start next week. Both Waxman and David Kessler, the former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, said the new documents represented the strongest proof to date that the cigarette industry targeted minors. "If you're looking for a smoking gun on youth targeting, you need look no further than these documents," said Kessler, now dean of the Yale University Medical School. "It's very hard to read these documents and then say that the industry should get any special legal protections from Congress," Kessler said. The industry's key legislative goal this year is to obtain congressional ratification of the national litigation settlement, which would prohibit all future class-action suits and punitive damages against the cigarette companies. The papers also may intensify the Justice Department's investigation of whether cigarette officials misled the government about the nature of their products and industry marketing practices. Waxman said he would send the material to Attorney General Janet Reno and ask her to broaden the current Justice Department probe. Among other matters, Justice and FBI officials are investigating whether the industry misled government officials by telling them that they never deliberately marketed their products to children. Among the incidents being reviewed is whether former RJR President James Johnston lied to Congress in testimony to a House subcommittee on April 14, 1994. On that day, Johnston testified that "we do not market to children and will not." He also testified that "we do not survey anyone under the age of 18." Johnston, who resigned as chief executive of RJR's worldwide tobacco operations in June 1996, did not return calls seeking comment. The memos clearly reflect deep concern at RJR about competitors Philip Morris and Brown & Williamson showing "unusual strength among these younger smokers," which "suggests continued growth for Philip Morris and B&W as their smokers mature." Additionally, a 1973 marketing memo states the company should use comic strips to help entice "younger smokers" away from Philip Morris' Marlboro, which had become the leading teenage brand. That document described "younger smokers" as 14 to 24. Several documents reveal the thought process that led up to RJR's 1988 launch of its highly successful and controversial Joe Camel campaign and how the campaign operated. An August 1988 memo states that advertisements should be placed wherever young people congregate, with the ideal locations being sites near fast-food outlets, convenience stores, basketball courts, arcades and record stores. Reynolds issued a formal statement, saying the documents were being misconstrued. For example, the company asserted that the 1987 document contained a typographical error and that, in reality, the memo should have said "18-24-year-old male Marlboro smokers." The company reiterated its long-standing position that it does not target teenagers.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Joe Camel Designed To Lure Teens ('San Francisco Chronicle' Version Says City Attorney Louise Renne Released The Documents As Part Of A Settlement Between San Francisco, Other Plaintiffs And RJ Reynolds, Which Will Pay $10 Million To San Francisco, Other California Cities And Counties To Finance Youth Anti-Smoking Campaigns) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:17:06 -0800 Subject: MN: US: Joe Camel Designed to Lure Teens Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: "Frank S. World" (email@example.com) Source: San Francisco Chronicle Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/ Author: Carolyn Lochhead, Chronicle Washington Bureau JOE CAMEL DESIGNED TO LURE TEENS Internal papers reveal cigarette-maker's intent Internal company documents made public yesterday show that the ``Joe Camel'' advertising campaign by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. was designed to lure teenagers as young as 12, especially boys attracted to the competing Marlboro brand. San Francisco City Attorney Louise Renne released the documents as part of a settlement between San Francisco and other plaintiffs and R.J. Reynolds. The company also agreed to pull the nine-year ad campaign for Camel cigarettes and pay $10 million to San Francisco and several other California cities and counties to finance youth anti-smoking campaigns. The documents show that the Camel campaign was first tested in France, where the company's advertising agency described the ad in 1974 as ``about as young as you can get'' and suggested the use of comic strips to ``reverse the preference for Marlboros among younger smokers.'' RJR's French subsidiary was later convicted of violating French laws prohibiting such advertising. R.J. Reynolds has repeatedly denied that the Joe Camel cartoon character, used widely to promote Camel cigarettes in billboard and magazine advertising, was intended to appeal to teenagers. The company released a statement yesterday accusing plaintiff attorneys of having ``cherry picked'' the documents for the media. The company said some of the teenager studies were byproducts of adult surveys and were never intended to be used for marketing strategies. However, the company's marketing documents, some stamped ``RJR SECRET,'' demonstrate that it hoped to secure a new market of lifelong smokers whose fierce brand loyalty is formed early. Smokers tend to stick for years to one brand, usually their first one, so companies find it difficult to increase sales by getting smokers to switch brands. Establishing brand loyalty at the outset of a smoker's career, which usually begins before age 18, is therefore crucial in cigarette marketing. In a 1974 presentation to the board of directors, RJR marketing vice president C.A. Tucker pointed to ``the growing importance of the young adult in the cigarette market,'' defined as the 14 to 24 age group, saying they ``represent tomorrow's cigarette business.'' Tucker said competitors' Marlboro and Kool brands enjoyed ``strong young adult franchises and high cigarette brand loyalties'' that ``suggests continued growth for Philip Morris and (Brown & Williamson) as their smokers mature . . . . Failure by RJR to attract young adult smokers, Tucker said, would lead to ``slow market share erosion for us in the years to come unless the situation is corrected.'' `YOUTHEN THE BRAND' One RJR memo conceded that the effort was an attempt to `` `youthen' the brand; the entire advertising and promotional campaign used at the time was geared to this end, with the `funny' Camel playing a key role in the advertising.'' Just before the Joe Camel campaign began in 1988, an RJR marketing study of 15- to 17-year-olds identified various social categories of teenagers, trying to identify likely smokers and trendsetters. Teen smokers, for example, were more likely to listen to hard rock music, the marketers said. Plaintiffs' lawyers pointed out that the Joe Camel campaign increasingly featured young characters in leather jackets riding motorcycles and hanging out at ``Joe's Place'' listening to a rock band called ``Hard Pack.'' R.J. Reynolds countered yesterday that the documents ``reflect the social attitudes of the times in which they were created'' and that the company has only directed its advertising at adults. The original suit against R.J. Reynolds was filed by Janet Mangini, a San Francisco attorney represented by the San Diego law firm Milberg, Weiss, Bershad, Hynes & Lerach, a major personal injury and class-action litigation firm. The city and county of San Francisco joined the suit, becoming the first locality to sue a tobacco company on the grounds that its actions were a burden on taxpayers. The suit pointed out that city hospitals treat smokers for their smoking-related diseases. San Francisco was later joined in the Joe Camel suit by the cities of San Jose and Los Angeles and 14 California counties. OTHER TOBACCO CASES San Francisco has two other tobacco cases in litigation in federal and state court. Those cases could be included in the unprecedented $368 billion proposed settlement between the tobacco companies and several states over Medicaid costs. That settlement requires congressional approval, which still remains uncertain. Renne said she has ``major questions and concerns'' about the settlement now before Congress because it could pre-empt local lawsuits such as San Francisco's. Attorney fees for the Joe Camel settlement have not yet been decided. Renne said San Francisco will receive about $800,000 to cover legal costs; the city Health Department will receive $1.5 million to run youth anti-tobacco campaigns and enforce laws against underage smoking. Mangini asked for no money settlement, but her attorneys at Milberg, Weiss will pursue their contingency fee in arbitration proceedings, either as part of the Joe Camel settlement or in the national settlement now before Congress. Legal fees in the tobacco cases have been highly controversial. Contingency fees for the handful of trial attorneys who have assisted government lawyers in the tobacco cases could run into the billions of dollars. If a settlement is approved by Congress, lawyer fees would be determined by court arbitration.
------------------------------------------------------------------- RJR Went After Teens ('San Jose Mercury News' Version) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:17:31 -0800 Subject: MN: US: RJR Went After Teens Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family
Source: San Jose Mercury News Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 RJR WENT AFTER TEENS On the record: Firm targeted ads, surveys at smokers as young as 14 over 25-year period, memos show. Mercury News Wire Services - Despite repeated public denials, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., the second-leading U.S. cigarette manufacturer, targeted teenage smokers as young as 14 in an attempt to regain market share during the past 25 years, according to internal company documents released Wednesday. As recently as 1988, for example, R.J. Reynolds planned to saturate areas where young people gathered, such as fast-food restaurants, video game arcades, and outdoor basketball courts, with billboards and posters promoting its products, one memorandum shows. Other documents among the papers written from the 1950s to the '80s emphasized that the company sought to expand sales of its products among underage smokers, including those age 14, in order to sustain brand popularity and corporate earnings. ``To ensure increased and longer-term growth for Camel filter,'' one internal 1975 company memorandum stated, ``the brand must increase its share penetration among the 14-24 age group, which have a new set of more liberal values and which represent tomorrow's cigarette business.'' These are not the first documents to suggest that Reynolds and other tobacco companies sought to court youthful smokers. But the documents made public Wednesday are among the most explicit to have been released. Reynolds continued to deny that it has targeted underage smokers and said the documents were being taken out of context. The documents were released by Rep. Henry Waxman, D-Los Angeles, a longtime industry critic. He got the papers from attorneys in California who obtained them from RJR in a case -- settled last September -- that accused the company of using deceptive marketing practices, including youth targeting, in its highly successful Joe Camel campaign. Impact on Congress The papers are certain to reverberate in Congress, which is considering whether to adopt a $368.5 billion national tobacco litigation settlement the industry reached with state attorneys general last June. The documents also are likely to have an impact on the Justice Department's criminal investigation of the industry and numerous lawsuits against the cigarette companies, including Minnesota's massive suit against the industry, which is scheduled to start next week. Both Waxman and David A. Kessler, the former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, said the new documents represented the strongest proof to date that the cigarette industry targeted minors after studying them in depth. ``If you're looking for a smoking gun on youth targeting, you need look no further than these documents,'' said Kessler, who is now dean of the Yale University Medical School. ``It's very hard to read these documents and then say that the industry should get any special legal protections from Congress,'' Kessler said. The industry's key legislative goal this year is to obtain congressional ratification of the national litigation settlement, which would prohibit all future class-action suits and punitive damages against the cigarette companies. The papers also may intensify the Justice Department's investigation of whether cigarette officials misled the government about the nature of their products and industry marketing practices. Waxman said he would send the material to Attorney General Janet Reno and ask her to broaden the Justice Department probe, including whether former RJR President James W. Johnston lied to Congress in testimony to a House subcommittee on April 14, 1994. On that day, Johnston testified that ``we do not market to children and will not.'' He also testified that ``we do not survey anyone under the age of 18.'' Johnston, who resigned as chief executive of RJR's worldwide tobacco operations in June 1996, did not return calls seeking comment Wednesday. The memos clearly reflect deep concern at RJR about competitors Philip Morris and Brown & Williamson showing ``unusual strength among these younger smokers,'' which ``suggests continued growth for Philip Morris and B&W as their smokers mature.'' On the other hand, the memo notes that RJR's two major brands, Winston and Salem, ``show comparative weakness . . . among these young smokers.'' Tucker goes on to say that the company's market share will erode ``unless this situation is corrected.'' Additionally, a 1973 marketing memo states that the company should use comic strips to help entice ``younger smokers'' away from Philip Morris' Marlboro, which had become the leading teenage brand. That document described ``younger smokers'' as 14 to 24. In another instance, RJR commissioned a ``Smokers Screening Profile,'' which surveyed the smoking habits of more than 11,000 teenagers, age 14 to 17, including data on their brand of cigarette, cigarette purchasing habits, age, sex, religion, residence, household income, education and occupation of parents. Reynolds issued a formal statement, saying the documents were being misconstrued. For example, the company asserted that the 1987 document contained a typographical error and that, in reality, the memo should have said ``18-24-year-old male Marlboro smokers.'' The company reiterated its long-standing position that it does not target teenagers. ``Not only is it unfair to the employees of Reynolds Tobacco to strip these documents from the context and perspective of the broad company record as well as the social standards of the times in which they were created, it is unfair to the American people and serves only the agenda of some who seek to benefit from a broad misperception of how this company has conducted this business,'' the company said in a statement. Joe Camel case Additionally, Reynolds said a small number of documents had been ``cherry-picked'' from about 100,000 produced in the Joe Camel case in San Francisco. The company also said it had turned over all these documents to the Federal Trade Commission. Last May, the FTC charged that Reynolds' highly successful Joe Camel campaign illegally induced children and adolescents to smoke. By a 3-2 vote, the commission asked an administrative law judge to issue a cease and desist order to prevent RJR from using the cartoon camel in ways that ``would have a substantial appeal to children and adolescents below the age of 18.'' Reynolds said it would vigorously challenge the FTC's order. However, less than a month later, RJR and the nation's other leading cigarette manufacturers reached the litigation settlement with state attorneys general that included a term barring the use of cartoon characters such as Joe Camel in future industry marketing. Even though that settlement is still pending in Congress, Reynolds announced in July that it was retiring the hip dromedary. At the time, company officials said they were looking for a new advertising strategy.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Memos Show Teens Targets For Tobacco ('Houston Chronicle' Rewrite Of 'New York Times' Version) Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 23:17:18 -0800 Subject: MN: US: Memos Show Teens Targets for Tobacco Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Art Smart
Source: Houston Chronicle Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 Website: http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/ Author: Barry Meier of the NYTimes MEMOS SHOW TEENS TARGETS FOR TOBACCO Top officials involved, firm's records reveal Internal records from one of the nation's largest cigarette companies, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, provide new evidence of the extent to which the company for decades courted young smokers, including some as young as 14, regarding them as the future of its business. As recently as 1988, for example, R.J. Reynolds planned to saturate areas where young people gathered, such as fast-food restaurants, video game arcades and outdoor basketball courts, with billboards and posters promoting its products, one memo shows. Other documents among the papers written from the 1950s to the '80s emphasized that the company sought to expand sales of its products among underage smokers to sustain brand popularity and corporate earnings. "To ensure increased and longer-term growth for Camel filter," one internal 1975 company memo stated, "the brand must increase its share penetration among the 14-24 age group, which have a new set of more liberal values and which represent tomorrow's cigarette business." These are not the first documents to suggest that Reynolds and other tobacco companies sought to court youthful smokers. But the documents made public Wednesday are among the most explicit to have been released. And, while company officials have attributed previous documents on youth marketing to low-level or renegade employees, some of these documents show the involvement of top company officials, including the board of directors in the 1970s. Officials of R.J. Reynolds, a unit of the RJR Nabisco Holdings Corp., have repeatedly denied in public statements and sworn testimony that they sought to sell cigarettes to those under 18. And Wednesday, Peggy Carter, a company spokeswoman, reiterated that position, saying that the documents at issue had been selectively released by plaintiffs' lawyers to appear out of context. Carter said that R.J. Reynolds officials did not have time to fully address specific documents. But the company said in a statement: "Our documents reflect the social attitudes of the times in which they were created. And while attitudes toward smoking have changed over the past several decades, the Reynolds Tobacco Co.'s position and policy has remained constant: that smoking is a choice for adults and that marketing programs are directed at those above the age to smoke." Dr. David Kessler, former head of the Food and Drug Administration, who began that agency's inquiry into tobacco advertising practices, said the newly released documents were the strongest evidence of a major company's effort to focus on youth. "These are as close to smoking guns when it comes to targeting kids" as have ever appeared, said Kessler, now dean of Yale University Medical School. Viewed together, the R.J. Reynolds documents indicate that top tobacco industry executives long believed that people under 18 were its most crucial customers because, by that age, minors who smoked had chosen the brand that they would stick with and smoke even more as adults. A marketing plan prepared in late 1974 by R.J. Reynolds noted that company brands like Winston, Salem, and Camel were increasingly losing ground, among 14- to 24-year old smokers, to Marlboro brand cigarettes made by the Philip Morris Companies. "This suggests slow market share erosion for us in years to come unless the situation is corrected," the document stated. One company strategy to combat that trend would be to "direct advertising appeal" to those younger smokers, the document stated.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ottawa Assailed Over British Columbia Drug Deaths (BC Chief Coroner Larry Campbell Urges Canadian Government To Identify Addiction As A Health Problem) From: email@example.com (Matt Elrod) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Ottawa assailed over B.C. drug deaths Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 09:57:20 -0800 Source: Globe and Mail (Toronto) Contact: email@example.com Thursday, January 15, 1998 By Craig Mcinnes and Robert Matas British Columbia Bureau Ottawa assailed over B.C. drug deaths The federal government refuses to do anything about the high number of drug deaths in British Columbia, the province's chief coroner says. Larry Campbell urged Ottawa to identify drug addiction as a health problem, like cigarette and alcohol addiction. A6
------------------------------------------------------------------- Launch Of Australian Illicit Drugs Report (Justice Minister Amanda Vanstone Today In Canberra Releases A Joint Commonwealth And State Law Enforcement Study) Subj: FWD: UPDATE> Media Release - Launch Australian Illicit Drugs Report From: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 11:29:34 -0600 (CST) Here's yet another MAJOR study recommending decrim of cannabis. <---- Begin Included Message ----> From: Frank Quinlan (email@example.com) To: "'ADCA UPDATE'" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: UPDATE> Media Release - Launch Australian Illicit Drugs Report Date: Thu, 15 Jan 1998 12:06:41 +1100 Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: Frank Quinlan
Released in Canberra Today, launched by Senator Amanda Vanstone NATIONAL LAUNCH OF THE AUSTRALIAN ILLICIT DRUG REPORT 1996-97, 15 JANUARY 1998 AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE AUSTRALIAN FEDERAL POLICE NEW SOUTH WALES POLICE NORTHERN TERRITORY POLICE QUEENSLAND POLICE SOUTH AUSTRALIA POLICE TASMANIA POLICE VICTORIA POLICE WESTERN AUSTRALIA POLICE PO BOX 1936 CANBERRA CITY 2601 PHONE +612 6243 5666 FAX +612 6247 5380 A joint Commonwealth and State law enforcement report on the Australian illicit drug situation was released by Justice Minister Amanda Vanstone in Canberra today. Australian police reported that most illegal drugs continue to be widely available with prices steady or declining from 1995-96 figures according to the 1996-1997 Australian Illicit Drug Report. Produced by the Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, the report represents the coordinated input of drug statistics and information from State, Territory and Federal police services and the Australian Customs Service, with assistance from the Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services and various drug laboratories and research institutions. The report states that cannabis remains the most popular illicit drug type with a third of all Australian adults having ever used it. Some 81 per cent of all drug offences were attributed to cannabis production, use and sale which involved "a significant amount of police and legal resources," the report says. The report suggests that relaxing laws relating to cannabis use would allow police to redirect their attention to other crime issues or drug types. "Any further moves to decriminalise personal use might result in a major redirection of resources committed by law enforcement agencies," it says. Some multi-tonne cannabis importations were detected during 1996-97, increasing the total weight of Customs seizures considerably compared with the previous year. There is increasing demand for Australian-grown hydroponic cannabis. If production of this form continues to expand, it may eventually reduce the demand for imported herbal cannabis, although there will still be a limited demand for imported cannabis resin (hashish). With opium cultivation increasing in most source regions of the world, there is little prospect of a significant decrease in heroin production and export to countries such as Australia. While arrests for heroin sale and use increased slightly in Australia, the total weight of heroin seized at the Customs barrier doubled from 1995-96 detections. Both purity levels and the rate of heroin-related deaths have increased in recent years. "Increased heroin purity probably has been a contributing factor, making it easier for heroin users to overdose when combining heroin with alcohol and benzodiazepines," Professor Wayne Hall of the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre says in the report. The ABCI reports that seizures of ecstasy, cocaine and hallucinogens such as LSD at the Customs barrier increased during 1996-97 compared with the previous year. Arrests for cocaine and LSD also rose. Cocaine has become more available in some areas and there is potential for its use to increase if the price were to fall sufficiently, the report warns. Isolated instances of crack cocaine manufacture and use have been detected in Victoria and South Australia. Once the exclusive domain of middle-class professionals, cocaine is increasingly being targeted towards 'street-level' users. "It is the street level market that causes the most concern to law enforcement agencies... this in turn could eventually lead to the emergence of crack cocaine as a preferred method of use... On the basis of current trends, however, a significant rise in crack abuse in this country is not anticipated," the reports says. The resurgent popularity of LSD among young users is attributed to its low price (between $10 and $30 per tab) and may be linked to an increase in the popularity of synthetic drugs in general. Detections of imported ecstasy have increased as Customs continues to intercept the drug in postal articles and from passengers and baggage travelling mainly from the UK, the Netherlands and Indonesia. Domestic production is evidenced but does not yet pose a substantial law enforcement problem. "A number of attempts to manufacture MDMA (ecstasy) in Australia have been reported. Several laboratories were detected in New South Wales but these were unsuccessful and importation remains the dominant source for the Australian market, " the report says. Increased enforcement to prevent amphetamine production with an emphasis on limiting the availability of precursor chemicals used in its manufacture has led to decreased purity levels. It was reported that this may lead to users seeking other drugs and increases in importations of stronger amphetamines and ecstasy. "There are already reliable signs that some amphetamine users are turning to heroin principally because it is currently relatively cheap and of high quality whereas the quality of domestically produced amphetamines has declined," the report says. The illicit drug report says that police are seeking greater cooperation with the community in tackling the drugs issue. The Sydney office of the National Crime Authority has set up a phone line to the Asian community and Victoria police are establishing 'drug action teams' using the 'National Community-Based Approach to Drug Law Enforcement'. New South Wales Police have already begun such a trial. "In Fairfield, in Sydney's west, a new project known as the Drug Action Team is being trialed. It involves police, ethnic community liaison officers, staff from needle and syringe exchanges, community workers, youth workers, Education Department personnel, health, drug and alcohol services, and staff from the Drug Programs Coordination Unit," the report says. The report says that advanced technology at the Customs barrier, in prisons and at the roadside are supporting the law enforcement effort against drugs. For example, a roadside drug test unit, known as the Ecom Analyser, is being trialed by the Western Australia Police Service to detect the presence of heroin, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines in drivers. "The Australian Illicit Drug Report is considered to be the leading authority on the national illicit drug situation from the law enforcement perspective," said Chief Commissioner Neil Comrie, Chairman of the ABCI's Board of Control. The report contains statistical data on arrests and seizures, tables of street level drug prices and details the numerous research studies conducted into the illicit drugs field from July 1996 to June 1997. The report is used extensively in the national law enforcement arena and is distributed nationally and internationally to health authorities, research institutions and law enforcement agencies. "The report represents the commitment Australian law enforcement has in tackling the drugs issue. By combining input from all Australian Police Services and law enforcement agencies with health and social research, the report gives a holistic view of Australia's drug problem to assist policy makers, law enforcement officers and workers in the drugs field," said Gary Manison, Acting Director of the ABCI. The report is available from Bibliotech, ANUTECH Pty Ltd in Canberra for $35.00. For information regarding purchase please call Bibliotech on telephone (02) 6249 2479. For Information regarding this media release please contact either Tony Wright or Mark Bird Acting Manager Intelligence Publications Officer ABCI Telephone: (02) 6243 5662 Telephone: (02) 6243 5674 Mobile: 017 970 891 Cheers Frank Quinlan Program Manager Alcohol and other Drugs Council of Australia ADCA PO Box 269 - Woden ACT 2606 - Australia - http://www.adca.org.au e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org -- PH +61 6 281 0686 -- FX +61 6 281 0995
------------------------------------------------------------------- Words And The Corruption Of Justice (Comments From List Subscriber About Australian Illicit Drugs Report, Excerpts From Which Ensue) Date: Wed, 21 Jan 1998 07:09:54 EST Reply-To: email@example.com Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Peter Watney) To: Multiple recipients of list
Subject: Words and the corruption of justice Confucius said: "If language is not used rightly, then what is said is not what is meant. If what is said is not what is meant, then that which ought to be done is left undone; if it remains undone, morals and art will be corrupted; if morals and art are corrupted, justice will go awry, and if justice goes awry, the people will stand about in helpless confusion." And that sums up the history of prohibition in a nutshell. If one really wants to achieve something, one first of all defines what it is that one wishes to achieve. One then formulates a plan which includes criteria by which each step in the plan can be measured for success or failure. One enables modifications so that failures can be reversed and successes reinforced. In the beginning and at each step along the way clarity and correctness of language is the key, and unless one is planning for justice to go awry, the same words must mean the same things to all. The Harrison Tax Act was not about tax, and neither was it used to ensure the medical control of heroin and cocaine that its words implied. The Marihuana Tax Act was not about tax, and the words used to secure its passage through Congress did not mean what they said. The Controlled Substances Act does not control the substances it prohibits; prohibition is a negation of control; prohibition hands over control to those prepared to break the law. Lack of precision in language; lack of any statement of goals; lack of any criteria by which success or failure could be judged have enabled proponents of prohibition to interpret the aims and performance of the Acts and Conventions by which prohibition has been secured in any way convenient to them. Lack of precision in language has enabled each proponent of prohibition to interpret the Acts in ways convenient to their independent selves and has made conspiracy unnecessary. Lack of precision in language has frustrated the opponents of prohibition at every turn and has enabled its proponents to render any words or phrase that might enable serious questioning less useful or pejorative. It has turned opponents of prohibition against one another. Examples abound. I confine myself to just two. "Harm reduction": a general term intended to reduce any of the harms resulting from prohibition policies. Used constructively, one can single out HIV spread by common needle use as a harm, and plan ways in which needle sharing can be reduced. Proponents of prohibition can then say, "But the greatest harm is illicit drug use, so the only logical way to reduce harm is through zero tolerance. Needle exchange programs are not intended to eliminate illicit drug use, therefore they do not reduce harm." "Addict": a person taking a drug excessively and being unable to cease doing so without adverse effects. Proponents of prohibition can then say, "But any use of illicit drugs is excessive, so any user of a drug is an addict." The description is thus rendered pejorative. But the actual condition of an addict being unable to cease using an addictive drug without adverse (even excruciating) effects still exists, so we have to seek another term to describe the person, and a useful single word now becomes two words: 'dependent user'. This imprecision of language makes informed debate impossible. What should we do about it? We should start by having both sides of the debate specify the benefits and the harms that are perceived as resulting from the policy of prohibiting some drugs and suggest ways in which those benefits and harms can be measured and tabulated. It then becomes possible to suggest ways in which the benefits can be reinforced and the harms reduced. The tables should be both across time and across jurisdiction. At every opportunity we should insist on clarity of language, ridicule imprecision, and require statistical evidence of effect. What has caused this philosophical outburst? Reading the Australian Illicit Drug Report 1996-97 compiled and published by the Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, whose Board of Control consists of the eight Commissioners of the seven Australian States and Territories and of the Australian Federal Police, I can find no evidence that present policies are working nor any hope that they can be made more effective in future. I quote key comments from the report in a separate message. Peter Watney
------------------------------------------------------------------- Key Quotes From Illicit Drug Report (List Subscriber Posts Excerpts From Australian Illicit Drugs Report) Date: Wed, 21 Jan 1998 07:10:05 EST Errors-To: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Peter Watney) To: Multiple recipients of list
Subject: Key quotes from Illicit Drug Report Australian Illicit Drug Report 1996-97 by Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence: Drugs in perspective [p1] [quote] During the last five years the National Drug Strategy has devoted considerable funding and effort toward combating the effects of the licit drugs alcohol and tobacco while allocating a significant but lesser proportion to the illicit drug problems in society. Understandably this state of affairs is a consequence of the relative magnitude of the abuse of tobacco and alcohol in Australian society. Tobacco and alcohol remain the two most widely consumed drugs in Australia and the mortality and morbidity attributable to them are significant. For 1995 it is estimated that 18,124 people died from tobacco-related causes and 3,642 from alcohol-related causes; there were an estimated 778 deaths attributable to illicit drugs (AIHW 1997). Figure 1 [a block graph not reproduced here] illustrates this. [and very graphically too] [unquote] Cannabis Key judgements [p14] [quote] * Cannabis remains the most popular illicit drug in Australia, with about one third of the adult population having ever used it. There appears to have been an increase in the last decade of people using the drug, and the age of first use appears to be decreasing. * A few multi-tonne cannabis importations were detected during 1996-97 compared with the previous year, increasing the total weight of Customs seizures considerably. The number of detected importations increased slightly in comparison with 1995-96. * Increasing levels of production and difficulties facing under-resourced law enforcement agencies in Papua New Guinea increase the potential for cannabis importations from that country. * In Australia there were further indications that large, outdoor plantations were becoming less common than smaller, more easily concealed crop sites. Indoor cultivation is becoming more common, and there is an increasing demand for hydroponic cannabis in Australia. * If the domestic production of hydroponic cannabis continues to expand, it may eventually reduce the demand for imported herbal cannabis. * The Northern Territory joined South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory when it introduced a limited form of decriminalisation for minor cannabis use and possession. * In 1996-97 cannabis offences constituted 81 per cent of all illicit drug offences in Australia and involved a significant amount of police and legal resources. Any further moves to decriminalise personal use might result in a major redirection of resources committed by law enforcement agencies. * The gradual shift in public opinion towards some reform of the laws on cannabis use became more evident in 1996-97. Unless there is a reversal of the trend among the general community towards greater acceptance of cannabis use, further increases may occur in the production and use of cannabis, and demands for legislative reform may become more widespread. [unquote] Heroin Key judgements [p34] [quote] * Despite annual fluctuation, worldwide production of opium has increased in recent years. Southeast Asia supplies about 80 per cent of the heroin detected reaching Australia: in 1996-97 Thailand was the primary export point for this heroin, but China and Hong Kong also figured prominently as transit points. There is little prospect of a significant decrease in heroin production and export to countries such as Australia. * In the past five years, there has been an overall increase in the amount of heroin detected at the Australian Customs barrier. In 1996-97 the total weight of detections was more than double that in 1995-96. * Most of these importations were detected in Sydney, which is the main importation and distribution centre for the heroin trade in Australia. In the country as a whole there has been a large increase in the rate of detection of heroin trafficking in the past five years, although in 1996-97 there was only a slight increase in heroin-related arrests. In 1996-97 New South Wales and Victoria continued to be the most prominent States in terms of arrests and seizures. * Heroin was widely available during 1996-97. Only occasional shortages were reported and prices fell in many areas. * The overall prevalence of heroin use in Australia is unclear. Previous national surveys - the last was in 1995 - suggested a generally stable level of use, at between 1 and 2 per cent. Since then studies of some small groups of regular users and anecdotal accounts could indicate an increase in use and a decline in the average age of users, but more surveys are needed before trends in the general population can be determined. * Since 1979 there has been a marked increase in overdose deaths involving opioids such as heroin: there are now more than 500 annually. The causes are yet to be elucidated: the increase in the purity of heroin reaching users is probably a contributing factor, but not the only one. Lack of a common reporting system precludes any useful estimate of non-fatal overdoses. [unquote] Amphetamines and related substances Key judgements [p50] [quote] * Amphetamines in Australia are primarily domestic in origin. Although they are widely available, there has been an overall decrease in their quality as a result of tighter legislation and effective targeting by law enforcement agencies. There are some indications that amphetamine users are beginning to seek other drugs in preference to Australian amphetamines. If this becomes a marked trend, it could lead to more harm to users and/or a big increase in the importation of high-quality amphetamines produced overseas. In the absence of an early evaluation of the effects of the precursor legislation, concern will grow that it may be causing unintended harm. * To assist any evaluation, improved methods of identifying developments in the amphetamine market are needed, including more systematic profiling of amphetamines; better discrimination in data collections between the various forms of synthetic drugs; a national database of chemical diversions, clandestine laboratories, methods of manufacture and information about producers; and more frequent studies of amphetamine use. * Health and law enforcement indicators of amphetamine use are not consistent. Although it cannot be determined with any certainty whether actual use is increasing, anecdotal and quantitative data suggest increasing harm from the use of amphetamines. * The majority of euphoric drugs such as MDMA and MBDB are imported, and there has been a large increase in both the number and quantity of seizures recorded as ecstacy at the Australian Customs barrier between 1992 and 1997. At present ecstacy seizures contribute only a small proportion of total amphetamine seizures, but imports of both amphetamines and euphoric drugs are likely to increase in the future. * The significant increase in the level of amphetamine production and availability in Asia will probably contribute to this region becoming a source for the Australian market. * There has been an increase in the variety of euphoric drugs and amphetamine analogues in Australia (for example MBDB) and this trend will probably continue. [unquote] Cocaine Key judgements [p79] [quote] * There is no evidence to suggest that the Australian cocaine market is being targeted by South American cartels. * There does not appear to have been a 'flood' of cocaine into the Australian market in recent years, although since 1994-95 the amount and number of cocaine seizures at the Customs barrier have gradually increased. * Importation of cocaine into Australia is not necessarily carried out by South American nationals. During 1996-97 an analysis of significant-seizure data showed that importations were primarily carried out by Australian, American and South American nationals. * New South Wales (and in particular Sydney) is the preferred point of entry for cocaine. This is because it is the preferred transshipment point for distribution to Australian States and Territories and/or has the largest domestic market for cocaine. * Manufacture and use of 'crack' cocaine was reported in two jurisdictions during 1996-97. Despite this, there does not appear to be a significant (or rapidly developing) crack cocaine market in Australia at present. * The availability of cocaine is reported to have risen in Victoria and South Australia and in areas such as the Gold Coast and Sydney's Kings Cross. Elsewhere the cocaine market has not been much in evidence. * There is potential for the Australian cocaine market to be exploited by cocaine importers. Among the signs to look for would be a big fall in cocaine prices and an increase in cocaine availability. [unquote] Reading between the lines there is not much confidence that the war on drugs has any prospect of success - a view that appears more than supported by the statistics of the report. Peter Watney Internet : firstname.lastname@example.org 30A Kellermann Close Fidonet : 3:620/243.71 Holt ACT 2615 Australia Telephone: +61-2-6254-1914
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drug Charge Defendants Changed Plea To Guilty (Ireland's 'Examiner' Reports Local Cannabis Conviction) Date: Mon, 19 Jan 1998 09:38:31 -0500 Subject: MN: Ireland: Drug Charge Defendants Changed Plea To Guilty Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Zosimos
Pubdate: Thursday, 15 January 1998 Source: The Examiner (Ireland) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Author: Elaine Keogh DRUG CHARGE DEFENDANTS CHANGED PLEA TO GUILTY TWO men who pleaded guilty to possessing cannabis resin with intent to supply had been used by others more heavily involved in the drug scene, Dundalk Circuit Criminal Court was told. Paul Quinn (42) and James Downey (27) with addresses at Ballsgrove Estate, Drogheda, admitted possession of the drug at Cord Road, Drogheda on the February 10, 1994. Yesterday morning both had denied the charge as well as a charge of possession of ecstasy with intent to supply on the same date. In the afternoon, the court was told there had been a development. The men were re-charged with just the cannabis offence to which they then pleaded guilty and the State entered a nolle prosecute in relation to the ecstasy charge. Garda Brian Morrissey, Drogheda Drugs Unit, told the court neither defendant was known to the gardai before the offence. In detailed statements to gardai the men had outlined how they got involved with men referred to as Mr A and Mr B. On February 10, 1994, Paul Quinn had driven with James Downey and Mr A from Drogheda to Dublin. On the way they were told they were collecting drugs. They drove to the quays in Dublin and followed a car from there to a hotel in Dun Laoghaire. There another car arrived and they were given a green holdall which was extremely heavy and big. They drove back to Drogheda and brought the bag into Mr A's house. Later the defendants put the holdall in a wardrobe in a house belonging to Corona Sarsfield, Cord Road, who has already been dealt with by the courts. Garda Morrissey said on February 19, 1997 he was in possession of a search warrant and searched the house. He found the holdall and saw in it what appeared to him to be two brown pieces of a substance he believed to be cannabis. Analysis found it to be 2·7 kilos of cannabis, sufficient to make 9,357 hand rolled cigarettes. Garda Morrissey agreed with barristers for both men that they had got involved in a situation where they had been used. Judge Smith remanded them in custody to Trim Circuit Court next Tuesday for sentencing.
------------------------------------------------------------------- English Drugs Mule Jailed For Three Years ('Irish Times' Says 19-Year-Old Woman From Manchester Smuggled £190,000 Of Hash Into Ireland From Spain For £1,000 Fee From 'A Major Criminal Gang') Date: Mon, 19 Jan 1998 09:53:02 -0500 To: DrugSense News Service
From: Richard Lake Subject: MN: Ireland: English Drugs 'Mule' Jailed For Three Years Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Zosimos Source: The Irish Times Pubdate: Thursday, January 15, 1998 Contact: Letters to Editor, The Irish Times, 11-15 D'Olier St, Dublin 2, Ireland Fax: ++ 353 1 671 9407 ENGLISH DRUGS 'MULE' JAILED FOR THREE YEARS An English woman who imported cannabis resin valued at £190,000 into Ireland for a major criminal gang has been jailed for three years. Charlotte Loines (19) was offered £1,000 by a man she knew as "The Crow" for each of two trips she did from Spain as a drugs "mule", Dublin Circuit Criminal Court was told. Loines, of Walton Street, Heywood, Manchester, pleaded guilty to importing 19kg of the drug at Dublin Airport on April 6th last. Garda Marie Courtney told prosecuting counsel Mr Conor Devalley that when airport Customs officers stopped Loines, who was wheeling a suitcase on a trolley, she agreed she had packed the case herself. Garda Courtney said similar types of packet were observed when her luggage was X-rayed. The case had to be forced open. Loines was arrested and made a statement in which she admitted making a previous similar run for a man she knew as "The Crow". She said she was met by two people at the airport then and was paid £1,000. She was to get another £1,000 for the second run. Garda Courtney agreed with Mr Patrick Marrinan, defending, that Loines co-operated and brought gardai on a demonstration of the route taken by the people who met her the first time. She agreed that arrests had followed as a result of the co-operation received from Loines and others. Loines admitted she knew she was carrying drugs but did not know the amount or type. Mr Marrinan said Loines was a foreign national who had been found sobbing in her cell several times. She had pleaded guilty at the first opportunity and had cooperated. As a foreign national she would not be able to receive visits very often while in custody. Judge Cyril Kelly said it seemed the Court of Criminal Appeal had laid down a tariff for drugs cases. Two recent sentences imposed by him had been reduced on appeal. An importer of crack cocaine - "the most lethal substance" - had his sentence reduced from seven years to five. Judge Kelly said it was clear Loines was immature and easily led. He had to take the into consideration her emotional problems, her previous anorexia, drug and drink problems, that she was "on the rebound" from an attachment and had pleaded guilty. The judge said: "She perfectly describes practically every drug courier who has come before the courts in recent times." But he also had to think about the well-being of society and jail her for three years.
------------------------------------------------------------------- The Week Online With DRCNet, Issue Number 25 (News Summary For Activists From The Drug Reform Coordination Network) Date: Fri, 16 Jan 1998 00:03:35 EST Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: DRCNet
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: The Week Online with DRCNet, Issue #25 Drug Reform Coordination Network (DRCNet) Rapid Response Team Please copy and distribute. THE WEEK ONLINE with DRCNet ISSUE #25 -- January 15, 1998 This bulletin can be viewed in full on the web at http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html. (To sign-off this list, mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org with the line "signoff drc-natl" in the body of the message, or mailto:email@example.com for assistance. To subscribe, use our signup form at http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html. To donate, visit http://www.drcnet.org/drcreg.html, or mail your check to 2000 P St., NW, Suite 615, Washington, DC 20036 -- don't forget that we've extended our special membership offer, and that a donation of $30 or more will get you a free copy of the exciting new book Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts, normally priced at $12.95, in addition to your annual membership worth $25.) (State action is coming right up in Virginia, New Jersey, Connecticut and California. If you haven't filled out your registration form yet, please take a moment to do so -- http://www.drcnet.org/drcreg.html, whether you're donating or not -- or if you don't want to share your mailing address, at least send us your state, at firstname.lastname@example.org. This information will helps us target our bulletins to maximal impact.) A MESSAGE FROM DRCNET: Now that 1998 has begun in earnest, and everyone's gotten through their post-vacation hangovers (when's the next vacation again?) it's really time to get back to the business of ending the Drug War. We have a very activist- oriented issue this week. There's federal action against the California buyers' clubs to oppose (and a defense fund for the clubs which is seeking contributions), a Washington state medical marijuana bill to support, a national news story which just begs for letters to the editor of your local paper, an editorial in the international medical journal Lancet, to which we hope that all the MD's on this list will respond, and a very important harm reduction conference being planned in Boston whose organizers are looking for some small donations to cover their expenses. Yes, it's time to stand up and be counted. 1998 promises to be a seminal year in the movement toward a more rational and humane drug policy. You know that you can count on DRCNet and The Week Online to keep you plugged in to the issue, and to let you know how best to make your voice heard. There are a lot of exciting things in the works, including a global response to the United Nations' first-ever special session on narcotics in June (more on that next week). So get ready to get active. In the words of Margaret Meade, "Never doubt that a small group of committed people can change the world... in fact, it's the only thing which ever has." (And please don't forget to send us copies of your letters - - it is crucial for our documenting and fundraising. E-mail to email@example.com, fax to (202) 293-8344, or mail to DRCNet, 2000 P St., NW, Suite 615, Washington, DC 20036.) *** TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. VASCONCELLOS CALLS FOR MEDICAL MARIJUANA ACCESS IN FACE OF FEDERAL ACTION AGAINST CLUBS http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#vasconcellos 2. DEFENSE FUND ESTABLISHED FOR BUYERS' CLUB DEFENDANTS http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#defensefund 3. WASHINGTON STATE BILL AUTHORIZING MEDICAL MARIJUANA TO BE CONSIDERED: Your response needed! http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#washingtonstate 4. PENTAGON PROPOSES ENDING MILITARY BORDER PATROLS http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#pentagon 5. PRESIDENT CLINTON SIGNS DIRECTIVE, AUTHORIZES $200 MILLION TO TRY TO REDUCE DRUG USE... IN PRISONS http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#drugsinprisons 6. EU PARLIAMENT DELAYS VOTE ON DRUG COMMISSION REPORT http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#eureport 7. COLOMBIAN FOREIGN MINISTER: "IF US DOESN'T CERTIFY US, THERE WILL BE A 'POLITICAL EARTHQUAKE'" http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#colombia 8. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, LANCET, CALLS ON US TO ACT ON NEEDLE EXCHANGE http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#lancet 9. NEW AUSTRALIAN HARM REDUCTION-BASED DRUG-ED PROGRAM SENDS KIDS TO TEACH KIDS http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#kidstokids 10. NUCLEAR CRUISER USS CALIFORNIA DEPLOYED IN DRUG WAR http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#nuclearcruiser 11. HARM REDUCTION WORKSHOP IN BOSTON http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#bostonworkshop 12. EDITORIAL http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-15.html#editorial *** 1. VASCONCELLOS CALLS FOR MEDICAL MARIJUANA ACCESS IN FACE OF FEDERAL ACTION AGAINST CLUBS DRCNet SUBSCRIBERS ARE URGED TO RESPOND!! (SEE INFORMATION AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS ARTICLE) California State Senator John Vasconcellos held a press conference on January 12 to call for the full implementation of Proposition 215, passed by the state's voters in 1996, which allows for the use of medicinal marijuana by the sick and dying. His call came just days after officials of the Clinton Administration vowed to close all of California's cannabis buyers' clubs, which are illegal under federal law. Vasconcellos promised to push for the passage of a bill, which he sponsored last year, which would establish a three- year study by the University of California on marijuana's medicinal value. He also said that he plans to appeal the federal action against the clubs. In addition, the senator will push for a state-wide summit aimed at devising a plan for the distribution of medical marijuana to those who have legitimate medical need. Vasconcellos' office told The Week Online that they are hoping to convince the Department of Justice to take part in the summit, and thus to become part of the solution. "If Dan Lundgren (California's Attorney General) co-sponsors this summit, we think that Justice will participate. Lundgren, although he disagrees with us right now on the issue, has been very open-minded. He truly wants the evidence to be evaluated, and to do the right thing by the people of California." The federal threat (as reported in last week's Week Online) comes despite efforts by a number of California city governments to work with medical marijuana distributors to ensure the availability of the medicine with the least possible diversion to the black market. Vasconcellos said that he would ask his colleagues in the California legislature to sign a letter to President Clinton in protest against the federal response, and is urging citizens to do the same. A spokesman for Vasconcellos told the Week Online, "We're in the process of getting a letter circulated to California legislators opposing the federal action. We're hopeful that a majority will sign on, and that that will get the attention of the administration. We can't believe that they (the Clinton Administration) really intend to thumb their nose at the will of the majority of California voters, and we're counting on them to become part of a process of problem-solving. Right now, this unilateral action on the part of the federal government is being perceived by Californians as an intrusion and an affront to the will of the voters. We're sure that that's not what they (the administration) want." DRCNet IS URGING OUR SUBSCRIBERS TO RESPOND!! Send a letter - or a fax - to President Clinton, Vice President Gore, and, if you are a California resident, Governor Pete Wilson and Attorney General Dan Lundgren. In it, please ask (politely) that they come together, in respect of the will of the voters of California, and the needs of suffering Californians, to find a solution to the issue of the distribution of medical marijuana. In your communications to the White House, you may want to mention that the administration's respect, or lack thereof, for the will of the people will weigh heavily in your assessment of Al Gore's candidacy for the Presidency. President Bill Clinton, The White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20500. V: (202) 456-1414 F: (202) 456-2461 Vice President Al Gore, Old Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20501. V: (202) 456-2326 F: (202) 456-2685 (You can e-mail them, although this has less impact than the above modes of communication, at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com) Governor Pete Wilson, State Capitol Building, Sacramento, CA 95814, V: (916) 445-2841, F: (916) 445-4633, http://www.ca.gov/s/governor/mail.html Attorney General Dan Lundgren, 1300 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, V: (916) 445-9555, F: (916) 324-5205 *** 2. DEFENSE FUND ESTABLISHED FOR BUYERS' CLUB DEFENDANTS Medical Marijuana Patients' and Caregivers' Fund Established To Defend Prop. 215 Contact: Dale Gieringer, (415) 563-5858. Californians have established an emergency legal defense fund to help support medical marijuana patients, caregivers, and dispensaries against the government's efforts to suppress medical marijuana. An immediate, urgent goal of the fund is to support litigation in opposition to the federal government lawsuit to close down six prominent Northern California medical marijuana dispensaries. The fund also hopes to provide legal defense, assistance, and education in other cases involving medical marijuana patients and caregivers, and to support efforts to achieve Prop. 215's goal of "safe and affordable distribution of marijuana to all patients in medical need." California NORML coordinator Dale Gieringer, one of the original organizers of Prop. 215, is calling on supporters across the nation to contribute to the Medical Marijuana Patients' and Caregivers' Fund, which is being administered independently of NORML by a board of representatives from several statewide organizations, including California NORML. "The federal lawsuit presents the greatest peril to medical marijuana patients since before Prop. 215 was passed. The six clubs serve over 10,000 patients, nearly 80% of the total in California; to close them down now would be an intolerable public health and safety disaster... Those of us who supported Prop. 215 have the duty to help preserve the victory. The federal lawsuit is an unprecedented threat to medical marijuana patients everywhere. To fight it will be costly. Contributions are urgently needed." Donations may be sent to: NORML Foundation, Medical Marijuana Patients' and Caregivers' Fund, 1001 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 710, Washington DC 20036. (Checks should be made out to NORML Foundation: MMPCF.) *** 3. WASHINGTON STATE BILL AUTHORIZING MEDICAL MARIJUANA TO BE CONSIDERED: Your response needed! (This story was partially adapted from Hemp.Net News, http://www.hemp.net.) In The state of Washington, Senate Bill SB 6271, which would authorize the possession and use, as well as the sale by licensed pharmacists of medical marijuana, is on the legislative agenda. The legislative session in Washington runs for only 60 days, which means that people concerned about the issue must move quickly to register their support. SB 6271 was introduced and referred to the Senate Health and Long-Term Care Committee. The bill must be reported out of committee before the February 6th cutoff date in order for it to stay alive. Sen. Alex Deccio (R-Yakima) chairs this committee of seven. Deccio supported the Controlled Substances Therapeutic Research Act in 1979 and has scheduled a hearing on the bill for Tuesday, Jan 20, from 7:00 to 9:00 PM. You can find the complete bill on the web by going to: http://www.leg.wa.gov, clicking on "Bill Info" and typing "6271" into the search engine. IF YOU ARE A WASHINGTON STATE RESIDENT, OR IF YOU HAVE FRIENDS OR FAMILY RESIDING IN THAT STATE, WE URGE YOU TO TAKE ACTION IN SUPPORT OF SB 6271. Legislative hotline: (800) 562-6000 Legislature website: http://www.leg.wa.gov It is especially important if your Senator is one of the following, as they are on the Health and Long-Term Care committee. At least four of these seven must support the bill to pass it out of committee. Senator Alex Deccio, Chair Senator Jeannette Wood, Vice Chair Senator Don Benton Senator Darlene Fairley Senator Rosa Franklin Senator Gary Strannigan Senator R. Lorraine Wojahn, Ranking Democrat Member For a complete update of the medical marijuana bill and an introduction to how it could become law, see the Hemp.Net news story at http://www.hemp.net/news/legislature.html. *** 4. PENTAGON PROPOSES ENDING MILITARY BORDER PATROLS In the wake of last year's shooting death of American high school sophomore Esequiel Hernandez by camouflaged marines on the Texas-Mexican border, the Pentagon has proposed ending all such military patrols. "It's not worth the legal liability for our soldiers, and the actual amount of drugs seized throughout the performance of those missions proved to be modest," a Pentagon official told reporters. The Pentagon claims that the number of troops who were on such patrols was never more than two dozen, and so this proposal amounted to just a "minor adjustment" in strategy. The Pentagon plans to continue programs under which the military provides communications, intelligence, logistic and air support for border patrol efforts. Visit the Esequiel Hernandez memorial photographic gallery at http://www.mapinc.org/DPFT/hernandez/gallery/. *** 5. PRESIDENT CLINTON SIGNS DIRECTIVE, AUTHORIZES $200 MILLION TO TRY TO REDUCE DRUG USE... IN PRISONS In what has to be considered a telling admission of the impossibility of successfully keeping drugs out of a free society, President Clinton this week signed a Presidential Directive which he hopes will force states to address their failure to keep drugs out of some of the most secure facilities in the world, prisons. The directive orders states to make an assessment of the drug problems within their institutions. Those figures will be used as a baseline from which to measure future success, upon which federal prison monies will then depend. It is widely known that virtually every prison in the country, whether federal or state, houses an active drug trade. The contraband is usually either smuggled in by visitors or guards. The problem is so universal that some countries in Europe have experimented with needle exchange programs within their institutions, attempting to stem the spread of AIDS after having come to the conclusion that they could not keep the drugs out entirely at any price. THIS STORY WAS CARRIED BY VIRTUALLY EVERY MAJOR NEWSPAPER IN THE COUNTRY. DRCNet SUGGESTS YOU TAKE A MOMENT TO SEND A LETTER TO YOUR FAVORITE PAPER (most take email submissions) POINTING OUT THE ABSURDITY OF THE DRUG WAR IN LIGHT OF OUR INABILITY TO KEEP EVEN PRISONS "DRUG FREE". And don't forget to let us know if your letter gets published! *** 6. EU PARLIAMENT DELAYS VOTE ON DRUG COMMISSION REPORT We reported last week that British Prime Minister Tony Blair had ordered all 60 of his Labourite EP's to vote against the report of the EU Drug Commission which recommended a harm reduction approach, including the decriminalization of cannabis, as official policy for the soon-to-be established Union. Reports reaching us this week were that many of the 60 would abstain, rather than vote one way or the other. In any case, it looked like it would be impossible to get the Report passed without the British Labourites. Now comes news that on Tuesday, the EU Parliament voted 252 to 223 in favor of postponing the vote. This was reported as a victory for the report by Dutch radio, considering its slim chance of passing at this time. What is certain is that this issue will remain contentious in Europe as governments and even populations within most of the individual nations remain divided over the best way to proceed with regard to drug policy. Unlike in the US, and despite heavy US pressure in favor of strict Prohibitionism and against rational debate, drug policy in Europe is being widely discussed, and the momentum, if not the advantage, is certainly on the side of those advocating a change in the US-led status quo, as evidenced by ongoing events. The Week Online will of course keep you up to date on developments in Europe and elsewhere. Things will no doubt heat up even further as the UN special session on narcotics, scheduled for early June, approaches. (ERRATA: Last week's article on the EU vote contained a typo: The strict prohibitionist amendments were submitted by Sweden, not Switzerland. Our apologies to the Swiss, whose heroin maintenance programs are in the vanguard of drug policy reform.) *** 7. COLOMBIAN FOREIGN MINISTER: "IF US DOESN'T CERTIFY US, THERE WILL BE A 'POLITICAL EARTHQUAKE'" Colombian foreign minister Maria Emma Mejia said this week that the United States had better certify her nation as an ally in the Drug War, or else it will face an anti-American backlash which would make itself felt during Colombia's upcoming presidential elections. "Any certification decision that isn't positive for Colombia is going to cause an internal political earthquake... and cause more opposition to the United States," she said. The controversial certification process, under which the United States declares that a nation is either sufficiently or insufficiently cooperative in the international Drug War, has far-reaching implications for source and transshipment countries. Under US law, countries which are de-certified face an end to US foreign aid and an automatic "no" vote by the US on loans from the World Bank. The deadline for President Clinton to make such decisions is March 1. General Rosso Jose Serrano, commander of Colombia's National Police, told Colombia's El Tiempo newspaper, "I hope that the international community, particularly the united States, the world's principal drug consuming country, recognizes the efforts we have made." Those efforts include the passage of a long-awaited bill allowing the extradition of Colombian citizens to be tried in foreign courts. The US administration expressed disappointment with the bill, however, as it was not made retroactive, meaning that cartel leaders currently jailed in that country will likely never be brought to trial in the US, and that their enormous assets will never be subject to forfeiture by the US treasury. *** 8. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, LANCET, CALLS ON US TO ACT ON NEEDLE EXCHANGE Adding their voice to the growing chorus of well-respected medical and scientific organizations and publications advocating syringe exchange, the renowned British medical journal Lancet called on the US government to "act now" to allow the use of federal anti-AIDS funding to be used to institute such programs. The stinging editorial, which appeared in the journal's January 10 issue, notes that over one half of new HIV infections in the US could be traced, either directly or indirectly, to the sharing of an infected syringe. "Those affected are not only the drug misusers infected by contaminated needles, but their sexual partners (most of whom have been poor, black, and Hispanic women) and the children of women infected by drug misuse or sexual contact with infected drug misusers. Injection drug misuse is now the leading primary cause of pediatric AIDS." The editorial goes on to note that "despite this epidemic, the USA remains one of the few industrialized countries that refuses to provide easy access to sterile syringes" and that "given the weight of scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of needle-exchange schemes, it is hard to attribute the reluctance to support such programs to anything other than political considerations." A study conducted by Peter Laurie and Ernest Drucker, and published last year in Lancet, estimates that between four and ten thousand new infections would have been avoided in the US if the ban had not been in effect in 1997. The Lancet's editors call that estimate "conservative." The Week Online spoke with Ernest Drucker about the continued federal ban on the use of anti-AIDS funding for Syringe Exchange programs. "Once again, the administration and the US Congress are playing God, refusing to accept the evidence of countless studies showing that needle exchange saves lives... it simply saves lives. Aside from the outright shamefulness, their unwillingness to permit others to take simple steps to protect people from this disease is vindictive. Such behavior should lead their constituents to question the message being sent here -- that some American lives aren't worth saving." "It has become quite clear that the majority of Americans are prepared to support the availability of these programs. And yet, the federal government continues not only to obstruct the implementation of these lifesaving measures but to spread blatant disinformation about them. The people in Washington who are responsible for this should be called to account for the lives they've cost. And I believe that some day they will." You can send letters to the Lancet via email at firstname.lastname@example.org. *** 9. NEW AUSTRALIAN HARM REDUCTION-BASED DRUG-ED PROGRAM SENDS KIDS TO TEACH KIDS In Australia, an innovative program has been unveiled which will train young people (16-22 yrs.) and pay them to attend concerts and other cultural events to disseminate infor- mation about drugs and alcohol. Australian Health Minister Robert Knowles told The Australian News Network, "If they've got people their own age, normal young kids who have been specially recruited and trained to provide information, they are much more likely to be receptive (to it)." The youths will be paid, by the Centre for Adolescent Health and the Australian Drug Foundation, and have been trained to discuss both the risks associated with the use of alcohol and illegal drugs, but also to discuss ways in which to use the substances more safely. This approach, a linchpin of the harm reduction philosophy, is based on the idea that while it would be optimum to keep young people from using these substances at all, some young people will use them regardless. For them, the philosophy goes, it is far better to try to keep them from making a tragic mistake due to lack of information than to leave them to the vagaries of chance simply because they are engaging in behavior which society wishes they wouldn't. *** 10. NUCLEAR CRUISER USS CALIFORNIA DEPLOYED IN DRUG WAR The USS California, one of only two nuclear-powered cruisers remaining in service for the US Navy, will spend its last year before being decommissioned patrolling the seas for drug smugglers. The California is currently on its way to Panama. It will spend time in both the Caribbean and in the Pacific monitoring naval traffic and intercepting suspected drug smugglers before returning to its base in Bramerton. It will be decommissioned in early 1999. *** 11. HARM REDUCTION WORKSHOP IN BOSTON On April 8, health care workers, harm reductionists, public officials and concerned citizens from Boston and the surrounding area will be invited to come together for a one day conference on harm reduction methods, philosophy and practice. The state of Massachusetts has recently started a pilot syringe exchange program, and this will be an opportunity for community leaders and others to learn more about the benefits of a whole host of non-coercive drug policy strategies. "It's important that people become informed about harm reduction" says George Kenney, long-time harm reduction activist. "There's so much rhetoric and misinformation out there, it's difficult for people to sort it out and learn what harm reduction is really all about. Once people understand that harm reduction is all about people, and the reduction of the harms associated with drug use, both to the user and the community, they feel a lot better about what we're trying to do. Some of the biggest supporters of the philosophy are people who came to it assuming that they would be totally opposed, and that includes a lot of city and state health officials around the country." NOTE: The organizers are still trying to raise about $1,000 to cover the costs of the event. If you can help, even in a small way, please contact George Kenney at the Community of Color Outreach in Roxbury, Massachusetts at (617) 427-8192. And don't forget to tell him DRCNet sent you. *** 12. EDITORIAL 1998 marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the War on Drugs, as declared by then-President Richard M. Nixon. It is ironic, of course, that the proclamation of this war, a war which has claimed innumerable casualties and which has cost the nation countless billions of dollars, was made at the same time that President Nixon was extricating America from her last embarrassing and unsuccessful war: Vietnam. Vietnam had been pointless. Bloody. Interminable. The people had spoken. We had suffered enough. In the late sixties, as the body bags were piling up, the anti-war movement began to gain enough momentum to force the Johnson Administration into a defensive posture. So, in an effort to hold onto dwindling public support, and buoyed by body counts which were in reality meaningless, answers to the wrong questions, the administration escalated the hostilities and issued its now-famous opinion that there was "light at the end of the tunnel". It was, in fact, the beginning of the end of the war. But not the end envisioned by Johnson. Nor would Johnson be in power to see it. Twenty-five years. For twenty-five years we have seen a near-continuous escalation of the present, pointless war. We have seen, as we saw in Vietnam, the expansion of the conflict across formerly unthinkable borders. What began as an effort to arrest away the problems of marijuana smoking, and the small but persistent heroin problem in some urban centers, is now a global enterprise. American troops, along with the armed agents of numerous federal agencies, operate in and around nearly all of Central and Latin America. 2,000 more will soon be stationed in Panama. They are on the seas. And they are also, quietly, ironically, back in Asia, on a mission to protect the free world from the "red menace" of the poppy flower. In Vietnam it quickly became apparent that the regime we were supporting was itself brutal and corrupt. Today the United Nations, born of a vision of world peace and human rights, prepares to pay millions of dollars to the Taleban, perhaps the most repressive and barbaric of all the world's ruling parties, in return for worthless promises. How happily we discard the lives and the futures of the women and children of Afghanistan. We send more money and military equipment into Colombia, even as that society disintegrates into anarchy and violence under the weight of our Prohibition, and peasants -- again, women and children - - are massacred and displaced. In the scope of the present war, these people, brown, indigenous, poor, do not even merit the calculus of statistics. Twenty-five years ago, our nation had been nearly torn apart by the war in Vietnam. Generations set against each other, riots in the cities, four young students shot down on a campus in the heartland of America, and the nation stood in fear and in awe. That war, entered into and fought in the name of freedom and democracy, had very nearly destroyed them both. Think back twenty-five years to the beginning of the current war. There were very few guns in our cities then, and certainly almost none in the hands of children. Marijuana abounded on college campuses, and even in many high schools. But heroin? Cocaine? They were mere rumors outside of the largest cities, and underground even there. Methamphetamine? Unheard of. Today not a place exists where these substances cannot be found. On the streets of our cities, large and small, they can be had by anyone, of any age, purer and cheaper with each passing year. 58,000 Americans were killed in the jungles of Southeast Asia. Tens of thousands more were maimed or injured. We could have lost 50,000 more, and we probably would have, had the nation not cried 'enough', and the outcome would not have changed. They were mostly young, many of them were poor, and in the end there was no good reason for their loss. Over the past twenty-five years tens of thousands of Americans have died in the violence of Prohibition on our streets, millions with no history of violence have been arrested, their lives disrupted, their futures darkened under the shadow of a criminal record. Some will spend the majority of their lives in cages. And still we escalate. We can jail a million more. And the drugs will not disappear. Today we hear of record seizures, and slight fluctuations in the abhorrently high numbers of children using drugs, and 100,000 more cops, and billions more dollars spent in combat. And a president declares, "there is light at the end of the tunnel." And we look back... to another president who was asking the wrong questions... and escalating the conflict... and tearing the nation apart. It is time to end the war. It is time to stand up. To make them stop. It's been twenty five years. We have all suffered enough. Adam J. Smith Associate Director *** DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet DRCNet *** JOIN/MAKE A DONATION http://www.drcnet.org/drcreg.html DRUG POLICY LIBRARY http://www.druglibrary.org REFORMER'S CALENDAR http://www.drcnet.org/calendar.html SUBSCRIBE TO THIS LIST http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html DRCNet HOME PAGE http://www.drcnet.org STOP THE DRUG WAR SITE http://www.stopthedrugwar.org -------------------------------------------------------------------
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