------------------------------------------------------------------- Oregon Medical Marijuana Act (Salem 'Statesman Journal' Says Ballot Initiative To Be Filed Today By Rick Bayer, Former Lake Oswego Doctor Who Anticipates Funding From George Soros - Stringent Language Would Require Patients To Register With State, Limit Patients To Three Flowering Plants, Four Vegetative Plants - Got Cancer? Sorry, No Market For Buyers - Happy Gardening - If You Can Find A Legal Source Of Seeds Or Clones)Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 20:47:32 EST Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Arthur Livermore) To: Multiple recipients of list
Subject: Oregon Medical Marijuana Act Statesman Journal 2-18-98 Salem, Oregon by David Kravets Statesman Journal A measure legalizing marijuana for medicinal purposes in Oregon could go to voters in November. Supporters hope to enlist help from philanthropist George Soros, whose financial assistance helped a similar effort pass in California. The latest initiative, expected to be announced today, is similar to measures approved by voters in California and Arizona. It would allow patients to smoke and cultivate marijuana for medicinal reasons if prescribed by a doctor. The move comes amid a flurry of proposed marijuana initiatives or referendums for the November ballot, including an effort to legalize home marijuana cultivation for personal use. Already qualified for the ballot is a referendum seeking to repeal the 1997 Oregon Legislature's move to recriminalize the possession of less than one ounce of marijuana. That referendum drive was financed by Americans for Medical Rights. The group also paid for California's medical marijuana drive, which became law in that state as Proposition 215. Soros a key financier of Americans for Medical Rights, is expected to help Oregon's latest marijuana effort to collect 73,000 signatures to qualify for the November ballot, petitioners said. "We anticipate and hope to have funds from George Soros," said Rick Bayer, medical marijuana's chief petitioner and a former Lake Oswego doctor. Patients with cancer, glaucoma, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and other serious illnesses would be required to a state-issued medical card allowing them to grow no more than three mature plants and four immature plants at a time if a doctor allows them to use the drug. It would be illegal to sell the marijuana. *** Talkers, This initiative isn't going to help anyone. You still won't be able to buy or sell medical marijuana with this method. I hope George Soros skips this one. Sincerely, Arthur Livermore LIVERMORE CONSULTANTS firstname.lastname@example.org P.O. Box 36 http://www.pacifier.com/~alive/ Arch Cape, OR 97102 USA 503-436-1882
------------------------------------------------------------------- Not Just for Hippies Anymore ('Willamette Week' Comments On Oregon Medical Marijuana Ballot Initiative Expected To Be Filed This Week By Oregonians For Medical Rights - Campaign To Be Run With Soros Money By Sugerman Group, Silverton-Based Consulting Firm That Successfully Organized Last Year's Death With Dignity Initiative Effort) Willamette Week Portland, Oregon February 18, 1998 http://www.wweek.com/ letters to editor: email@example.com *** Not Just for Hippies Anymore The marijuana legalization movement in Oregon, for years dominated by politically unsophisticated pot proponents, is looking more respectable. This week, Oregonians for Medical Rights will file a proposed initiative to legalize the growing and using of marijuana for "debilitating medical conditions" including multiple sclerosis, seizures and nausea associated with chemotherapy. The group plans to finance its signature-gathering campaign with help from billionaire businessman George Soros, who has already funded a successful medical-marijuana initiative in California. Chief petitioner Rick Bayer, who for 15 years practiced internal medicine in Lake Oswego, says his interest in medical marijuana began 20 years ago. As an internist at the VA Medical Center, Bayer recalls smelling marijuana smoke coming from a lymphoma patient's room. After talking to Vietnam vets and researching the topic, Bayer concluded pot can be good medicine. The campaign will be run by the Sugerman Group, the Silverton-based consulting firm that ran last year's Death with Dignity campaign. "It fits in with how I think we're all so stupid in dealing with dying people," says Geoff Sugerman. This will be the second infusion of Soros cash into Oregon in the last 12 months. Last fall, he and two other out-of-state businessmen dropped $100,000 on a signature-gathering push to reverse the 1997 Legislature's decision to recriminalize less than one ounce of marijuana. That referendum has qualified for the November ballot. -MO [Maureen O'Hagan]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Just Say No To Knock And Talk (Two Letters To Editor Of 'Willamette Week' In Response To Its 'Knock And Walk' Editorial Give Other Side To Story - First Letter, From Lawyer, Says Police Use Knock And Talks And Then Lie About Receiving Consent - Many Judges Willing To Believe Police Lies And Not Enforce Constitutional Protections - 'I Advise My Clients Not To Open The Door For The Police Unless The Police Have A Warrant And Show It' - But That's What Last Victim Of Portland Marijuana Task Force Warrantless Break-In Did, And State Means To Kill Him For It - Maybe Wife Of 'Willamette Week' Publisher, Judge Ellen Rosenblum, Will Announce The Sentence?) Willamette Week Portland, Oregon February 18, 1998 http://www.wweek.com/ letters to editor: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.wweek.com/html/letters021898.html JUST SAY NO TO KNOCK & TALK The Portland Police Bureau officials have typically presented only one side of the "knock and talk" story ["Knock and Walk," 500 Words, WW, Feb. 4, 1998]. They conveniently ignore what frequently happens with some of their more aggressive "community policing" types. The cops will come to the door of a residence and ask to talk the occupants; the occupants will refuse; the cops persist at the door, becoming more and more demanding; the occupants finally open the door to tell the cops to leave; the cops then push their way in, search the residence and then lie about receiving consent. Or less typically, the occupants will let the cops in to talk with them and then the cops start snooping around the place, moving from the entry way and living room to other, more private parts of the house, without permission; when the occupants object to the search and ask the cops to leave, the cops ignore those objections and then, if necessary, lie about receiving consent. Unfortunately, too many judges are willing to believe the police lies and will not enforce the constitutional protections against police misconduct we are supposed to enjoy. Because of the propensity of certain police officers to lie about receiving consent, I advise my clients not to open the door for the police unless the police have a warrant and show it. It is hard for the police to claim consent after they have broken down the door. Unfortunately, as recent events demonstrate, even that tactic fails in the face of the willingness of police officers to create exigent circumstances out of thin air, or should I say "smoke." Nonetheless, I tell my clients that when the police ask for consent to come into their houses: "Just say no." Spencer M. Neal, Southwest Front Avenue *** NOT DISRUPTIVE, BUT DANGEROUS Your 500 Words ("Knock and Walk," WW, Feb. 4, 1998) on the police shooting over some marijuana plants defended maniacally by an overarmed, trigger-happy citizen overlooks some fine points of the "Let us in the house for a little look, please" policy. Portland police sometimes have flimsy reasons to waltz into a private home and look for drugs: Two months ago, two narcotics plainclothes officers asked to "look inside" our house on the basis of what they said was an anonymous tip to a police drug tip-line. Their search was cursory at best, and not overtly disruptive. The cops said right off they could "tell" we don't appear to be dope growers (which was the tip they got), and added that often the anonymous tips they follow up are erroneous because of Police Bureau clerical error--the address is recorded wrong--a mistake from the tipster in the address or a revenge or a prank against the house being searched. Whatever the tactics of the terrible shoot-out in the Dons case, the idea of walking through a house, however politely as in our case, with nothing but an anonymous phone call for evidence, is poor, dangerous and an abridgement of our civil rights. As for your comment about Dons that "it's hard to feel much concern for his constitutional rights," he had those rights when he was confronted by police, and he still has rights to protection under the constitution, and zealously crossing the line of abridging his rights because of smoke from three or four dozen plants doesn't seem worth it, in retrospect. In our case the police were polite to us, I assume because we appeared to be a quiet, white, middle-aged couple in a quiet, white, middle-class neighborhood. I would assume they would not be so polite to others not similarly situated. We let the officers into our house only because we had nothing illegal inside and because we feared sending them back for a proper search warrant, which under ideal circumstances they should not have been granted because they had no probable cause except a "tip-line" call, but it would have meant if they returned they would have pulled the house apart--and still would have found nothing. Keith Tillstrom, Southeast 24th Avenue
------------------------------------------------------------------- Dons Arraigned On Additional Charges - Child Neglect And Drug Possession Charges Pile On (Newscast By KOIN, Portland's CBS Affiliate, On Target Of Marijuana Task Force Who Was Shot And Paralyzed By Portland Police During Warrantless Break-In) Found at http://www.koin.com/ Dons Arraigned On Additional Charges Child Neglect And Drug Possession Charges Pile On PORTLAND, Posted 6:10 p.m. February 18, 1998 -- The man accused of killing a police officer last month was back in court today facing new charges. Stephen Dons was arraigned at Multnomah County Courthouse on drug possession and child neglect charges, KOIN-TV reported. These are in addition to the 13 charges Dons already faces, as a result of last month's shootout in southeast Portland. The most serious one -- aggravated murder -- carries a possible death sentence, KOIN reported. Dons is accused of killing Officer Colleen Waibel in a drug raid Jan. 27. Two other officers were injured in the incident. Dons was shot in the chest during the shootout and is now paralyzed. Dons faces child neglect charges because his roommate's two children, ages seven and nine, were living in the house at the time of the shootout. Previous Stories: Feb. 06: Dons Arraigned In Hospital Room Jan. 29: Shooting Suspect's Condition Downgraded Jan. 28: 'Knock and Talk' Method Raises Concerns Jan. 28: Shooting Sparks Gun Control Issue Jan. 28: City Mourns Officer's Death Jan. 27: Katz and Moose Respond to Tragedy Jan. 27: Police Officer Fatally Shot Compiled by Channel 6000 Staff
------------------------------------------------------------------- Moose Seeks Job As Chief In Capital ('Oregonian' Article About Portland Police Chief Whose Son Was Arrested With Crack Cocaine Recently) oregonlive.com The Oregonian, February 18, 1998 email@example.com Moose seeks job as chief in capital Portland's chief of police since June 1993 confirms that he has applied for the top post in Washington, D.C. By Susan Gage of The Oregonian staff Portland Police Chief Charles Moose has applied for the job of chief of police in Washington, D.C. Moose, 44, who has been Portland's chief for nearly five years, said he sees an opportunity to join a new team and effect some change. "I feel like as a member of this nation, it's just very appalling that we continue to have the problems on the ground level in Washington, D.C., with regard to law enforcement there," he said Tuesday. "There's a real opportunity to go in and join that team and really make a difference. It's not something that I've sat here and wanted that job and dreamed about it." Stephen D. Harlan, vice chairman of the District of Columbia's financial control board, which is coordinating the search, would not comment Tuesday night. Moose said he applied for the job by the Jan. 16 deadline, but only his wife knew he had applied until Tuesday. The Washington Post named Moose as one of several applicants in an article last week. Moose informed his three assistant chiefs of his application Tuesday morning. He has not informed the rest of the bureau. He said he's letting the search process in the district run its course, and his main concern is that his application will be a distraction from the business of the Portland Police Bureau. "I said to the mayor that I'm going to go through this process, but she won't find me asleep at the wheel or not working hard." Mayor Vera Katz had no comment Tuesday. Moose said it would be difficult to leave Portland. "Portland's been very good to me, there's no doubt about that," he said. "That's the toughest part, but at the same hand I have often wondered how I could do in an environment that I didn't know as well as I know Portland." Leo Painton, president of the rank-and-file police union, the Portland Police Association, said he is fed up with inconsistent decisions that come from the chief and mayor, who also is the police commissioner. He is indifferent about the possibility of Moose leaving. "Maybe it's time for a change, I don't know," Painton said. "At this point, I don't care one way or another. "I wish him luck, I guess. If he thinks it's bad here. ..." Painton said it will be difficult to predict the reaction from his membership. "It might be, 'So we're getting a new chief, so what else is new?' " Painton said. "He's been here longer than most chiefs." Richard Brown, a member of the Chief's Forum and a Northeast Portland activist, said Portland would miss Moose because of his upstanding ethics and his commitment to community policing. "I'd hate to see him leave, but I think he can do a lot for policing and doing it from D.C. may be better," Brown said. On the other hand, he said, Portland should be able to attract a good chief, and one who is dedicated to community policing, should Moose leave. "If he leaves, we'll get somebody else," Brown said. "The show must go on." Moose said that as an outsider, he thinks he could apply some of the strategies and techniques he's seen work in Portland, which is regarded as a national model of the philosophy of community policing. "Police and the community need to work together," he said. "From my observation, it's been a missing piece. But certainly there is all the work that needs to be done with the staff and the community before that could be implemented." Moose has had a difficult two years, leading the bureau through the deaths of two officers who were shot and killed in the line of duty, and dealing with controversies from the bureau's use of cell phones to release of his own personnel file. He said none of these contributed to his decision to apply. "Life plays into decisions," he said. "Is there any trigger incident? No, there's not." At times, those controversies have tested Moose's patience. If selected for the district job, he'd be in a national spotlight. "I'd just be a little fish there, they have other people to watch," Moose said. "However that plays out, I just feel that if you're doing your job, then people will pick up on that. If you're not, the community or the media, or both, will discover that and you really shouldn't be in the job." This isn't the first time Moose has applied for a high-profile job in the district. In September 1994, Moose dropped out of consideration for the federal Community Oriented Policing Service program, a key component of President Clinton's crime package. At the time, Moose said he couldn't see himself in that job. This time, Moose said someone he knew in the district area contacted him about the police chief job, but he also went through the application process on his own. "You're not sure where fate takes you, but when I looked at it, and as I thought about it, and as I talked to the person who contacted me, it just seemed to make sense right now," he said. The district position became vacant with the unexpected resignation of Larry Soulsby on Nov. 25 following a troubled 28-month term in which the department faced criticism about unsolved murders, lost evidence, excessive overtime and an extortion scandal involving Soulsby's roommate. The acting chief, Sonya T. Proctor, is a candidate for the job, according to The Washington Post article. The Post reported that Moose was one of nearly 50 applicants and that a list of 10 finalists would be chosen this week. Among the other applicants identified in the story were Willie L. Williams, former Los Angeles and Philadelphia police chief; Benny N. Napoleon, second in command at the Detroit Police Department; Joseph Samuels Jr., Oakland chief; and Terrance Gainer, Illinois State Police director. Moose was born and raised in North Carolina and came to Portland in 1975 as an officer. He became deputy chief in 1992 and chief in June 1993. Asked about his chances for the new job, Moose said, "I'd like to think that it's going to be a fair and open process. If that's the case, I think I'd have an excellent chance." David R. Anderson and Michele Parente of The Oregonian staff contributed to this report.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drugs A Health Problem, Not Criminal Problem (Letter To Editor Of 'The Oregonian' By Dr. Richard Bayer, A Chief Petitioner For Oregonians For Medical Rights' New Medical Marijuana Ballot Initiative) Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 15:02:27 EST Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Anti-Prohibition Lg (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: PUB: LTE The Oregonian Sender's note: Dr. Bayer, is one of the Chief Petitioners for Oregonians for Medical Rights, a group working to provide medical access to cannabis. He is a League supporter and as his letter attest, a stand-up antiprohibitionist. Congratulations on your letter Dr. Bayer, keep up the great work. Together we will succeed. Pub: LTE 2/18/98 The Oregonian (Portland) firstname.lastname@example.org DRUGS A HEALTH PROBLEM, NOT CRIMINAL PROBLEM You have covered a great tragedy in which the life of another police officer was lost while trying to enforce prohibition of marijuana in our gun-crazed society. It is time that our police officers quit paying the price for our failed political policy of interdiction of drugs. It is time for a national debate on drug policy. Many of us look at substance abuse as a public health problem instead of a criminal problem and believe we should be focusing on prevention rather than interdiction and incarceration. Joseph McNamara, former police chief of Kansas City, Mo., and San Jose, Calif., had an essay published in National Review. Two of his sentences sum up my point: "It's the money, stupid," and, "Sadly, the police have been pushed into a war they did not start and cannot win." In spite of massive government spending, record levels of arrests, overflowing jails and dead police officers, cheaper and more plentiful drugs are now available. Please support efforts to look at substance abuse from a medical perspective rather than a moral or law enforcement perspective. We do not need any more of our brave police officers dying because of the failed political policy of prohibition in the United States. Richard Bayer, M.D. Southwest Portland
------------------------------------------------------------------- Lawyer Grilled On Pot Ring ('The Herald' Says Attorney Mark Mestel Of Everett, Washington, Took The Witness Stand In US District Court Tuesday, And Was Questioned For 90 Minutes Regarding His Knowledge Of A Large Marijuana-Growing Ring - Defendants Allege Federal Prosecutors Stepped Over Line When They Recruited Dale Fairbanks, Mestel's Private Investigator And 'Alter Ego,' To Become A Government Informant, Supplying Investigators With Evidence)Date: Sat, 21 Feb 1998 15:00:57 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US WA: Lawyer Grilled On Pot Ring Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: John Smith Pubdate: Wed, 18 Feb. 1998 Source: The Herald, Everett, WA Contact: email@example.com WebPage: http://www.heraldnet.com Author: Scott North, Herald Writer Note: You can contact Scott North by phone at 425-339-3431 or you can send e-mail to him at firstname.lastname@example.org LAWYER GRILLED ON POT RING Mestel denies any wrongdoing SEATTLE -- An Everett lawyer found the tables turned Tuesday as he took the witness stand in U.S. District Court, and was questioned for 1 1/2hours regarding his knowledge of a large marijuana-growing ring. Mark Mestel, a veteran of more than 400 jury trials, submitted to the questioning at a pretrial hearing in the case of two Eastern Washington men awaiting trial on federal charges stemming from the alleged pot-growing conspiracy. At issue was how much Mestel knew about the drug ring, exactly how and when the attorney provided legal representation to the men, and whether that contact was protected by attorney-client privilege. Lawyers for Gregory Haynes and James Denton asked Judge Thomas Zilly to throw out evidence against the pair. They alleged federal prosecutors stepped over the line when they recruited Dale Fairbanks, a private investigator who had worked closely with Mestel, to become a government informant on the case, supplying investigators with evidence. "The majority of the information comes from the direct violation of the attorney-client relationship," Haynes' attorney, Allen Ressler, told the judge. Assistant U.S. Attorney Doug Whalley said Mestel didn't represent the pair during the time the government's investigation was under way. Moreover, the defendants illegally abused their relationship with Mestel, misleading him about the ownership of a Stanwood farm where some of the marijuana growing took place, the prosecutor said. The prosecutor on Tuesday called Todd Hollibaugh, a co-defendant in the drug case. The former Stanwood man alleged he, Haynes and Denton conspired to have Mestel file misleading paperwork in a 1994 civil case connected to the drug-growing operation. Hollibaugh went so far as to claim Mestel knew some of the information supplied to government officials was bogus and designed to lead them away from Haynes and Denton. When called to testify, Mestel flatly denied misleading anyone or having knowledge about the inner workings of the pot-growing ring. He was less certain, however, about whether his clients may have duped him into making fraudulent representations. "I don't know," Mestel said, his eyes downcast. "I don't know if I was tricked or I was used." The lawyer testified he was not actively representing either Haynes or Denton when Fairbanks became a government informant in January 1996. But he also said he always encouraged clients to trust Fairbanks. "I tell my clients that he is my alter ego," he said. "If they can tell me, they can tell him." Fairbanks and Mestel no longer work together, and Mestel testified that had he known the private investigator was secretly working for the government, he would have broken off ties immediately. Before Zilly let Mestel leave the stand, he asked the lawyer to respond to Fairbanks' testimony in an earlier hearing about alleged marijuana deliveries from Haynes to Mestel using Fairbanks. Mestel acknowledged that pot deliveries happened twice, and both times involved small amounts of marijuana he had not requested. The attorney said the first time the marijuana arrived, he threw it away. Mestel testified that after the second delivery, he told Fairbanks to get the pot out of his office and never bring him more. Fairbanks is scheduled to testify today.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ammiano Calls For Coordinated Policy In San Francisco On Implementing California Compassionate Use Act (Excerpt From 'San Francisco Examiner' On Push By Member Of San Francisco City And County Board Of Supervisors)Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 18:46:31 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Joel W. Johnson) Subject: MN: US CA: SF Board of Supervisors Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: "Frank S. World"
Source: San Francisco Examiner Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.examiner.com Pubdate: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 Excerpted from "Ban on tourist rentals passed" an article in the 2/18/98 SFX... In other business Tuesday, the Board of Supervisors: * PROP. 215: Heard Ammiano call for a coordinated city policy on the implementation of voter-approved state initiative Proposition 215, which allows the use of marijuana for medicinal purposed under limited circumstances. Compiled by Rachel Gordon of The Examiner staff.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Medical Marijuana - Legal, But How Long? ('USA Today' Notes State, Federal Governments Around The Country, Even In California, Are Still Doing All They Can To Keep Medicine Away From Sick People) Date: Wed, 25 Feb 1998 00:45:30 -0700 From: Steve Kubby
Subject: USA Today: MEDICAL MARIJUANA--LEGAL, BUT HOW LONG? USA Today: MEDICAL MARIJUANA--LEGAL, BUT HOW LONG? http://www.usatoday.com/news/nfront.htm (published) Wed, 18 Feb 1998 MEDICAL MARIJUANA: LEGAL, BUT HOW LONG? by John Ritter, USA Today (Section: The Nation) In 1996, California voters approved the drug for people who have a doctor's recommendation, but the Justice Department has sued to keep it out of their hands SAN FRANCISCO -- More than a year after California became the first state to legalize marijuana for medical purposes, its use by the terminally ill is under assault from state and federal authorities. As a result, medical marijuana advocates say many patients who need the drug have a hard time getting it, and doctors are reluctant to recommend it to patients for fear of losing their federal licenses to write prescriptions. Proposition 215, approved by California voters in 1996, permits doctors to recommend marijuana for their patients. Technically, doctors don't prescribe it because that would violate federal law. But the U.S. Justice Department, maintaining that federal law prohibits any use of marijuana, has sued to shut down the California cooperatives that supply it to the sick. Marijuana advocates say this could have a chilling effect on efforts in other states to legalize medical pot. "The bottom line has been reinforced once more: Medical users can be sent to prison." says Chuck Thomas, spokesman for the Marijuana Policy Project in Washington. California's attorney general, Dan Lungren, also has been battling in state courts for months to close the marijuana cooperatives. The co-ops, called cannabis clubs, grow or purchase large quantities of marijuana, test it and then sell it, at low cost, to members. In the state Legislature, there's a move to put another measure before the voters to repeal 215. Meanwhile, activists in at least six states and the District of Columbia are gathering signatures to try to put medical marijuana measures on November ballots. The six are Maine, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Nevada and Florida. In Washington, D.C., the issue is on the ballot for the second time. Voters there turned down an initiative last November. Arizona voters approved medical marijuana when California did in 1996, but the state Legislature immediately nullified the vote. Bills to legalize medical pot failed in a dozen legislatures last year. Perhaps 40 marijuana co-ops operate openly around the country, many more underground. Nationally, the Washington based Marijuana Policy Project estimates that tens of thousands of patients use pot to relieve the side effects of AIDS and cancer drugs, chronic pain and glaucoma symptoms. AIDS patients Jon Freeman has a written doctor's recommendation and buys marijuana at the Cannabis Buyer's Cooperative in San Francisco. The co-op and five others around the state are named in the federal civil lawsuit. Freeman says he'd have few options if the government shuts off his supply of the only drug that allows him to function. "I'd have to buy it on the street, but it from some dope dealer," says Freeman, 32. "That would be dangerous, and you never know about the quality. You don't know what it's been sprayed with." California's law leaves it up to doctors to judge which patients would benefit from marijuana. But with a doctor's letter of recommendation, a patient can legally grow for personal use. Proposition 215 provides an automatic defense against a criminal charge of possession. After Proposition 215 passed, federal officials threatened to revoke the prescription-writing authority of any doctor who recommended pot for patients. But doctors filed a class-action suit and last April won a preliminary injunction against federal sanctions. Marijuana clubs and co-ops emerged in the 1980's to provide reliable, non-street sources of marijuana to the sick. They operated underground or with the tacit approval of local police before 215. But because the measure made no mention of co-ops, their legal status is disputed. Lungren, a Republican candidate for governor, has argued that 215 legalizes patient use only, not co-ops. A state appeals court ruling in December backed him up, but the San Francisco co-op is appealing to the state Supreme Court. Many local authorities oppose co-ops. Last month, the Orange County district attorney brought felony charges against the operator of a Santa Ana marijuana co-op. Dennis Peron, the San Francisco co-op founder and co-author of 215, has been a lightning rod in the state's ongoing pot wars. He calls the federal suit "a slap in the face of California voters." "We're selling pot to sick and dying people," he says. "If they close us, what they'll get is 8,000 people trying to buy pot in the park." A March 24 hearing is scheduled in federal court in San Francisco. "Dennis has refused to play by the rules and it's hurting the rest of us," says Scott Imler, director of the Los Angeles, Cannabis Resource Center in West Hollywood. "It's unfortunate for the movement." Imler, co-author with Peron of 215, thinks at least half of San Francisco club members aren't legitimate patients. But Peron has his defenders. "I support Dennis because none of us would be here if he hadn't done what he did," says Jeff Jones, director of the Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative. "He's doing very good community service." Federal court papers say undercover agents repeatedly bought marijuana at the six clubs, but Peron claims entrapment. He says agents had doctors' letters, but when the club called to verify them, "the narcs were on the other end of line." In fact, some California co-ops work hand in hand with the authorities. "If the goal is to make sure medical marijuana doesn't get out of hand, then co-ops are the way to regulate it," says Dan Abrahamson, a lawyer for doctors in the class-action suit "Generally, police find it counterproductive to crack down on good co-ops." Gregory King, a Justice Department spokesman in Washington, says civil instead of criminal charges were filed against co-ops in "a deliberate attempt to take a measured approach." Still, medical marijuana supporters think doctors now will be even more reluctant to recommend pot, and more patients will be driven underground to acquire it. Freeman says the AIDS drug AZT makes his bones ache and leaves him nauseated. It makes him feel agitated and takes away his appetite. "The medicine makes me not want to get out of bed," he says. "But I can come down here and smoke, and I want to eat and that helps me maintain my weight. I buy pot here, and I know it's going to help my body."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Feds Say Arrests Break Green Bay Drug Ring - Nine Indicted On Charges Of Selling Cocaine As Gang Expanded From Chicago ('Milwaukee Journal Sentinel' On Federal Bust In Wisconsin) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 16:43:45 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US WI: Feds Say Arrests Break Green Bay Drug Ring Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: "Frank S. World" Pubdate: Wed 18 Feb 1998 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Contact: email@example.com Fax: (414) 224-8280 Website: http://www.jsonline.com/ Feds say arrests break Green Bay drug ring Nine indicted on charges of selling cocaine as gang expanded from Chicago By Dave Daley of the Journal Sentinel February 18, 1998 Federal authorities say they have dismantled a major drug ring that moved into Green Bay two years ago, arresting a man they called the leader of a Chicago street gang and eight other alleged gang members and associates. Indicted on Tuesday was Earl Miller, 35. Federal authorities claimed that he was a "five-star general" in the Conservative Vice Lords that they say is a branch of the drug-trafficking Chicago street gang called the Vice Lords. Jack Riley, head of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration's Wisconsin office, called Miller "the franchise holder" for the Chicago gang's attempt to expand its operations into the Green Bay area. "You had a guy looking for virgin territory, and he found it," Riley said. "This is the first time we've seen the Conservative Vice Lords up in Green Bay in force. We've had bits and pieces before, but this is the first time we've seen an NFL team there, so to speak." Riley called the case one of the biggest gang investigations in Wisconsin outside of Milwaukee. "They're going to move where they can sell their wares," Riley said. "They really turned their neighborhood into a drug marketplace." A federal grand jury in Milwaukee on Tuesday also returned drug-trafficking indictments against eight others, including two of Miller's brothers, Floyd Miller, 31, of Ashwaubenon, and Garry Miller, 30, of Green Bay. In a criminal complaint filed in federal court against Earl Miller, the Drug Enforcement Administration alleges that after being released from an Illinois prison, Earl Miller moved to Green Bay in the summer of 1996, where he joined his two brothers already in the city. Out of an apartment in the 300 block of Leeland Street on the city's west side, the three began dealing in powder and crack cocaine, with Earl Miller traveling to Chicago weekly to obtain as much as 5 ounces of cocaine, the complaint says. The complaint says that Earl Miller liked dealing in Green Bay because he could sell cocaine for $2,500 an ounce there, compared with the going rate of only $800 an ounce in Chicago. The complaint also says that one of Earl Miller's cocaine suppliers in Chicago was a member of the Blackstone gang who was selling half a kilogram -- about 18 ounces -- for $10,000. A second supplier was a Conservative Vice Lords gang member operating out of Rockford, Ill., the complaint says. Among the eight others indicted was Earl Miller's girlfriend, Alshanda Sims, 19, who kept some of his cocaine at her Green Bay apartment and also sold powder and crack cocaine herself, the complaint says. Riley said arrests also were made in Chicago and Florida and more arrests were expected. Earl Miller and the other eight who were indicted Tuesday are in Wisconsin jails. All face up to life in prison if convicted. Riley credited the Brown County Sheriff's Department and the Wisconsin Department of Justice's division of narcotics enforcement with helping in the investigation.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Tavern League Rejects Proposal On License Fee ('Milwaukee Journal Sentinel' Says Tavern League Of Wisconsin Rejects Compromise Over New Law Requiring Municipalities To Charge $10,000 Fee For New Tavern Licenses) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 16:43:45 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US WI: Tavern League Rejects Proposal On License Fee Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: "Frank S. World" Pubdate: Wed 18 Feb 1998 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Author: Amy Rinard of the Journal Sentinel Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: (414) 224-8280 Website: http://www.jsonline.com/ TAVERN LEAGUE REJECTS PROPOSAL ON LICENSE FEE Leader brushes aside compromise that would let communities set cost Madison -- A compromise offered by three Waukesha County legislators to resolve the controversy over a new law requiring municipalities to charge a $10,000 fee for new tavern licenses was rejected Tuesday by the Tavern League of Wisconsin. Pete Madland, president of the Tavern League, said he wanted to see the new law left in place for at least one year before lawmakers consider changing it. The Alliance of Cities and League of Wisconsin Municipalities have endorsed the compromise announced last week by Assembly Majority Leader Steven Foti (R-Oconomowoc), Rep. Frank Urban (R-Brookfield) and Sen. Margaret Farrow (R-Elm Grove). Under that compromise, communities would be allowed to set the fee for liquor licenses anywhere from $500 to $10,000. But Madland and others in the tavern industry made it clear during a hearing before the Assembly State Affairs Committee on Tuesday that the new law is needed to add value to existing taverns, many of which are struggling financially. They said the law will encourage people who want to open a bar or a restaurant that serves alcohol to buy an existing tavern business instead of applying for a new liquor license. The fee to buy an existing license remains at $500. The law, which went into effect Dec. 1, also is designed to make existing licenses more valuable by reducing by half the number of unused liquor licenses available in each municipality. "You have a chance to keep the status quo and help out 13,000 small-business owners, or you can change the law to please a bunch of municipal officials who don't like being dictated to," Madland told legislators. "To me it's a no-brainer." Municipal officials, including several from communities where the new law has been ignored or circumvented, said the law should be repealed. They argued that setting of liquor license fees should be a local decision. Charles Hargan, Germantown village president, said he felt bad for the small, family-owned taverns in financial trouble. "But there are also ma and pa farms struggling, and ma and pa stores," he said. "We can't go out and help everybody." Delafield City Administrator Scott Botcher said at issue is what kind of role state government should play in the state economy. "I don't believe the state of Wisconsin can be the big brother to every small-business owner," he said. Brookfield Mayor Kate Bloomberg also said that reducing the number of liquor licenses available in each municipality could force some communities to choose between small entrepreneurs and big operators when granting licenses. But Jay Ross, president of the Waukesha County Tavern League, echoed the sentiments of many of the tavern owners who testified Tuesday when he criticized municipal officials for refusing to obey the new law. The committee took no action Tuesday on a bill proposed to repeal the new law or on the proposed compromise. Foti said he would continue to push for legislative action on the compromise. He said waiting a year to see how the existing law works "is not common sense." Foti said he was optimistic the Assembly would act on the issue before the floor session ends in March. The legislation also could be taken up if a special session of the Legislature is held in April or May, he added.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Owner Facing Trial Keeps Liquor License ('Milwaukee Journal Sentinel' Says Utilities And Licenses Committee Recommends Milwaukee Grocer Keep Liquor License Pending Outcome Of Trial For 42 Cases Of Stolen Whiskey Found In Basement) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 16:43:45 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US WI: Owner Facing Trial Keeps Liquor License Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: "Frank S. World" Pubdate: Wed 18 Feb 1998 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Author: Tom Held of the Journal Sentinel staff Contact: email@example.com Fax: (414) 224-8280 Website: http://www.jsonline.com/ OWNER FACING TRIAL KEEPS LIQUOR LICENSE The owner of the Foodtown Super Market will keep his liquor license, at least until a jury decides whether he was responsible for the 42 cases of stolen whiskey found in his store's basement. The Utilities and Licenses Committee recommended Tuesday that the grocer's license be renewed for one year, pending the outcome of the criminal case against him. Tareq Hamed, who has owned the store for three years, is scheduled to be tried May 11 on a charge of receiving stolen property in a criminal case that dates to January 1997. Police discovered the cache of Crown Royal locked in a storage room at Foodtown, 6608 W. Fond du Lac Ave., while investigating the theft of the top-shelf whiskey from Capitol-Husting Co. Inc., 12001 W. Carmen Ave. Workers at the liquor distributor admitted stealing the whiskey and selling it to a man at Foodtown. One of the workers told aldermen on the licensing panel that Hamed himself paid for the whiskey with $8,000 he removed from the store safe. But Hamed denied any knowledge of the alleged transaction and has maintained that he does not know how the liquor wound up in his basement. Last month, the licensing panel voted to deny the renewal of Hamed's license, but the full Common Council didn't agree and sent the issue back to the committee. Aldermen feared Hamed would sue the city if he lost his license but was acquitted of the felony charge.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Johnnie Mae Brown - Update (Adam J. Smith Of Drug Reform Coordination Network Asks Activists To Take 10 Minutes To Write Letter To Parole Board About Incarceration Of Woman In New Jersey For Fleeing Drug Treatment In 1972) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 17:56:45 EST Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: "Adam J. Smith"
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: FWC: johnnie mae brown: update Friends, As reported (twice) in previous issues of The Week Online, a strong response is needed in order to gain the freedom of Johnnie Mae Brown, currently being incarcerated in New Jersey on a warrant issued in 1972 for fleeing drug treatment. In reading the update below, please note that letters should be polite, as the parole board has not yet heard this case. PLEASE PLEASE take the ten minutes necessary to write a letter (contact info below) in support of this woman, whose life is being destroyed after more than 8 years of productive sobriety. A more detailed account of Ms. Brown's story can be found at http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/1-30.html It would be wonderful if you could also send a copy of your letter to Ms. Brown herself, who is desperate to know that people are working to secure her release. You can tell her (but not the parole board) that you heard about her case from us. thanks for your concern. - adam JOHNNIE MAE BROWN: UPDATE Johnnie Mae Brown, a friend of Imani Woods, has been incarcerated in the Edna Mahan Correctional Facility for Women in Clinton, N.J. since early December. She was convicted in 1972 on simple drug possession charges and "escaped" from the drug treatment facility to which she was remanded by the court some time later. Since then Johnnie "got sober", has been employed by the city of New York for eight years and has had her own apartment. Returning from a vacation to Portugal, Spain and Morocco (sounds good, doesn't it?) she was arrested at JFK airport, held at Riker's Island for a few days and then was extradited to N.J. Johnnie Mae will, at some point, be given a hearing with the parole board. That could happen early in March. Should the parole board decide to let her go, she could be released in early April. None of that is guaranteed although indications make it seem likely. To Johnnie Mae, another two months in this human warehouse could seem like an eternity. She doesn't know if she'll still have a job when she is released. Friends are trying to pay enough towards her rent that she'll still have her apartment. And, her high blood pressure, which she had been controlling with proper diet and exercise, has been acting up. Your help and support are still needed. Johnnie has received several letters from supporters who have also written thoughtful (not angry and demanding) letters to the parole board. These gestures are going a long way towards keeping her centered and hopeful, and we think the letters to the parole board are helpful. It is very important to keep in mind that Johnnie's fate is in the hands of the parole board. She may not have a lawyer present at a hearing and the attorneys I've spoken with here say there is little hope for relief from a court -- arguments could be made on compassionate grounds, but this IS New Jersey. Johnnie Mae can receive books (apparently magazines are being confiscated) and food (as long as it is in the original sealed package). Money orders made payable to her can be deposited into her commissary account so that she can have snacks and toiletries. Her friends would be grateful for some help with paying her rent, as well. If you can lend some support, call or email me and/or write directly to her and/or the parole board member whose office is at the prison. Copies of letters to the parole board should be sent to Johnnie Mae or me, as well. We are trying to document as much of this experience as possible. Thanks for your attention and consideration. Diana McCague The N.J. Harm Reduction Coalition P.O. Box 1470, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (732) 247-7014 DMcca1003@aol.com Letters should be addressed to: Cheryl Rondelli, Parole Director Edna Mahan Correctional Facility for Women P.O. Box 404 Clinton, NJ 08809-4404. Johnnie Mae Brown, #98-29 (same address)
------------------------------------------------------------------- Alternative To Drug Tip-Line (Letter To Editor Of 'The Aegis,' In Bel Air, Maryland, In Response To '1-888 To Help Bust Your Friends' Suggests Offering Middle And High School Students $1,000 For Each Friend They Turn In For Illegal Drugs Is Likely To Have Harmful Social Consequences) Subj: PUBLISHED in The Aegis, February 18, 1998 From: "Kevin Fansler" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Date: Fri, 27 Feb 1998 10:44:07 -0500 This letter appeared in the February 18, 1998 edition. The Aegis: Letters to the Editor 10 Hays Street P.O. Box 189 Bel Air, MD 21014-0189 Title: Alternative to drug tip-line. In the February 3 of the Aegis, were two letters protesting an Aegis January 21 front-page article headlined "1-888-to help bust your friends" as an unappreciated attempt at humor. But the tragic truth hinted at by the humor is apparent to me and viewpoints different from those of the proponents for our present drug policy need to be heard. In middle and high school, students bond into bands with some students moving more-or-less freely from one band to at least one other band. Social interaction promotes appreciation and understanding of other students. On the other hand, isolated students can foment tragedies, as occurred at a school where a student shot and killed fellow students. The use of the reward tip-line will encourage more secrecy. More restricted communications will increase isolation of bands and their individual members, possibly increasing drug use. Non-using students must avoid being setup by budding entrepreneurs or enemies for the $1000 reward. The world becomes a more hard-edged nasty place to live in. At the same time such implicit prohibitions can increase the allure of the forbidden fruit for some of the most skeptical and adventurous of our youth. Do we want to misdirect the flower of our youth? If one of our children is arrested, the chances of being jailed with violent adult offenders are rising with "get tough" legislation that has been approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee. A child is eight times more likely to commit suicide in an adult jail than in a juvenile detention center. What should we do then? Decriminalize drugs thereby destroying the thriving black market where our underage youth are procuring drugs mixed even with cement. Marijuana is sometimes sprayed with harmful weed-killers supplied by our government. But decriminalization will not occur for several years, not until people discover that to win the war on drugs America would need to become one of the evil empires that we have decried. Meanwhile and even after decriminalization of drugs arrives, the family, community, and the schools must instill hope, meaning, and a purpose to our children's lives. We must also demand that they behave in a civil respectful manner to both their elders and their peers. For us to do otherwise would constitute neglect. The present drug policy is not only a cornerstone in the edifice of our neglect but also forms a wedge between the young and the old. We can give them a real world that is more attractive than the virtual world offered by heavy use of drugs and alcohol. Sincerely Kevin Fansler
------------------------------------------------------------------- WHO Suppressed Report On Cannabis - Magazine ('Reuters' Quotes 'New Scientist' Saying US National Institute On Drug Abuse And UN International Drug Control Programme Suppressed Report Confirming Marijuana Less Harmful Than Tobacco, Alcohol, Saying It Would Play Into Hands Of Groups Campaigning To Legalise Marijuana)Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 17:59:09 -0500 To: email@example.com From: Dave Haans
Subject: Oops -- here's the full Reuters story Cc: firstname.lastname@example.orgWHO suppressed report on cannabis - magazine 09:48 p.m Feb 18, 1998 Eastern LONDON, Feb 18 (Reuters) - Officials at the World Health Organisation in Geneva suppressed a report confirming that cannabis is safer than alcohol or tobacco, New Scientist magazine said on Wednesday. The WHO's summary report on cannabis, its first in 15 years, was published in December but the magazine claims a comparison study of cannabis and legal substances was dropped because the organisation feared it would give ammunition to the ``legalise marijuana'' campaign. ``It is understood that advisers from the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse and the U.N. International Drug Control Programme warned the WHO that it would play into the hands of groups campaigning to legalise marijuana,'' the weekly science magazine said. Dr Maristela Monteiro, a scientist with the WHO programme on substance abuse, confirmed that the analysis was dropped from the report but denied the organisation had been pressured into doing it. ``There were problems with that chapter,'' she told Reuters in a telephone interview. ``It was not a fair comparison from our point of view and from a public health perspective it was not very useful. We thought it was biased towards showing less harm from cannabis.'' Monteiro said the WHO was working with the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Canada and planned to publish a book on cannabis in June. According to New Scientist, which published a special report on marijuana on Wednesday, a leaked document about the analysis concluded that marijuana posed less of a public health threat than alcohol or cigarettes, even if people consumed the drug on the same scale as the other substances. It also showed that while there was evidence of foetal alcohol syndrome, proof that cannabis can harm foetal development was ``far from conclusive.'' The magazine said researchers had found that marijuana smoke did not lead to blocked airways or emphysema or impact on lung function, and it was less addictive than alcohol or cigarettes. A survey conducted by the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, where marijuana has been legalised since 1976, found that there was no immediate increase in use after it was decriminalised. Although most people questioned in the survey had tried marijuana they did not continue to use it. The number of hard drug addicts in the Netherlands has not increased in a decade, the magazine added.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Going To Pot ('Cityview,' In Des Moines Says New Law Proposed By Republican Iowa State Representatives Jeff Lamberti, Joseph Kremer And G. Willard Jenkins Would Make A Third Conviction For Marijuana Possession A Crime Equivalent To Serious Assault Or Pedophilia) Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 18:43:14 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Joel W. Johnson) Subject: MN: US IA: Going To Pot Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: "Carl E. Olsen"
Source: Cityview (Des Moines, IA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: 515-288-0309 Pubdate: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 Page 10 GOING TO POT A new bill would treat even casual pot smokers with the same severity as pedophiles [With photo: A person convicted two or more times for simple marijuana possession could face up to two years in prison and a $5.000 fine.] By Geoff S. Fein In an attempt to stop drug dealers who have learned to get around the law, some legislators want to increase penalties for simple marijuana possession. If the bill passes, even the occasional user might face long prison sentences and big fines. The proposal from Representatives Jeff Lamberti (R-Ankeny), Joseph Kremer (R-Jessup) and G. Willard Jenkins (R-Waterloo), would make a third conviction for smoking marijuana a crime equivalent to serious assault or indecent contact with a child. Currently, a person convicted of simple possession faces a maximum sentence of six months in jail and/or a fine of up to $1,000. The problem with the law, Lambertie says, is that there are no increased penalties for repeat offenders. "If you haven't learned after two times," Lamberti says, "how many times are we going to give you?" Under the proposal, a second conviction for simple possession would result in up to a year in jail. Two or more convictions could mean a prison sentence of up to two years and a $5,000 fine. (A similar conviction for possession of any other illegal drug could result in a sentence of up to five years and up to a $7,500 fine.) The goal, Lamberti says, is to stop dealers who have learned to skirt the law. "They've figured out that if they carry smaller amounts of drugs they can only be arrested for simple possession. They're thumbing their nose at the law." "City leaders said they wanted stiffer penalties for repeat violators," Jenkins adds. Leon Mosley, a Black Hawk County Supervisor, says if legislators want to stop drugs sales, they'll have to come up with laws that hit dealers in their wallets. "The answer is not a little fine. If you're dealing with thousands of dollars, the fine should be appropriate," he says. "We've got to quit thinking they are poor kids. We need to make the penalty fit the crime." Some, like Carl Olsen, head of the Iowa chapter of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, say the current law is too severe and attempts to increase the penalties are draconian. "This is incredibly harsh. It's like a witch hunt. If you don't want people to use it, come up with reasonable regulations." And Olsen disagrees that smoking marijuana is hazardous. "There are a lot like me who used marijuana and have had no serious health risks," he says. "It doesn't justify this sort of treatment." Moreover, the proposal would ensnare dealers and casual users alike. Defense attorneys say increased prosecutions could burden an already overcrowded court system, particularly when those facing second and third possession charges opt for jury trials instead of pleading. Since the onset of the War on Drugs in the '80s, the country's prison population has exploded. About 60 percent of the inmate population are in for drug offenses. Yet Polk County Attorney John Sarcone says smoking pot isn't a victimless crime. "We're not going to provide a marketplace for selling dope," he says. "Marijuana is not the benign drug that people think it is." Defense lawyers fear the proposal will hurt people in need of treatment. Instead of rehabilitation, users will end up behind bars. "To put someone away for a felony for an addiction is an overreaction," says Des Moines attorney Dean Stowers. Attorney Maggi Moss says legislators have focused on the wrong direction. They should be making laws tougher on violent criminals, not on drug users. "We need to get tough on crime, but not on a guy smoking a joint," she says. "Any state with any amount of insight should know that to build more prisons to house drug offenders... it doesn't work."
------------------------------------------------------------------- DrugWar! (Live Call-In World Wide Web Netcast Via RealAudio 5-6 PM Friday, February 20, Features Author Peter McWilliams) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 09:18:35 EST Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Peter Webster
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: DRUG WAR! Forwarded: DrugWar! Via live streaming Real Audio. Join media assaultant Chavo Slim and mystic-barrister-groundskeeper Richard Glen Boire as they dissect the nation's #1 Big Lie, the drug war. DrugWar! is a lively, hyperkinetic Netcast covering the facts and philosophy behind drugs and their prohibition. Drug War! features discussion and debate with prominent and not so prominent guests from the panoply of the drug war arena. Culture jamming and curmudgeon-style ranting form the arsenal of the day. All in a bed of cool sounds and live callers. Join in, be heard. Next show is February 20, 1998, from 5-6 Pacific Coast Time. Our guest will be author Peter McWilliams. Click this link: http://home.cwnet.com/specmind/page15.html to go to the DrugWar! web page.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Second Athlete Tests Positive For Marijuana In Nagano ('Reuters' Says Unnamed Olympic Athlete Won't Face Sanctions - IOC's De Merode Says There Is Evidence Of Widespread Marijuana Use By Athletes - Four Positive Tests At Summer Olympics, One In Seoul In 1988, One In Barcelona In 1992 And Two In Atlanta In 1996, Though No Marijuana Positives At Previous Winter Games) Date: Fri, 20 Feb 1998 17:56:27 EST Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Todd McCormick (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: No action will be taken against the athlete Wednesday February 18 11:21 PM EDT Second athlete tests positive for marijuana in Nagano By Stephen Parry NAGANO, Feb 19 (Reuters) - A second athlete has tested positive for marijuana at the Winter Olympics but will not face sanctions, the IOC announced on Thursday. Prince Alexandre de Merode, chairman of the medical commission of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), declined to name the athlete or the sport involved when he announced the positive test at a news conference. No action will be taken against the athlete following a ruling by an independent arbitration panel that overturned the disqualification of Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, who tested positive for marijuana earlier in the Games. The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) ruled that Rebagliati's gold medal should be restored because there had been no legal basis for testing for marijuana. Referring to the second positive test, de Merode said: ``We didn't publicise it. There was no reason to enter into any further detail. The CAS ruling prevents me from commenting any further.'' He added that the IOC had been tracking marijuana use at the Olympics for the past 10 years and said there had been four positive tests at the Summer Olympics -- one in Seoul in 1988, one in Barcelona in 1992 and two in Atlanta in 1996 -- although no action was taken against the athletes concerned. There had been no marijuana positives at previous Winter Games. In response to a question, de Merode also disclosed that the medical commission had received a confidential report from the IOC-accredited testing laboratory in Montreal in December which indicated a high level of marijuana in a urine sample taken from Rebagliati. But he said this did not relate directly to the Rebagliati affair at the Nagano Games and added: ``I am not going to question the discretion of the Canadian authorities.'' However, the Montreal finding threw into question Rebagliati's claims in Nagano that he had given up cannabis 10 months ago and had tested positive at the Games because he had inhaled second-hand smoke. The news conference was held after the first meeting of the newly-formed IOC working group set up to clarify policy on the use of marijuana in sport. The group, chaired by IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch, was set up in direct response to the muddled rules revealed by the Rebagliati case. Marijuana is not believed to enhance performance but the IOC is seeking to prevent it ``and other socially reprehensible drugs'' being used in sport. De Merode said there was evidence of widespread marijuana use by athletes. He added that the IOC wanted to convey the message that marijuana, as well as other hallucinogenic drugs such as crack-cocaine and heroin, endangered health and threatened sports performance. He noted that the use of marijuana in a sport such as gymnastics could cause loss of balance resulting in pulled hamstrings and other injuries. The marijuana working group is seeking to close existing loopholes by drawing up a new unified doping code to be presented at a meeting of the IOC executive board in Sydney in April, including a ban on marijuana. This would only be effective with the support of the international sports federations who have different rules on different drugs, including marijuana. De merode said he was confident that unanimous support could be achieved. But others within the IOC have suggested that the inclusion of marijuana could threaten the process of obtaining a common approach to performance-enhancing drugs such as steroids and growth hormones.
------------------------------------------------------------------- IOC Divided Over Marijuana Issue ('Reuters' Quotes International Olympic Committee Leaders In Nagano, Japan, Saying They Are Determined To Push For Bans On 'Social' Drugs Such As Marijuana Despite Fears It Might Hamper Progress Of International Campaign Against Performance-Enhancing 'Doping') Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 18:50:22 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Joel W. Johnson) Subject: MN: Japan: WIRE: IOC Divided Over Marijuana Issue Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: "Dick Evans"
Source: Reuters Pubdate: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 IOC DIVIDED OVER MARIJUANA ISSUE NAGANO, Feb 18 (Reuters) - Olympic leaders said on Wednesday they were determined to push for ``social'' drugs like marijuana to be banned despite fears that the initiative might hamper the progress of an important international campaign against doping. Leading International Olympic Committee (IOC) member Kevan Gosper said he supported a proposal by medical chief Prince Alexandre de Merode to put the drugs on the IOC's list of banned substances even though they are not performance-enhancing. Some IOC officials believe the move threatens to hamper key talks this year between the IOC and sports federations about a new medical code aimed at introducing common bans for cheats. Some international federations are against marijuana bans. But IOC executive board member Gosper said: ``If we backed off because of opposition from international federations it would be a sign of weakness. Our job is to set a standard.'' Another IOC official, unwilling to be identified, countered: ``It could cause complications in harmonising the rules. ``The number one goal of the new medical code should be to stop doping. We are against marijuana but it should not be on the list of prohibited substances as a doping agent.'' De Merode made the proposal after the muddled Ross Rebagliati affair involving marijuana at the Nagano Olympics. The Canadian snowboarder was stripped of his gold medal by the IOC after a positive test but won an appeal after skiing officials said they had not asked the IOC to test for marijuana. The IOC presently tests for social drugs only if a federation demands it. De Merode's attempts to toughen the rules have received a mixed reception, however. ``From informal discussions within the IOC I see a tendency for marijuana and other drugs to be banned regardless of the performance-enhancing question,'' Germany's IOC executive board member Thomas Bach said. ``I sense support for this.'' But the other IOC official said: ``This is a health problem. It has nothing to do with doping.''
------------------------------------------------------------------- Rebagliati Warns Kids Against Marijuana ('Vancouver Sun' Quotes 26-Year-Old British Columbian Snowboarder Who Nearly Lost His Olympic Gold Medal After Traces Of Marijuana Were Found In His Urine, Saying He Won't Smoke Pot Again And Warning Children Against Same - Will Leave Issue Of Legalizing Pot Up To Politicians And Won't Tell Adults - Such As His Friends - Whether To Smoke Or Not) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 08:00:43 -0800 From: Matt Elrod
To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Canada: Rebagliati warns kids against marijuana Newshawk: email@example.com Source: Vancouver Sun Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: February 18, 1998 Author: Lori Culbert Vancouver Sun REBAGLIATI WARNS KIDS AGAINST MARIJUANA The Whistler snowboarder, who came home to a hero's welcome Monday night, says he won't smoke pot again. Whistler's snowboarding gold medallist Ross Rebagliati says he won't smoke pot again and warned children against smoking marijuana. "I don't want to see kids think that they could smoke drugs and live a good life," Rebagliati said early today after he arrived late Monday night at Vancouver International Airport. The 26-year-old snowboarder nearly lost his Olympic gold medal last week after traces of marijuana were found in his urine. Rebagliati has said he hasn't smoked since April but that he inhaled second-hand smoke at a recent party. Rebagliati told dozens of reporters from across Canada that he'd leave the issue of legalizing pot up to politicians and wouldn't tell adults -- such as his friends -- whether to smoke or not. He doesn't think the publicity around the issue has hurt him, and maintains Jay Leno invited him on The Tonight Show Monday night because he is the first person to win a gold medal in snowboarding. "I think any press is good press. I think good press is better than bad press, but I don't think this has hurt much," he said. Rebagliati maintains snowboarding was ready to become a full-fledged Olympic sport without having a demonstration period. However, he said he was not warned by officials that second-hand smoke is dangerous. Rebagliati has hired an agent and has heard from companies, such as Nike, that want him to endorse their products. There have even been acting offers. So far he hasn't agreed to anything, he said. "Everybody's interested," said the boarder who had no sponsors when he left for Nagano. Today he heads to his hometown of Whistler for a massive celebration, which is expected to attract as many as 5,000 people. His goal for later this year is to win the World Cup title in snowboarding. Rebagliati's mother, Lynda Partone, greeted her son at the airport. The jubilant mother said she never lost faith that her son would keep his medal, but added if Rebagliati knew the danger of second-hand smoke he would have taken extra precautions. "Next time [athletes] go to the Olympics I hope they all know the rules and dangers of second-hand smoke," Partone said, adding that she knew -- but didn't approve -- that her son smoked pot until last April. Dozens of Canadian flag-waving fans came to the airport to greet the new hero. Monica Walker, 19, of West Vancouver said Rebagliati is a role model for any Canadian. "Marijuana, which is not a performance-enhancing drug, shouldn't have been an issue," she said.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Re - Rebagliati Disgraces Medal (Letter To Editor Of 'Ottawa Sun' Expresses Disgust At Narrow-Minded, Ignorant Columnist Deeming Olympic Snowboarder Who Tested Positive For Pot A 'Shameless Yobbo In A Joke Sport') Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 08:01:59 -0800 From: Matt Elrod
To: email@example.com Subject: LTE: RE "REBAGLIATI disgraces medal Source: Ottawa Sun Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: February 18, 1998 RE "REBAGLIATI disgraces medal," by Earl McRae (Feb. 14): I felt compelled to express my utter disgust at this narrow-minded, ignorant clap-trap. The marijuana debate is older than I can remember, and all the things that could be said, have been. For the record, I am in favor of legalising marijuana. I have never smoked it personally, but I know people who do, and this obviously makes me as much a degenerate as they are in Mr. McRae's eyes. My biggest outrage comes from Mr. McRae's deeming of Ross Rebagliati as a "shameless yobbo in a joke 'sport.' " How dare Mr. McRae imply anything of this kind from this incident. There is absolutely nothing to indicate that Ross is anything other than a typical young man. Yes, he either broke the law himself, or was with people who did, but the next time Mr. McRae drives home at 51km/h, in a 50 zone, will this make him a yobbo? And to deem snowboarding a "joke" sport? I would be interested to know when Mr. McRae last snowboarded? And if, as I suspect, he never has, then how dare he condemn it. I fail to see why skiing is a sport, and ice dancing is a sport, and curling is a sport, but snowboarding is not. The dictionary defines sport as: 1) An athletic activity. 2) Any game or pastime. It seems to me that this clearly covers snowboarding, and perhaps the Sun should ensure that its writers can not only write clearly and coherently but can also read the dictionary. Joanna Caldwell Petawawa
------------------------------------------------------------------- My Favourite Letter (List Subscriber Passes Along Letter From Ninth-Grade Student To 'Toronto Sun' Regarding Olympic Snowboarder And Cannabis Consumer Who Won Gold Medal) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 11:19:43 -0500 (EST) From: "Kelly T. Conlon"
To: email@example.com Subject: My favourite letter Published in the Toronto Sun, 18th Feb. 1998; THE CONTROVERSY over an Olympic athlete with minute amounts of marijuana in his system being a possible bad example for youth is minor in comparison to the example set by Sen. Andrew Thompson. As a young person I have always been told that by attending school regularly and maintaining my integrity I might be able to attain a good life. Sen. Thompson, a member of one of our country's most important institutions (one we are studying in Grade 9), mocks the good intentions of hard-working youth by missing 449 of 461 Senate sessions while collecting an annual salary of $75,000. I used to want to grow up to be an Olympic athlete but perhaps if I take Thompson's example I might try for the easy life in the Senate! Lee Wakelin
------------------------------------------------------------------- Rebagliati On Jay Leno (List Subscriber Posts Synopsis Of Appearances On 'Jay Leno' And "Conan O'Brien' Television Talk Shows By Olympic Snowboarder Whose Gold Medal Was Almost Stripped Due To Positive Urine Test For Cannabis) Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 02:13:25 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Chris Clay
Subject: Re: Rebagliati on Jay Leno At 11:09 AM 2/17/98 -0500, Kelly T. Conlon wrote: >Talkers, > >Did anyone happen to catch Ross Rebagliati on Jay Leno last night? I saw a >short clip this morning of his appearence on CBC Newsworld. > >This is quickly becoming one major PR fiasco for the prohibitionists. Someone wrote a review on another list I'm on... See below. - Chris >Did anyone catch Ross Rebagliati on Jay Leno last night? Yes, he was very charming, and politely explained his saga. He mentioned that a member of the French royal family, who is head of the 25-member IOC medical board, was very helpful. He said that he had not smoked marijuana since April 1997. Leno congratulated him for his honesty. The requisite anti-drug "what have you learned from this" question was answered in characteristic vagueness. "You make choices in life...some are good, some are bad...situations can come up...you will have to deal with it." In other words, be careful, you may be caught someday. He was expecting 20,000 people at a welcome home parade in today his hometown of Whistler, BC, pop. 6500. Leno got a laugh with his Ross Nickelbagliatti joke, but did a lousy job at the "Clinton smoked but didn't inhale, you inhaled but didn't smoke" joke. He came out in his letterman jacket, showed the medal. Bagliatti said his reaction to finding out he tested positive, was, "Holy smokes, this isn't good." Holy smoke?" Leno said. RR: "The last time I smoked was April 1997 (giggles from the audience) JL: No no I think you're being very honest--so you had smoked but.. RR: Yeah, I'm not here to hide anything. That's the fact. I stopped. There's rules, and you've got to follow the rules, and I'm all over that. Leno asked how much marijuana they had found in his system, and Rebagliati replied, a billionth of a gram. Leno Turns to his band leader and asks, "Kev, how much is a billionth of a gram going for? Kev (laughs) "not much, Jay". He reiterated being exposed to second hand smoke in Whistler. Leno replied, "So unlike Clinton, you inhaled and didn't smoke, he smoked and didn't inhale (laughter and applause) Leno reiterated: "I admire your honesty. You said you smoked as a young man, you put it away becuase of the Olympics." Rebagliati said wen he got the news that he would keep the medal it was 6:30 at night at a Japanese police station after 7 hours of interrogation ("they wanted to know what's the deal") Prince Samaron (sp?) head of the medical commission voted for him from the beginning. The fact that it's not a stimulant or a performance enhancer was mentioned. RR: "You have a life to live. You have to live with the consequences. Some things are going to come about that you don't expect and you have to deal with that later.. . .I wouldn't have given it back. It's a great victory for human rights, as well as dispelling forever the myth that marijuana smokers are dysfunctional. (Anyone who disagrees can challenge Ross to a run down the hill.) Much funnier was Conan O'Brien's "Tokey the Anti-Drug Bong" Tokey's my name and hating drugs is my game. Kids, don't smoke marijuana it causes memory loss, impotence (ooh), delayed reaction time, and marijuana can lead to harder drugs. ... (Conan asks what the smoke is) that's my sweet, sweet marijuana smoke. I mean I'm a bong, it happens, it's natural.. . I might be giving the kids a mixed message... Man, it does smell good. (laughter) HEMP NATION http://www.hempnation.com/
------------------------------------------------------------------- Howard Under Fire Over Plans For Police ('Canberra Times' Says Australian Prime Minister John Howard's Promise To Review Funding For Federal Police Is Too Slow For Critics, Who Want Immediate Action, Saying Federal Government Cut Funding For Law Enforcement By $110 Million, $44 Million In Last Budget, Reducing Spending On Drug Interdiction To Extent That Some Ports Have No Customs Presence At Night) Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 20:08:25 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Joel W. Johnson) Subject: MN: Australia: Howard Under Fire Over Plans For Police Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: "Russell, Ken KW"
Source: Canberra Times Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/ Pubdate: Wed 18 Feb 1998 Author: Peter Clack HOWARD UNDER FIRE OVER PLANS FOR POLICE A promise yesterday by Prime Minister John Howard to review funding for the Australian Federal Police was met by a barrage of doubts and criticism from NSW Premier Bob Carr, the Opposition and from the AFP Association. Mr Howard told yesterday's opening of the 15th Asian Regional Conference of Interpol in Canberra of his plans to appoint an independent expert to assess the AFP's resourcing needs. The report would be made within four months and lead to a new budget charter for the AFP. Mr Howard acknowledged a need for extra funds for the AFP in the short term. But Mr Carr said the Federal Government had slashed funding for law enforcement by $110 million, $44 million of it in the last federal Budget. "I've got increased police numbers on the streets of Sydney but there's an avalanche of heroin and cocaine coming into this country and the Federal Government has actually reduced spending on the interception of hard drugs," Mr Carr said. Some of the state's ports had no customs presence at night, which was Mr Howard's fault, he said. The AFPA's chief executive officer, Luke Cornelius, said the AFP was in crisis, struggling with a shortfall so far this financial year of $18.1 million. Mr Cornelius said $9 million would have to go on a 'corporate credit card' to be paid out of next year's funding. The association wanted to know when the report would lead to actual funds for the AFP. The association had estimated last year that successive federal governments had seriously eroded the AFP's ability to do its job, by costing up to 750 federal agents their jobs in 10 years. Shadow attorney-general Nick Bolkus said having an independent review of the AFP was "a massive failure of leadership". "I challenge Mr Howard to go and explain to the parents of the kids who are now shooting up on heroin, taking designer drugs like ice, and dying in our streets that, after two years of budget cuts, this is the best he can come up with," he said. Mr Bolkus said the review was a vote of no confidence in AFP Commissioner Mick Palmer, who was regarded as Australia's finest law-enforcement officer. Mr Howard told the police from 34 countries, in Interpol's 75th year, of how 'in recent times' some Australian police services had come in for criticism. "Despite the misdeeds of some who have brought opprobrium on the ranks of their colleagues I know the majority . . . are dedicated, hard working and honest Australians . . ." he said. He applauded Mr Palmer for his three-year appointment last year as the delegate for Asia on the 13-member executive committee. He thanked the AFP and all Australian police officers for the contribution they had made to maintain society and national security. He said transnational crime was a serious issue and the production of illicit drugs was increasingly costly, now estimated at $US300 billion to $US500 billion ($A454 million-$A757 million) a year. There were 634 heroin-related deaths in Australia in 1996 and illicit drugs were now linked to 40,000 hospital bed days a year. Spending on illicit drugs now amounted to $7 billion a year. "More than those statistics, however, the drug problem is about real people with broken lives and broken homes," Mr Howard said. "It's about families who want so much to care and face terrible odds in trying to do so."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Prime Minister's 'Expert' Plan Of Action For War On Drugs ('Sydney Morning Herald' Says Howard Announced Yesterday An 'Independent Expert' Will Examine Cash-Strapped Australian Federal Police - AFP - And Develop Plan To Equip It To Fight Booming Drug Trafficking And Global Crime Networks - Customs Will Not Be Part Of Review, Due To Large Funding Increases Last Year) Date: Tue, 17 Feb 1998 23:33:03 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: Australia: PM's 'Expert' Plan Of Action For War On Drugs Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Ken Russell Pubdate: Wed 18 Feb 1998 Source: Sydney Morning Herald Author: Tom Allard and David Humphries Contact: letters@smh/com.au Website: http://www.smh.com.au/ PM'S "EXPERT" PLAN OF ACTION FOR WAR ON DRUGS An "independent expert" will examine the cash-strapped Australian Federal Police (AFP) and develop a plan to equip it to fight booming drug trafficking and global crime networks, the Prime Minister announced yesterday. But Customs will not be part of the review, despite claims that budget cuts have seen a dramatic reduction in its ability to stop illegal drugs entering Australia. The Premier, Mr Carr, claimed this week that only 2 per cent of flights to Australia were checked by Customs and many ports in NSW had no Customs presence at night or during weekends. In an address to an Interpol conference yesterday, Mr Howard flagged an immediate injection of funds to boost the AFP's resources before the independent expert delivers a report on longer-term funding needs "within three to four months". Funding has run down so low in the AFP that officers have been asked to delay purchases and pay for them on credit card so the expense can be pushed through to the 1998-99 financial year. The AFP Commissioner, Mr Mick Palmer, has asked for a prompt injection of money to combat the crisis and Mr Howard said an unspecified amount would be handed over "shortly". "Australia deserves a Commonwealth law enforcement agency that is second to none in the world," Mr Howard said. "A reform process to enable the AFP to develop into such an agency is under way but it will not succeed unless resourcing decisions are geared to the vision we have for the AFP." The Australian Federal Police Association, which has run a vocal campaign to boost AFP funding, applauded the Prime Minister's initiative. But it warned that the timetable for the independent expert's review meant that any boost to funding would miss the cut-off for the 1998-99 Budget, to be delivered in May. The Customs Officers' Association (COA) is also complaining about the effect of budget cuts and reduced manpower at ports and airports. It says only three in every 10,000 containers is scrutinised at ports. Customs received the bulk of a $44 million increase in funding in the Federal Government's "Tough on Drugs" initiative late last year. That came on top of an $18.3 million increase in the last Budget. But the COA and the Federal Opposition said the additional funds were inadequate to maintain proper manning levels at Australia's ports of entry. "As a result of Mr Howard's budget cuts to the AFP and Customs we now have more people in Darwin checking to see that fruit flies don't leave that city than we do have people intercepting drugs at the wharves," said Labor spokesman Senator Nick Bolkus. "And the fruit fly inspectors are working round the clock, whereas the AFP and Customs officers are forced to work nine to five." A spokeswoman for the Minister for Customs, Mr Truss, said Labor claims that the Customs budget had been cut were simply untrue - funding had increased in every year the Coalition had been in power. As for manning levels at the front line, she said Customs relied more and more on intelligence gathered by the AFP and other sources, rather than routine searches of planes and ships.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Cannabis Campaign - Report Boost For Cannabis (Britain's 'Independent' Notes Battle To Reform Cannabis Laws Carried On By "Independent On Sunday' Has Been Helped By Latest Dutch Usage-Rates Statistics From Centre For Drug Research At The University Of Amsterdam, Showing Decriminalising Marijuana Does Not Lead To Use Of Harder Drugs And That Teenagers And Children Are More Likely To Experiment With Alcohol, Tobacco) Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 21:51:04 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: UK: Cannabis Campaign: Report Boost For Cannabis Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Alan Randell Pubdate: Thu 18 Feb, 1998 Source: Independent, The (UK) Author: Charles Arthur, Science Editor Contact: Email: email@example.com Mail: Independent on Sunday, 1 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5DL England Editor's note: The IoS Cannabis Campaign has web pages at http://www.independent.co.uk/sindypot/index.htm REPORT BOOST FOR CANNABIS Research has established that decriminalising marijuana does not lead to the use of harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin, and that teenagers and children are more likely to experiment with alcohol and tobacco. Long-running surveys carried out in the Netherlands, where marijuana was decriminalised in 1967, have found that even in the age group where cannabis use is highest - those between 20 and 35, of whom 12.5 per cent are "regular" users - only 1.3 per cent had used cocaine in the previous month, with the majority of those being aged over 30. The latest sample of more than 2,000 people in 1994 found that nobody under 20 had ever used heroin, and there were just four people who "regularly" used heroin, all aged between 25 and 50. Cocaine and heroin use are not legal in the Netherlands. The findings, from ongoing surveys carried out over the past 10 years by the Centre for Drug Research at the University of Amsterdam among the city's residents, provide more ammunition for the Independent on Sunday's campaign to decriminalise cannabis in Britain. It also shows that the Government's insistence that decriminalising the drug would be a catastrophe does not stand up to close examination. A leading scientific magazine is expected tomorrow to publish further research which indicates that cannabis has fewer health effects than other legal drugs such as tobacco.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Iranian Police Kill 35 Drug Smugglers ('Reuters' Notes Death Penalty For Drugs Gets Results - One In Sixty To 120 Iranians Said To Be An 'Addict') Date: Thu, 19 Feb 1998 18:32:43 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Joel W. Johnson) Subject: MN: Iran: WIRE: Iranian Police Kill 35 Drug Smugglers Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: David.Hadorn@vuw.ac.nz (David Hadorn) Source: Reuters Pubdate: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 IRANIAN POLICE KILL 35 DRUG SMUGGLERS TEHRAN, Iran -- Iranian police have killed 35 drug smugglers and seized more than a ton of drugs during raids in southern Iran, a newspaper said Wednesday. The evening daily Kayhan said troops and police carried out the raids in remote mountainous areas in Kerman province over the past few days. Brig. Gen. Ali Eashaqi, a local police commander, said his forces would take action against residents who provided the smugglers with food, water, and fuel, it said. Eshaqi said authorities would carry out economic programs in the poor region to create alternative sources of income. Iranian officials say there are half a million drug addicts in the country of 60 million. Local media have put the number at up to one million. Iran is a key transit route for drugs smuggled from Afghanistan and Pakistan, the ``Golden Crescent,'' to Europe and oil-rich Gulf Arab states. -------------------------------------------------------------------
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