------------------------------------------------------------------- Signature Count (Paul Loney, An Attorney And Chief Petitioner For The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act Initiative Petition, Says The Campaign Has Officially Bagged And Tagged 29,050 Signatures Of The 73,261 Needed By July) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 11:20:14 -0700 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Belmont Law Center) Subject: Signature count As of 28 April 1998, we have 29,050 signatures counted and stored. Thanks and Praises. Please gather signatures and turn in the filled sheets that you have. Paul L [http://www.crrh.org/]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Second Drug Case Tied To Israel Dismissed ('The Daily Olympian' Says A Thurston County, Washington Judge Has Thrown Out Charges Against A Second Person Arrested In Connection With Multiple Drug Raids In November Against Rock Festival Promoter Gideon Israel's Mobile Home Property South Of Littlerock - Police Warrants Didn't Cover A Bus On The Property) From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen@Olympia"
To: "Talk" Subject: HT: 2nd drug case tied to Israel dismissed Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 18:47:11 -0700 Sender: email@example.com 2nd drug case tied to Israel dismissed * BUS SEARCH: A judge rules warrants didn't cover a vehicle the woman was inside. April 28, 1998 By Joel Coffidis The Daily Olympian OLYMPIA - A Thurston County judge has thrown out a second case against a person arrested in connection with rock-festival promoter Gideon Israel during multiple drug raids in November. Misdemeanor charges against Becky Ruttle, 42, were dismissed by District Judge Sue Dubuisson after defense attorney Kate Graham argued that search warrants drug detectives used did not cover a bus that Ruttle was inside. Police searched the bus without permission during a raid of Israel's property south of Littlerock, said Graham, Ruttle's court-appointed lawyer. "We showed that the police had exceeded their scope under the search warrant," Graham said Monday. The warrant allowed police to search Israel's mobile home and other buildings belonging to Israel, Graham said. However, Graham said Ruttle and boyfriend Elgin A. Sharpe, 51, made it clear to police that they, not Israel, owned the bus. Ruttle had been charged with possessing less than 40 grams of marijuana and possessing drug paraphernalia, both misdemeanors. Last Wednesday, District Judge Kip Stilz dismissed the same charges against Sharpe after prosecutors failed to turn over a search-warrant affidavit to Sharpe's defense lawyer, Jody Backlund. Jim Powers, county chief deputy prosecutor, said his office will appeal Dubuisson's ruling. The warrant refers to buses or cars parked on Israel's property, Powers said. As a result, the couple's bus was subject to a search, he said. Israel and six other co-defendants face a June 29 trial on felony charges stemming from the raids. Israel, 49, is accused of using music festivals on his property as a front for an organized drug-dealing network. Tami Perdue, a King County deputy prosecutor called in to handle the felony cases, was not available for comment Monday on the possible effect of the recent dismissals on the felony cases. Israel, who asserts the government is illegally trying to silence him by confiscating his land, said he think rulings are an omen. "The way they opera going to be exposed tremendously," Israel said. "This thing could come around and bite them in the butt." Joel Coffidis covers courts for The Olympian. He can be reached at 754-5447.
------------------------------------------------------------------- San Francisco Marijuana Club Under New Legal Attack ('Reuters' Says California Attorney General Dan Lungren Asked Today For A New Restraining Order Against The San Francisco Medical Marijuana Dispensary That Sidestepped An Order Earlier This Month Shutting It Down) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 01:51:06 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US CA: Wire: SF Marijuana Club Under New Legal Attack Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: David.Hadorn@vuw.ac.nz (David Hadorn) Source: Reuters Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 S.F. MARIJUANA CLUB UNDER NEW LEGAL ATTACK SAN FRANCISCO -- The San Francisco medical marijuana club that earlier this month sidestepped an order to shut down faced new legal problems Tuesday as a judge considered whether to hit it with a fresh restraining order. Superior Court Judge William Cahill said he would rule Wednesday on whether the San Francisco Cannabis Healing Center, now headed by 79-year-old grandmother Hazel Rodgers, would have to cease operations. State Attorney General Dan Lungren asked for the temporary restraining order after the club circumvented an earlier order to close by shutting its doors for a day and then reopening under a different name. ``It is continuing the legacy of an outlaw operation,'' said Rob Stutzman, a Lungren spokesman. ``Just because they changed the name on the door doesn't change the fact that they are violating California law.'' Rodgers, who uses marijuana to treat her glaucoma, was named to head the new organization, replacing longtime chief Denis Peron, who has been engaged in a long struggle with Lungren over the interpretation of California's 1996 law legalizing the medical use of marijuana. The law, approved by 56 percent of the state's voters, allows marijuana to be used on a doctor's advice for treating the symptoms of AIDS, cancer, and other serious diseases. But state and federal authorities have raised legal objections to the clubs that distribute the drug, saying many of them are overstepping the limits of the law and selling pot to the public at large. Earlier this month, Judge David Garcia ordered Peron to close his Cannabis Cultivators Club after he determined that the organization was selling marijuana to healthy ``caregivers'' rather than to the patients themselves. Peron agreed to close, but arranged for the new Healing Center to take over in the same premises the following day, with Rodgers at the helm, at least on paper. ``It is going to be a tragedy for some people,'' Rodgers said of official efforts to close the club. ``They use marijuana to help stay alive.'' California courts have already ruled that the 20-odd marijuana clubs around the state are illegal because they are not ``primary caregivers'' to their members -- a condition set by the state law. The Justice Department has also taken the clubs before a federal judge, demanding that they be closed for violation of federal drug laws. But the clubs have won strong support from local officials, who say the federal government should respect the will of California's voters and allow local governments time to develop a system to monitor club operations. San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown and city District Attorney Terence Hallinan have been particularly strong supporters, going as far as to suggest the city itself could step in to supply marijuana to patients if the clubs are forced to close.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Candidates Are Using The Internet To Plug Into . . . A Wired Electorate ('San Jose Mercury News' Says With More Than Four In 10 Californians Already Plugged Into The Internet, Cyber-Technology Is Reshaping The Electoral Process) Date: Thu, 30 Apr 1998 21:16:12 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Mike Gogulski
Subject: MN: US CA: Candidates are using the Internet to plug into ... A WIRED ELECTORATE Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/ Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Author: Philip J. Trounstine, Mercury News Political Editor CANDIDATES ARE USING THE INTERNET TO PLUG INTO ... A WIRED ELECTORATE Digital citizens' use of technology is having the Net effect of changing politics, bit by bit Californians who are plugged into the Internet -- already more than four in 10 registered voters -- are enjoying an unprecedented explosion of information sources this year as cyber-technology helps to reshape the electoral process. With the extraordinary proliferation of sites on the World Wide Web, Net-savvy voters now can study candidates' stands and ballot propositions, volunteer time and support, follow campaign reporting and analysis, watch television commercials and hear speeches. At the same time, some campaigns are beginning to use the Web to communicate with voters directly by e-mail and offering political surfers the opportunity to register to vote or obtain an absentee ballot. No one is predicting that the exponential increase in the political use of the Net will have a pivotal impact on outcomes in the 1998 elections. But the changes the Internet is effecting -- on voters and campaigns alike -- are widely seen as long-lasting and profound. ``It's an empowering tool,'' said Kim Alexander, director of the California Voter Foundation (www.calvoter.org), one of the first and most comprehensive election sites on the Web. ``It's giving voters a choice. They can say `No' to the TV ads and the direct mail. They can go on the Internet and get information from a variety of sources,'' she said. ``I think that's revolutionary.'' According to Jack Kavanaugh, publisher of Rough and Tumble (www.rtumble.com), one of the most informative free online political sites, candidates who fail to click with Net-smart voters run the risk of appearing out of touch. ``If you have a dorky Web site and you're running for major political office, you have an image problem,'' he said. ``If you have an engaging Web site, that will indicate you are someone who should really be looked at.'' To be sure, all Web sites are not created equal. Some -- like attorney general candidate Bill Lockyer's site (www.lockyerforag.com) -- are nothing more than e-mail links. Others -- like U.S. Sen. Barbara Boxer's (www.boxer98.org), with order blanks for ``Boxerware'' clothing and other items, contribution templates, up-to-date-news and more -- are Java-enriched full-tilt-boogie destinations. ``Everybody knows they have to be there, but nobody knows the full impact they can have with this new technology,'' said Leslie Goodman, of Strategic Communications Services, publisher of political access (www.politicalaccess.com), one of the most useful political link sites. In addition to the California Voter Foundation, Rough and Tumble and political access, Secretary of State Bill Jones' official site (www.ss.ca.gov) offers a treasure trove of free political information, including an online ballot pamphlet, voting and registration statistics, campaign finance data and even live election results. So dedicated to using the Internet is Jones that he assigned a team of Web masters to teach nearly two dozen staff members in his office how to design Web pages. Tremendous tool And for true political devotees -- willing to pay significant fees -- McClatchy Newspapers' Capitol Alert (www.capitolalert.com) and the National Journal's Hotline (www.cloakroom.com/pubs/hotline) are extensive. Online voters are finding the Internet a tremendous tool. ``It's phenomenal,'' said Lori Christian of Manhattan Beach, who joined Democrat Jane Harman's campaign (www.janeharmanforgovernor.com) after hooking up by e-mail. ``From an information standpoint, you can get all the detail you need, you can find out positions on issues and you can correspond without taking up too much time.'' Christian, 38, Mac user and mother of two with one on the way, is one of those whom Jon Katz described in Wired Magazine (www.hotwired.com/special/citizen) as ``digital citizens (who) embrace rationalism, revere civil liberties and free-market economics and gravitate toward a moderated form of libertarianism.'' According to a recent survey of California by the Field Poll, 42 percent of the state's 14.3 million registered voters use e-mail. Moreover, Field Poll director Mark DiCamillo estimates about three-fourths of e-mail users are registered to vote. These digital citizens -- 77 percent of them white -- are a distinct group. While 47 percent of California voters are registered Democrats and 37 percent are Republicans, Field's e-mail voters are equally divided at 41 percent each. More liberals online Ideologically, however, they are less conservative than their non-Net-savvy counterparts. Nearly half the offline voters say they're conservative, 40 percent say they're middle-of-the-road and only 12 percent call themselves liberal, according to the Field Poll. Among online voters, 28 percent say they're conservative, 48 percent say they're middle-of-the-road and 24 percent say they are liberal. Online voters are younger, more affluent, more educated and weighted with males. According to DiCamillo, they're also more likely to read newspapers and less likely to get their news from television than their non-Net counterparts. They're less partisan, less ideological and more independent than their offline counterparts. Interestingly, the latest Field Poll found that among all likely voters, Attorney General Dan Lungren was leading the pack with 24 percent of the vote, followed by Harman at 17 percent, airline tycoon Al Checchi at 15 percent and Lt. Gov. Gray Davis at 11 percent. But among online voters, Lungren dropped to 20 percent, Harman rose to 19 percent while Checchi and Davis were tied at 10 percent. ``They're not like the rest of the public,'' said DiCamillo of the upscale voters who are digital citizens. Connecting with these digital citizens is virtually uncharted territory in political campaigns. One approach being pioneered this political season is ``e-slate,'' a classic slate mailer that will be sent by e-mail to hundreds of thousands of online voters who, by giving their e-mail addresses to a variety of political sites, are seen as open to receiving political e-mail. Robert Barnes of San Francisco's Informed Voter has signed up several Democratic candidates, including Harman, Cruz Bustamante, Lockyer, Kathleen Connell, Phil Angelides and Delaine Eastin. May reach 1 million ``We don't consider it spam,'' Barnes said. ``We're not selling products or asking for money.'' The mailers will include absentee ballots, polling place locations and information about the candidates who have paid to be a part of the slate mailer, he said. The database, under construction now, may reach 1 million voters ``who have publicly put out their e-mail addresses.'' Lt. Gov. Gray Davis' campaign manager, Garry South, argues that while the Web is a tool to augment campaign communications, ``I think you can overstate the case. I just don't think in the final analysis elections are going to be won or lost based upon who has the best Web site or who gets the most hits on their Web site.'' While Harman, Davis (www.gray-davis.com), Atty. Gen. Dan Lungren (www.lungrenforgovernor.org) and Checchi (www.alchecchi.com) all display favorably selected news stories about themselves on their sites, only Checchi includes negative stories about his opponents. On the other hand, Checchi's site includes a vast array of policy papers on issues, while Harman's offers Real Video versions of her campaign commercials but far less by way of substantive positions. Thus far, only Boxer's site provides visitors a means for making online contributions using a credit card, a feat that requires expensive, secure e-trade technology. Even local candidates have jumped onto the Net. In San Jose's mayoral contest, all three major candidates -- Ron Gonzales, Pat Dando and Kathy Chavez Napoli -- have Web pages (www.rongonzales98.com, www.dandoformayor.com and www.napoliformayor.com). Dando offers campaign statements in English, Spanish and Vietnamese. Napoli's, however, is under construction. For Net surfers in search of impartial information, Rough and Tumble -- which its creator, veteran TV journalist Jack Kavanaugh, bills as ``a daily drive-by on California politics'' -- offers links to important news stories and commentary, most California newspapers, national publications, public interest groups and various official sites. Likewise, politicalaccess provides a vast array of links to media, political organizations, election sites, government agencies and subscription services. ``This site is designed for the press corps covering California elections and consultants attempting to `Wag the Dog, '' Goodman advises on her home page. But the site is a gold mine. For those with the resources -- political professionals, newspapers, lobbyists and legislators -- the Sacramento Bee's Capitol Alert, which charges $300 a year, provides unmatched services such as legislative bill tracking, attorney general's opinions, expert commentary and digests on virtually every state and federal contest in California. The Los Angeles Times and KMEX-TV have created ``Power of the Vote'' (www.latimes.com/HOME/NEWS/POLITICS/KMEXVOTE) as a non-partisan guide to political participation, including useful information on how to register to vote and report irregularities. Uniquely, the site offers information in Spanish and English. To date, candidates who have unleashed negative attacks on one another on television have yet to go negative on the Web. Some political specialists, however, expect that sooner or later the limits of propriety will be tested on the Internet. ``One of the key calculations candidates should be making is how to talk to people who are listening,'' said Goodman. ``But if people think the Internet's best use is to slime voters with negative attack messages, they're missing the point. People don't like to sign on and find smut mail.'' Alexander of the California Voter Foundation has high hopes. ``We're estimating that there will be a million Californians surfing the Web for election information this year,'' she said. ``They're more likely to retain information and to share information. It gives us a chance to return to a new style of grass-roots campaigning.''
------------------------------------------------------------------- Bill Is Signed Outlawing `Date Rape Drug' ('Tulsa World' Says Oklahoma House Bill 2654, Introduced By Representative Phil Ostrander, A Democrat From Collinsville, Will Place Gammahydroxybuterate, Also Known As Liquid X, Fantasy, And Grievous Bodily Harm, On The State's List Of Controlled Dangerous Substances - Bill Also Increases Penalties For Other Drug-Law Violations) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 23:35:54 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US OK: Bill Is Signed Outlawing `Date Rape Drug' Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Michael Pearson Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Tulsa World (OK) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.tulsaworld.com Author: World's own Service BILL IS SIGNED OUTLAWING `DATE RAPE DRUG' OKLAHOMA CITY -- A bill to outlaw a so-called ``date rape drug'' has been signed into law. House Bill 2654 by Rep. Phil Ostrander, D-Collinsville, would add gammahydroxybuterate to the state's list of controlled dangerous substances on Nov. 1. The drug is a strong sedative used by some to subdue their victims. Ostrander said the drug, known as ``Liquid X,'' ``Fantasy'' or ``Grievous Bodily Harm,'' is also used by teen-agers for a ``cheap high'' that can result in a fatal overdose. ``I wrote this bill to take a dangerous substance out of the hands of potential rapists and teen-agers who might fall for its deadly allure,'' he said. Other provisions in the new law gives prosecutors more authority to seize drug dealers' property, even if they only pass through the state. It also allows prosecutors to seize property or proceeds from drug transactions, even if the transactions occurred in other states. The bill was passed unanimously by the House and Senate and was signed into law April 13.
------------------------------------------------------------------- New Way To Fight Drugs Needed, Researcher Says ('Saint Paul Pioneer Press' Gives A Weak Account Of A Speech In Minnesota's Twin Cities By Ethan Nadelmann Of The Lindesmith Center In New York City - But Gives More Space To The Local Prosecutor For Him To Urge On The War Against Some Drug Users) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 18:04:55 EDT Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: "MICHAEL C. CLARK"
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: New way to fight drugs needed Saint Paul Pioneer Press Tuesday - April 28, 1998 New way to fight drugs needed, researcher says - U.S. Attorney critical of speaker's proposals Charles Laszewski - Staff Writer Ethan Nadelmann came to the Twin Cities on Monday arguing for more scientific and compassionate ways of combating drug use, but the federal prosecutor refused to let him off easily. U.S Attorney David Lillehaug repeatedly said he was glad to hear Nadelmann no longer was advocating that the right to use drugs was equivalent to the rights of free speech and religion, as he had five years earlier. The debate followed an hour-long speech by Nadelmann, director of the Lindesmith Center, a drug policy research institute in New York City, at the University of Minnesota Law School Monday night. In his speech to about 50 people, Nadelmann ridiculed the drug policy objectives of the United States, which Congress stated in 1988 was to have a drug-free nation by 1995. "Let's abandon that notion," Nadelmann said. "Instead, let's talk about learning how to live with drugs so they can cause the least amount of harm." The government never has looked at whether the tough law enforcement policies against drugs the past 15 years have worked and been cost-effective. He argued that they have not, because effective policy would reduce death, disease, crime, suffering and wouldn't waste money. Instead, in 1980, there was no such thing as crack cocaine. Now it's use and sale is ravaging neighborhoods across the country. It was developed by drug dealers as an easier way to transport and sell cocaine, he said. In 1980, the federal and state governments spent about $3 billion a year on enforcing drug laws. Now that amount is close to $40 billion. In 1980, 50,000 were in prison for breaking drug laws; now about 400,000 are, he said. Nadelmann said he was not arguing for legalizing drugs, except perhaps marijuana, because "I can't guarantee anyone that legalization would be a better world." Instead, Nadelmann said the nation needs harm-reduction policies. That would include much more treatment of drug users, including helping them control their use without necessarily abstaining from drugs. It means needle exchanges, which even the federal government acknowledged last week reduces disease without encouraging drug use, he said. "It should be based on science, common sense, human rights and perhaps a dose of compassion," he concluded. But Lillehaug, who was on a panel to respond to the speech, said Nadelmann had spent nearly all his hour talking about the problems of the current drug policy but little time prescribing cures. In particular, Lillehaug said, federal prosecutors and police are trying to stem the problems from the enormous sale and use of cocaine in the Twin Cities and suburbs and the growing use of methamphetamine in outstate Minnesota. Lillehaug was critical of the fact that Minnesota is 49th in the nation for incarcerating people. Only North Dakota puts fewer people per capita in prison, he said. For drugs, that results in "catch and release," he said - dealers are arrested and only 10 percent go to prison. He agreed that there should be more drug treatment but noted that some studies show treatment in prison can be more effective than voluntary treatment. "I have done a tremendous amount of work in the neighborhoods of Minneapolis that have been wracked by drugs," Lillehaug said. "It is not unanimous, but the strong feeling is that what the dealers are doing is wrong and legalizing and decriminalizing won't help."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Media Criticism Nark Style - Indiana Sheriff's Office Locks Up Reporter Who Had Been Investigating Them ('The Times Of Northwest Indiana' Says The Lake County Sheriff's Department On Friday Arrested A Times Reporter Who Has Been Investigating Allegations Of Corruption And Mismanagement In The Lake County Drug Task Force) Date: Sat, 2 May 1998 13:31:05 -0300 (ADT) Sender: Chris Donald
From: Chris Donald To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Reporter investigating police jailed Source: The Times of Northwest Indiana http://www.TheTimesOnline.com Media Criticism Nark Style: Indiana Sheriff's Office Locks Up Reporter Who Had Been Investigating Them April 28, 1998 Times staffer who has been investigating allegations involving drug task force busted on 4-year-old warrants. BY JOE CARROLL Times Staff Writer CROWN POINT - The Lake County Sheriff's Department arrested a Times reporter Friday who has been investigating allegations of corruption and mismanagement in the Lake County Drug Task Force. Two detectives from the sheriff's internal affairs division arrested Times staff writer Daniel J. Yovich about 1:30 p.m. at The Times' Munster office. Several months ago, Yovich was subjected to a search by sheriff's deputies. Friday's arrest, which followed a series of stories Yovich recently wrote detailing allegations of corruption and misappropriation of resources at the drug task force, was for two misdemeanor warrants dating back as far as 1993. Yovich was released on $2,000 bond about 6 p.m., after attempts by the Lake County prosecutor's office to get him released on his own recognizance failed. Sheriff John Buncich refused to discuss the arrest when approached by a reporter Friday afternoon. "No comment," Buncich said as a secretary pulled the blinds and he walked into a back room in his administrative offices. However, a few hours later, Buncich's public relations chief issued a tersely worded statement that blamed the possible loss of millions of dollars in drug task force grants on The Times, an apparent reference to Yovich's stories. "I have been advised that congressional funding may not be renewed because of negative reporting by The Times," the written statement said. "I, as your sheriff, along with other police chiefs throughout Lake County, will not permit this to happen." The officers who made the arrest - Det. Pat Tracy and Sgt. Robert Joseph - did not return phone calls Friday. Joseph is head of the sheriff's internal affairs division; Tracy works in the same office. Yovich, who joined The Times eight months ago, was arrested on two separate misdemeanor warrants. The first dealt with a probation revocation hearing from August 1993; the second warrant was from an April 1994 hearing on a drunken driving charge. Such warrants are forwarded to the Sheriff's Department's warrants division immediately after they are issued by the courts. That means the warrants against Yovich have been languishing in the Sheriff's Department for at least four years and are among thousands of such warrants that have not been served by the sheriff's department. No one from the warrants division was available to explain why the warrants surfaced at this time or why no attempt was made in the last eight months to arrest Yovich on the numerous occasions he has interviewed the sheriff and other law enforcement officials at the Sheriff's Department offices in Crown Point. In addition, during two separate traffic stops in recent months, police computer checks of Yovich's driver's license showed no outstanding warrants, according to Hammond and Griffith police. "It's been no secret to anyone in the county where they could find me day or night," Yovich said in a statement from the Lake County Jail on Friday afternoon. "I have received no notification from the courts on this matter. I believed the issues had been resolved. Why did this surface today from the Sheriff's Department? "If there are issues that are unresolved, I am not aware of them, but I am eager to learn the details and to resolve them as quickly as possible." Shortly after the sheriff secreted himself in his back office Friday, he summoned the department's public relations officer, Loy Roberson, to meet with him. Roberson told a reporter he would have information on the arrest after the meeting. But when contacted later, Roberson said he knew nothing about the arrest or the charges leading up to it. "They're not here," Roberson said, referring to Buncich and other top aides, "and there is no press release on it." Two months ago, Yovich was searched for a recording device by Sheriff's Department officials when he began writing about problems at the sheriff's drug task force, including an investigator who was arrested by the FBI for allegedly shaking down a drug dealer. The officers who conducted the search indicated they suspected Yovich was providing information to federal investigators, though Buncich later described the incident as a joke among friends. More recently, Yovich's stories have detailed the widening scope of a federal probe into alleged mismanagement and misappropriation of resources at the drug task force, and possible conflicts of interest with those overseeing the operation. "The motives of the Sheriff's Department are highly suspect with Yovich's arrest," Times Executive Editor William Nangle said Friday. "First came the search in the shower stall and now an arrest that may be questionable. It is interesting that the reporter bringing to light allegations of misconduct is arrested by the very department about which he is writing. "If Yovich has a prior legal matter that must be resolved, we will urge - as we would any citizen - that he deal with it as quickly as possible." Yovich, a 36-year-old Hammond resident, was a foreign correspondent for United Press International in Bosnia from January 1994 to June 1996. He then worked for the Daily Southtown in Chicago before coming to work for The Times in August 1997. Copyright The Times of Northwest Indiana.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Alert - Cleveland Needle Exchanger Arrested (Drug Reform Coordination Network's Rapid Response Team Asks You To Write A Letter On Behalf Of The Xchange Point) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 19:52:32 EDT Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: DRCNet (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: ALERT: CLEVELAND NEEDLE EXCHANGER ARRESTED (4/28) *** Drug Reform Coordination Network (DRCNet) Rapid Response Team *** CLEVELAND NEEDLE EXCHANGER ARRESTED (4/28) *** (To sign off this list, mailto:email@example.com with the line "signoff drc-natl" in the body of the message, or mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org for assistance. To subscribe to this list, visit http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html.) REMINDER: Will and Meg Foster on PBS Frontline TONIGHT, 9pm EST -- please copy and distribute -- Last year, DRCNet members wrote to officials and media outlets in the city of Cleveland on behalf of The Xchange Point, a privately funded needle exchange program, which had shut down under threat of prosecution by the city government. The city had issued an emergency order permitting needle exchanges to operate, but then revised it so as to specifically prohibit The Xchange Point, despite efforts by the program to work out mutually acceptable conditions (http://drcnet.org/rapid/1997/1-19-1.html). In May '97, The Xchange Point resumed operations, thanks in part to the many letters from DRCNet members and other supporters (http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1997/5-2-1.html). We have more than four times as many readers now as we did then, and The Xchange Point needs our help again. This morning (4/28), Ken Vail, founder and Executive Director of The Xchange Point, Cleveland's second needle exchange program, was arrested, only two days after returning from the North American Syringe Exchange Convention, where attendees were warmly welcomed by Baltimore's mayor and commissioner of public health. Ken has been charged with an "unclassified misdemeanor," a pretty minor charge, but is being held in jail with bail set at $10,000. His lawyer is working to get him released. Ken was arrested for violating the City's health emergency order on syringe exchange that was revised earlier this year. The revised regulations had asked programs to desist from syringe exchange until they had demonstrated widespread community support through a variety of mechanisms such as community forums. Ken has been working on increasing the community support but has been vocal in criticizing the desist component of the order. A warrant was issued for his arrest, and he turned himself in this morning. The city's action threatens to increase the spread of drug- related HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and other diseases. The timing of the arrest, and the unusually high bond for an offense that would typically carry no bond, raises the suspicion that the arrest was politically motivated -- not only, perhaps, as individual retaliation against Ken Vail, but as a backlash against the headway that needle exchange has made during the last several days: Eight days ago the Secretary of Health & Human Services endorsed needle exchange in principle for the first time, and three days ago several members of the Congressional Black Caucus called for drug czar Barry McCaffrey's resignation because of his covert maneuvering to undermine other members of the Clinton administration who support needle exchange (more about that in the next Week Online). Letters and phone calls are urgently needed to get Ken Vail released and the program reopened. Please express your outrage politely, and don't forget that we are on the winning side on this issue. (And don't forget to send us copies of your letters or notes about your phone calls.) CALL THE FOLLOWING PUBLIC OFFICIALS: Mayor Michael R. White: (216) 664-2000 (switchboard open from 8:30am-4:30pm EST) via fax: (216) 664-2815 via mail: City of Cleveland City Hall 601 Lakeside Avenue Cleveland, OH 44114 Public Health Director Robert O. Staib: (216) 664-4370 via fax: (216) 664-2197 via mail: City of Cleveland 1925 St. Clair Avenue Cleveland, OH 44114 City AIDS Czar Bob Bucklew: (216) 420-8504 SEND LETTERS TO THE EDITOR AND ENCOURAGE THE MEDIA TO COVER THE STORY: The Plain Dealer 1801 Superior Avenue Cleveland, OH 44114 Fax: (216) 999-6209 E-mail: email@example.com For the extra motivated: The Free Times 1846 Coventry Road, Suite 100 Cleveland, OH 44118 Fax: (216) 321-3685 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Gay People's Chronicle P.O. Box 5426 Cleveland, OH 44101 Fax: (216) 631-1082 E-mail: email@example.com *** DRCNet needs your support! Donations can be sent to 2000 P St., NW, Suite 615, Washington, DC 20036, or made by credit card at http://www.drcnet.org/drcreg.html on the web. *** DRCNet *** JOIN/MAKE A DONATION http://www.drcnet.org/drcreg.html DRUG POLICY LIBRARY http://www.druglibrary.org/ REFORMER'S CALENDAR http://www.drcnet.org/calendar.html SUBSCRIBE TO THIS LIST http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html DRCNet HOME PAGE http://www.drcnet.org/ STOP THE DRUG WAR SITE http://www.stopthedrugwar.org/
------------------------------------------------------------------- Blowing Smoke (Staff Editorial In 'New York Times' Pans The New Statewide $150,000 Television Anti-Smoking Ad Starring New York Attorney General Dennis Vacco Lecturing About The Perils Of Teen-Agers Smoking) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 19:53:10 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Mike Gogulski
Subject: MN: US NYT: Editorial: Blowing Smoke Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org Source: New York Times (NY) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.nytimes.com/ Pubdate: April 28, 1998 EDITORIAL: BLOWING SMOKE It is hard not to fume about Attorney General Dennis Vacco's starring role in anti-smoking ads now airing around New York State. The ads feature Mr. Vacco lecturing about the perils of teen-agers smoking. While they may be good for Mr. Vacco, who is running for re-election, most experts on teen-age smoking believe that the last thing we need is some adult, particularly a politician, lecturing on why tobacco is bad. What makes this particularly distressing is that the $150,000 for this campaign comes from state funds that were supposed to use the "most current research" in getting young people's attention about how cool tobacco isn't. Experts deem pronouncements like Mr. Vacco's among the least effective approaches. That is why these spots, and his commandeering of the funds, have drawn the opposition of The American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association and other anti-smoking organizations. The Vacco ads are particularly galling because the Attorney General was a late convert in the states' lawsuit against the tobacco industry. Only two years ago he suggested that such an action would be like filing a complaint against the dairy industry to get money for treating people with high cholesterol. For all practical purposes, Mr. Vacco's public-service ads are aimed not so much at teen-agers as at his own potential voters. The ads should be pulled from the air and paid for out of Mr. Vacco's campaign funds. Copyright 1998 The New York Times Company
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drug Stings At High Schools Waste Tax Dollars (Letter To The Editor Of 'The Sun' In Baltimore, Maryland, Says The Tactic Of Using Undercover Cops To Pose As Students Invariably Involves Entrapment, Wasted Resources) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 13:25:18 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US MD: PUB LTE: Drug Stings At High Schools Waste Tax Dollars Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Rob Ryan Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: The Sun (Baltimore, Md) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website : http://www.baltimoresun.com DRUG STINGS AT HIGH SCHOOLS WASTE TAX DOLLARS As the father of a student who was arrested in a similar high school sting many years ago, I feel compelled to speak out about the undercover cadet program ("12 students arrested in drug investigation at three high schools," April 17). This entrapment program has been allowed to continue for years and is a self-fulfilling police program. The cadets are placed in the school, befriend targeted students, badger them to get drugs and then bust them before graduation. Just look at the numbers: Very few kids were caught after a seven-month investigation, just as in previous years. Twelve students in three high schools after seven months seems like a waste of taxpayer money. Once again, no drug lords are exposed, no drug rings are discovered, and the lives of 12 students and their parents will be put through holy hell in our judicial system, while families spend thousands of dollars to defend their children. Go catch real criminals with our tax money and leave our teen-agers alone. Harvey Woolf
------------------------------------------------------------------- Message On Marijuana Gets Through To Reader (Funny Letter To The Editor Of 'The Sun' In Baltimore, Maryland, Responds To The Drug Czar's Ad Campaign) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 13:30:33 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US MD: PUB LTE: Message On Marijuana Gets Through To Reader Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Rob Ryan Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: The Sun (Baltimore, MD) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.baltimoresun.com MESSAGE ON MARIJUANA GETS THROUGH TO READER I was very impressed with the full-page ad equating marijuana with poison ivy, which the Office of National Drug Control Policy recently ran in several newspapers. The ads may have cost the taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars, but it sure persuaded me never to smoke poison ivy. A. Robert Kaufman
------------------------------------------------------------------- Busted - America's War On Marijuana (Transcript Of Public Broadcasting Service's Television Special About The War On Some Drug Users) Fri, 29 May 1998 11:16:38 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 29 May 1998 03:30:40 -0700 (PDT) To: email@example.com Subject: PBS on pot Take a look http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/dope Rastamon FRONTLINE Show #1615 Air date: April 28, 1998 Busted: America's War on Marijuana Written and Produced by Elena Mannes INDIANA ARCHITECT: My concept of the penalties, the whole time I was involved with growing marijuana, was, you know, "Gosh, I could get caught and spend a year in prison." I mean, we were particularly naive about what the final result could be. [Busted - Federal sentence: 20 years] CRAIG RALSTIN, Indiana State Police: There are people that are growing it for money, but they're criminals just like any other criminal. WILL FOSTER: I lived a pretty decent life. I worked every day. I paid my taxes. You know, I didn't go out and hurt nobody. I didn't rob nobody. I didn't know that cultivation carried 2 to life, no. [Busted - State sentence: 93 years] ANDREA STRONG: They said, "Well he can't have bond. He's facing a life sentence." And my mom says, "Well who did he kill?" You know, "Did he rape somebody? Did he molest some child? What did he do?" He was accused of being the middleman in a marijuana conspiracy. He connected the buyer and the grower. [Busted - Life sentence, Leavenworth] STEVE WHITE: I think it's a dangerous drug. I don't think it does any good, period. 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Chimney on this house here. You can see a little bit of heat coming out of it, a little animal standing there in the back yard. NARRATOR: In the night sky over Indianapolis, the hunt is on: drug enforcement agents scanning a neighborhood for evidence of marijuana. 2nd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Hello! 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: That don't look quite right. Yeah, a patio, patio door, window. Window's been covered over. Looks a little odd. NARRATOR: The infrared camera could reveal a marijuana-growing operation inside any one of these houses. Infrared detects heat, which can indicate a "grow room" using a lot of lights. 2nd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: The foundation certainly is warm. 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: That's what I was going to say. That foundation's hotter than fire. 2nd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Yeah. 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: That's the only thing I see real unusual. NARRATOR: This kind of marijuana search is happening all over America. The war on marijuana has become a battle fought not only overseas, but on home turf. 3rd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: We've got a search warrant. The targets are two white males- STEVE WHITE: This is a law-and-order part of the country. Law enforcement's held in probably higher esteem here than any place I've ever been. NARRATOR: For many years, Steve White ran Indiana's war on marijuana as an agent with the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration. The DEA is spending over $13 million a year to fund state cannabis eradication programs. STEVE WHITE: We were one of the first 20 states to do it, and there hadn't been an organized effort, I don't think, against marijuana in the U.S. since the late 1930s. NARRATOR: White recently retired from active duty with the DEA and now teaches undercover police techniques. He went along with us on a typical arrest to show us the world of marijuana law enforcement. 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Search warrant! Please open the door. 2nd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: I'll get this side door here. 1st DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Police! Search warrant! 2nd DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be [unintelligible] for you. You understand you're under arrest? SUSPECT: Yes, sir. NARRATOR: For this arrest in Bloomington, Indiana, an informant had tipped agents off to an indoor marijuana grow room. It was allegedly run by a business school student and his roommate in the back of their house. STEVE WHITE: This is their growing room, and the first thing that you can see on these plants is that they've been topped, or the flowering tops, in other words, have been pruned off the colis of the plant. This is fairly typical. They've got three lights here, the smaller plants over there, larger ones coming up here. I think a lot of people that grow actually grow so that they don't have to go out and buy dope. But the down side and reverse side of that is, some time along the line, they say, "Gee, I've spent this much on equipment and this much on fertilizer. Why don't I grow a little more and sell it and pay for that?" And then that's when they come into my clutches. [to suspect] Would you hazard a guess as to what a pound of that stuff would be worth on the market? SUSPECT: I wouldn't know. STEVE WHITE: If I said $2,000 to $5,000, could that be in the range? SUSPECT: That would be about right, I guess- guessing. NARRATOR: This suspect was one of about 3,000 people arrested for marijuana offenses in Indiana last year. The state's cannabis eradication program now makes more marijuana arrests than any state in the nation. During the summer and early fall, when the corn is high, the drug enforcement team heads out to make its own harvest. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: I think we may have some [unintelligible] marijuana plants back in the center of this cornfield. NARRATOR: Any one of these corn rows may hide thousands of dollars worth of marijuana. CRAIG RALSTIN, Indiana State Police: I've been spotting marijuana as a pilot with the state police for about 19 years. I think it's one of the most important jobs that we could be doing because I know what the effect of the marijuana is on our young people in our society. NARRATOR: An estimated 10 to 30 million Americans use marijuana, and as much half of all the marijuana used in America is now home grown. CRAIG RALSTIN: We'll use fixed-wings and helicopters and trained spotters, and we'll find where people are either preparing their grows or suspicious areas that look like somebody's cut an area out of a field. And once we find the plant from the air, we'll direct our ground guys, and they'll go back in and either cut it or pull the plants out. That's a pretty nice plant. ARMY OFFICER: Yeah. CRAIG RALSTIN: You can see the growers started this one indoors some place in a cup, and brought them and transplanted them back out here. That's kind of the thing that we run into. We're always trying to keep up with the growers and try to get them before they get them out. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Are these your fields here? MAN: Right. Yes. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Okay, we got some marijuana out of this one and this one, both. ARMY OFFICER: He contacted me. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: Okay. Okay, good enough. ARMY OFFICER: He's the one that told me. WOMAN: You know, it really makes me mad that people can come into your field and do that, you know, and they don't have to do any work. MAN: And they make more money, you know, than I will- WOMAN: They pull out your corn plants. MAN: -for the whole crop, you know? But the cows ate it all last time, except one plant. MIKE GAYER, Indiana State Police: Unfortunately, every day that we fly, we find cultivated marijuana. There is not a day that goes by that we go out in this aircraft that we do not find cultivated marijuana plants. There's that much in the state of Indiana. RALPH WEISHEIT: "The marijuana basket of America" would probably be a good description of the central part of the U.S. Marijuana is grown in every state of the U.S., so it is a national phenomenon, but it seems particularly prevalent in the Midwest. NARRATOR: Ralph Weisheit, a professor of criminal justice at Illinois State University, has done extensive research on the domestic marijuana industry. RALPH WEISHEIT: We have to make guesses about how much marijuana is growing because it is an illegal crop, but it is easily the biggest cash crop. Some people have said it goes into the billions. The value is far higher, probably double the value of corn. You also have in the Midwest a fair amount of marijuana that's already growing wild that was planted during the Second World War. NARRATOR: The federal government actually gave farmers the seeds because hemp from the marijuana plant was needed to make rope after supplies from Asia were cut off. MIKE GAYER, Indiana State Police: It was good in the '40s. It's bad in the '90s. DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENT: The government paid them to grow it, and now the government is paying us to take it away. RALPH WEISHEIT: Certainly, of all the illegal drugs, there's been no drug about which the government has had more mixed feelings. Marijuana has had a somewhat different role than other drugs. It has had a mystical sort of atmosphere about it for some and it's been the embodiment of evil for others. 1st WOMAN: It doesn't do anything good for you. 1st MAN: It's very bad for you. 2nd MAN: It's a mild relaxant. 3rd MAN: This is a nice drug. It doesn't have a hangover. You don't become aggressive and belligerent. 4th MAN: It is dangerous. 2nd WOMAN: Changes your mind. 5th MAN: It affects short-term memory. 3rd WOMAN: Paranoia. 6th MAN: Killing brain cells. 4th WOMAN: There's a reason why it's illegal. 7th MAN: I'm not sure I understand how you make a plant illegal. RALPH WEISHEIT: I find that some law enforcement officials believe it is a drug, and a drug is a drug, and so harsh penalties should go with that, if we have harsh penalties for other drugs. I have found others who see marijuana as completely different from cocaine or heroin, and really believe that we've gone far too far along in our handling of the drug through the criminal process. NARRATOR: More Americans use marijuana than all other illegal drugs combined and are spending an estimated $7 billion a year to buy it on the black market. It's believed that more than two million Americans grow marijuana themselves, either for personal use or to sell it. NARRATOR: ["Sea of Green" video] Hello, and welcome to the Sea of Green. Follow the simple instructions and soon you will begin your harvest. NARRATOR: Lessons on how to set up a grow room are readily available on videotape and in magazines. "High Times," founded in 1974, now has a circulation of a quarter million readers. Even the Internet has marijuana Web sites with discussion about softening the laws and the experience of other countries with decriminalization. The mass media treats marijuana with a mixture of alarm and laughter. 1st ACTOR: ["Home Improvement"] It's not oregano. 2nd ACTOR: Tarragon? 1st ACTOR: This is marijuana. 2nd ACTOR: Jill cooks with marijuana? NARRATOR: Popular culture sends a mixed message, and for many marijuana growers, the temptation to defy the law seems to outweigh the risk of arrest. Doug Keenan, who lives in a quiet middle-class neighborhood of Indianapolis, was even willing to go public and show us his grow room, dug deep underground so the infrared cameras won't detect it. DOUG KEENAN: The humming that you hear is the ballast, which is driving the light here. Most all of this equipment can be bought at any hardware store. Once you've decided that you're going to be consuming it pretty regularly, then you come up with, "Well, I'm going to need a steady supply." Simple reason is you've got something that's priced more than gold. If you're going to smoke a lot of it, you can't afford to buy it out on the black market. NARRATOR: Over the last two decades, the potency of marijuana on the market has increased and the price has skyrocketed. In the early 1980s, an ounce of commercial grade sold for about $40. Today an ounce costs up to $400- in fact, a price higher than gold, which now sells for around $300 dollars an ounce. DOUG KEENAN: I will be growing as long as I am free to do so- "free" being that nobody's put a ball and chain around my ankle. You have to realize that your liberty is at risk every minute of every day. NARRATOR: So why go public and take the chance of arrest? DOUG KEENAN: It's a delicate trade-off, but in my mind- you know, a lot of people have asked me why be an activist at all. The alternative is, if I don't, you're going to have a police state in another 30 years. And this is basically a right of consumption. I have the right to grow and consume anything that God gives me the seed and the ground to grow it in. NARRATOR: So far, Keenan's grow room has escaped detection by Indiana's drug enforcement team. But often, growers who think they're operating free and clear for years are actually the targets of long investigations that do end in arrest. INDIANA ARCHITECT: I got a 20-year prison sentence and I was just totally devastated. I think we were all particularly naive about what the final result could be. NARRATOR: This Indiana architect and his brother, an attorney, used this farm to grow large amounts of marijuana, which they sold commercially. They were arrested by Steve White after a five-year investigation. STEVE WHITE: The farmer that owned this property had run into some financial difficulties. And he was a client of the attorney, and when the attorney's brother called him and wanted to expand the operation, this came to mind. NARRATOR: The architect doesn't want his identity revealed. INDIANA ARCHITECT: The farmer didn't hesitate at all. He had very few alternatives to be able to make the money that was going to be needed to save his farm. And this was in the early '80s, when all the farms in America were really in a big financial crisis. We grew there for a couple of years, and the first year we grew 50 pounds, and at that time it was worth about $100,000. STEVE WHITE: They were the all-American boys. They loved their children. They loved their parents. So, you know, how do I characterize them? Smart. Nice. They broke the law. And they knew better. The people of Indiana will not tolerate this type of behavior. Why should we say it's okay for a guy to make a million dollars raising marijuana? Marijuana's the threshold drug. It's the drug that most children, kids start out with. NARRATOR: In a community like Warsaw, Indiana, marijuana is not only growing in the cornfields, it's being traded in the halls of the high school. 1st GIRL: You can see when people's doing it at school, the smell of it at school. INTERVIEWER: You can smell it at school? 1st GIRL: Oh, yeah. Some people do it in the bathroom. 1st BOY: The bathroom's bad. 1st GIRL: We just got caught, like, two weeks ago. There was, like, five girls that got caught doing it. 2nd GIRL: That was, like, the second week of school. 3rd GIRL: You can't hide it. I mean, you see somebody walking up and down the street, all you have to do is ask them and they can give it to you. They'll sell it right there to you, on the spot. INTERVIEWER: All of you know somebody you could go probably call right now? STUDENTS: Yeah. Yeah. 2nd BOY: The guys- well, if you don't do it, they call you wimps and all kinds of things, and just try to put you down and get you to do it and finally snap. PAUL CROUSORE, Principal, Warsaw High School: We had indicators that we're having problem with drugs in the building. We had a drug sweep back a few years ago, where we actually had the police come in and dogs and we searched, and we arrested 17 students. NARRATOR: The Warsaw high school has begun testing its athletes for drugs. A student who tests positive for marijuana is suspended from competition for a year. DAVE FULKERSON, Athletic Director, Warsaw High School: The kids have to realize there are rules that they must go by. And that's- you know, our society is made up of rules. The one thing that the general public fails to realize, that it's in violation of the law. It's against the state law. You can be arrested. You can be sent to jail. 2nd BOY: If they get caught, they go on probation. Even when they're on probation- I had a friend and- they break probation. 1st GIRL: Sometimes when people get caught, they finally realize that they're doing something wrong and they quit. But then, on the other hand, there's some people that are just, like, "Oh, that's okay. I'll just go out and- once I get free I'll go out and do it again." NARRATOR: Many drug counselors consider marijuana to be a gateway drug that could lead to the use of harder drugs. BRET RICHARDSON: [to class] Name one of the gateway drugs. Joe? 1st PUPIL: Marijuana. BRET RICHARDSON: Marijuana. Give me another one. Caitlin? 2nd PUPIL: Beer, wine. NARRATOR: Lee Ann Richardson and her husband, Bret, of the Warsaw, Indiana Police Department, work for the D.A.R.E. program - Drug Abuse Resistance Education. D.A.R.E. uses local police officers to teach drug education in the schools. 3rd PUPIL: Hi, Caitlin. Would you like to have some marijuana with me? 2nd PUPIL: No. 3rd PUPIL: How come? 2nd PUPIL: It'll make me sick. Oh, I've got to go work on that homework. 3rd PUPIL: Fine. BRET RICHARDSON: Cut. Well done! But what if they say, "Why not?" What if they start to tease you? Think about three reasons why you don't want to use drugs. 1st BOY: I really didn't know much about marijuana. I didn't know what harmful effects it can do on your life and stuff like that. I mean, it's really nice to know now. And I made the decision not to do marijuana or any drug. 2nd BOY: It just- like, it can hurt you, and it kills you and stuff if you do too much of it. GIRL: Well before I- before Officer Richardson came in this year, I was, like, "What's so wrong about it? It just grows." But now I know what the harmful effects are and I know that I will never, ever do it. NARRATOR: The actual effects of marijuana on people who use it have been the subject of scientific study, but the results have not served to settle the debate about its dangers. Dr. CHARLES SCHUSTER: Marijuana has very profound affects, particularly when it's smoked, and the most important thing about it is that it's immediate. NARRATOR: Dr. Charles Schuster, a psychopharmacologist at the Wayne State University School of Medicine, also headed the National Institute of Drug Abuse during the drug crackdown in the 1980s. He's been researching marijuana for more than 30 years. Dr. CHARLES SCHUSTER: It's a powerful drug and it has powerful effects on mood, powerful effects on your ability to perform skilled activities, powerful effects on cognition and powerful effects on your heart- huge increases in heart rate, for example, when you smoke it. It's a powerful drug and we can't dismiss that. There are many differences between heroin, cocaine, and marijuana, on the other hand. Number one, marijuana, unlike heroin and cocaine, has never been associated with acute overdosage death. To the best of my knowledge, no one has died because they've smoked too much marijuana. Clearly, people die from overdoses of cocaine and of heroin. Number two, I think that although marijuana can produce dependence and addiction, the likelihood of that occurring in people is much less than with drugs such as cocaine and heroin. When we think about social policies and a lot of other things, we have to realize that the public health dangers associated with illicit drugs depends upon the illicit drug we're talking about. With marijuana, I think that we're talking about a lesser evil than we are when we're talking about cocaine and heroin, but that doesn't mean that it isn't an evil. [www.pbs.org: More on marijuana in the body] Dr. DAVID MUSTO: Marijuana's an excellent example of how we have shifted our views on a substance. You have these enormous shifts and, really, research takes place against these larger attitudes, and it's also interpreted in these larger attitudes. NARRATOR: Dr. David Musto, of Yale University, has devoted years of study to the history of America's drug policies and attitudes toward marijuana in particular. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: Marijuana started to come into the United States in the 1920s, along with Mexican immigrants. Then, in the 1930s, when the Great Depression hit, these people became a feared surplus in our country, and they were thought to take marijuana, go into town on the weekend and create mayhem. Now, that's very close to the general attitude toward marijuana in the 1930s. It was thought to be a cause of crime and a cause of senseless violence. The head of the narcotics bureau from 1930 to 1962, Harry J. Anslinger, decided he had to fight marijuana really in the media. He tried to describe marijuana in so repulsive and terrible terms that people wouldn't even be tempted to try it. In the 1960s, the use of marijuana was symbolic of the counterculture, of the anti-Vietnam war battles. It became something that, if you used, you used it almost ritually, as joining a large group of people who had similar points of view and similar attitudes, let's say, to authority and to the government and so on. NARRATOR: In the early 1970s, the Shafer Commission was ordered by Congress to consider marijuana and the drug abuse laws. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: They came out with the conclusion that marijuana should be decriminalized. That is, small amounts for personal use might be fined, like you might get a ticket. And this was very upsetting to President Nixon. President Nixon, I think, of all of our Presidents was the one most viscerally opposed to drugs. Then in the Carter Administration, I think it was in 1978, all the heads of the agencies came before Congress and asked for the decriminalization of marijuana of up to one ounce. And it was quite interesting. There was quite a backlash to this. You had the parents' movement formed. PARENT: -that if I became involved and other parents became involved now maybe this problem would not touch- that the evil fingers of drugs would not lay their hands on the shoulders of my little boy. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: And they created quite a reaction and defeated some people who were running for Congress and had favored decriminalization. So you move right from the Carter administration into the Reagan administration, which was very anti-drug and anti-marijuana. Pres. RONALD REAGAN: The American people want their government to get tough and to go on the offensive, and that's exactly what we intend, with more ferocity than ever before. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: The Republicans and Democrats, seeing this as a tremendous, dangerous issue, vied with one another as to all the ways that they were going to help control drugs. NARRATOR: One of those drugs was cocaine, which was causing widespread concern. Coke sales were rapidly spreading from the cities to the suburbs, and the 1986 death of basketball star Len Bias, blamed on crack cocaine, put even more pressure on lawmakers. In 1986 President Reagan signed the Anti Drug Abuse Act, which ordered mandatory minimum sentences with no parole for all illegal drugs. The federal penalties were set according to the amount of the drug involved, equating marijuana plants with gram weights of other drugs. For example, 100 plants is considered comparable to 5 grams of crack cocaine. The mandatory minimum sentence for 100 plants of marijuana is 5 years; for 1000 plants, 10 years. INDIANA ARCHITECT: I was one of the lucky ones. Because my crime had taken place in the early '80s meant that I was going to be sentenced under the old law, what's now called the old law. And the new law, which came into effect in 1987, has got mandatory minimum sentencing. NARRATOR: The Indiana architect was released after serving 5 years of his 20-year sentence. Now anyone convicted on the same federal charges would not be allowed parole. The mandatory minimum sentencing ordered by the new law also prevents judges from giving a lesser penalty. ERIC SCHLOSSER: The 1986 Anti Drug Abuse Act was the most significant drug legislation of this generation, which shifted enormous power within our legal system away from judges to prosecutors. NARRATOR: Eric Schlosser wrote about the history and impact of marijuana law enforcement for a recent series in "The Atlantic Monthly" magazine. He also consulted for this program. ERIC SCHLOSSER: And since that law was passed the federal prison population has tripled. And whereas drug offenders used to be a small proportion of federal inmates, today about 70 percent of the people in federal prison are drug offenders. There are more people now in federal prison for marijuana offenses than for violent offenses. ANDREA STRONG: He had a two-year enhancement, though, I believe, for manager organizer, but that's it. NARRATOR: Andrea Strong's brother, Mark Young, was sentenced under the new law and was given life for brokering the sale of 700 pounds of marijuana. ANDREA STRONG: They said, "Well, he can't have bond. He's facing a life sentence." And my mom says, "Well, who did he kill?" You know, "Did he rape somebody? Did he molest some child? What did he do?" NARRATOR: Young had no previous record of violence or drug trafficking. ANDREA STRONG: It changed my entire life. I lost my cleaning business because we had made the news and we- our story, Mark's story, with my name and stuff, was in the newspaper, the local paper, and some of the women whose homes that I cleaned in, they didn't want me in their home anymore. You know, I didn't have anything to do with drugs in any kind of way. My brother did. NARRATOR: About 17 percent of all federal inmates are convicted marijuana offenders. That's one federal prisoner in six. Because mandatory minimum sentences do not allow parole, federal prisoners convicted on non-violent marijuana charges sometimes serve more time than convicted murderers sentenced under state law. Scott Walt is serving 24 years for conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute around 2,000 pounds of marijuana. David Ciglar: 10 years in federal prison for cultivation of 167 marijuana seedlings. And take the case of John Casali and Todd Wick, two young men convicted of growing some 1,600 marijuana plants in northern California. Their sentence, the 10-year mandatory minimum, was handed down by Judge Thelton Henderson of the federal district court in San Francisco. Judge THELTON HENDERSON: I told these young men that I wished I could do something other than what I did, and I felt awful about it, but that I felt bound by the law. I think they were rehabilitatable within less than 10 years. I'm opposed to mandatory minimums, in general, because I think they're unduly harsh. I think that they don't allow the judge the discretion to deal with the individual problem. There is a formula that says you've been involved with a certain amount of drugs, for example, ergo you get the mandatory minimum. ANDREA STRONG: In the federal sentencing, if you have so many plants that are involved in your conspiracy - and in this case it was over a thousand plants - then, like my brother, you receive a life sentence, and that means life without the possibility of ever being paroled. And they'll bury you in Leavenworth's back yard, if you can't bring him home to bury him. And that's what we were told. NARRATOR: Andrea Strong's brother, Mark Young, appealed his life sentence on grounds that the prosecution had miscounted the number of plants. He's now serving a 12-year sentence. Andrea Strong has become a leader in the national organization Families Against Mandatory Minimums. ANDREA STRONG: Our goal is to repeal mandatory minimum sentences that are given to first-time non-violent drug offenders. We believe they should be punished, but we believe their punishment should fit their crime. NARRATOR: If Mark Young had been sentenced under Indiana state law, he would have received a lesser sentence, but state marijuana penalties vary widely, and in other parts of the country, the state punishment can be even more severe than the federal. In 15 states, you can get life for a non-violent marijuana offense. NARRATOR: In Oklahoma, Will Foster was sentenced to 93 years for marijuana cultivation and possession in the presence of a child. When Foster was arrested at his Tulsa home in 1995, police said an informant told them Foster had methamphetamines. WILL FOSTER: It was about 2:00 o'clock on the afternoon of December 28th, and the police come to our house. They didn't knock, they just battering-rammed our door down. MEGAN BURKE: In less than a 30-second span of time, you know, from the minute they hit the door. My life will never be the same. NARRATOR: Foster's partner, Megan Burke, was in the house with their three children. MEGAN BURKE: It happened so quickly. The next thing I know, the door exploded inward. It knocked me backwards onto my 5-year-old daughter. NARRATOR: They found no methamphetamines, but they did find Foster's marijuana grow room down in the basement. MEGAN BURKE: I was afraid of it, afraid of the ramifications if we got caught. I knew they would be steep. I had no idea it would be a life sentence, a death penalty, in essence. In the beginning, I was very angry. I just wanted to kill him because I thought, you know, "You did this." And I had to step back from myself because I can't give him all of the blame. I knew what he was doing, and I could have had a big screaming fit and he would have stopped. He would have been mad, but he would have stopped. And I didn't do that. So I guess, in that respect, I share it equally. NARRATOR: Foster says all the plants were for his personal use, to help with arthritis, but the number of plants raised suspicions. BRIAN CRAIN, Assistant D.A., Tulsa, Oklahoma: Other than the fact that we found over a kilo of marijuana, there were gram scales, which indicate packaging and distribution. There were baggies. There were other paraphernalia that indicated distribution. We felt comfortable in bringing that to trial. The idea that you can grow marijuana, that you can distribute marijuana, that you can possess marijuana in the presence of a minor- that is not something that we will accept in Tulsa County. [www.pbs.org: Study state-by-state laws] NARRATOR: Will Foster is serving his time in a Texas prison because there's no room in Oklahoma's overcrowded cells. Foster is appealing on grounds that the search warrant was invalid, and since he was charged under state rather than federal law, he does have the chance of parole. The state had offered Foster a plea bargain, but he refused. WILL FOSTER: The reason that I went to jury trial was that this was the only way I could guarantee that my wife would not go to prison. She was their only witness. They made her testify against me. MEGAN BURKE: I didn't want to have to do that. I really didn't. But it was that or I was going to go to prison, and I didn't know who would get these kids. And he said "You have to. You don't have a choice." So I testified for the state, and I testified for the defense, and it was the longest four days I've ever had. And I knew that he'd get something. I mean, it's Oklahoma. But I didn't expect 93 years. NARRATOR: The wives of marijuana growers are often put under pressure to testify against their husbands or risk prison terms themselves. Jodie Israel refused to take the stand against her husband and is now serving a 12-year federal mandatory minimum sentence. JODIE ISRAEL: You know, somewhere it's got to stop. If I was to testify against someone and bring down 10 people- you know, it's got to stop somewhere. NARRATOR: Her husband, a first-time offender, was convicted of growing marijuana. He is a Rastafarian and claimed he used marijuana for religious reasons. Because she presumably knew what he was doing, Jodie Israel was charged with conspiracy. JODIE ISRAEL: The problem with conspiracy is it's the only time they allow hearsay into the courtroom. So if they can't get you for anything else, they can get you for conspiracy. Your husband could go away on a business trip for the weekend and come back home, and he could have been out, you know, buying drugs, and you're going be charged. When I came in, my children were 1, 2, and my 3-year-old had just turned 4, and my daughter was 9. And they're all in different homes, and my littlest son doesn't even know who I am. It's hard because, as a parent, you want to protect your child from hurt. And it's like I have caused this hurt. NARRATOR: She has seen her children only once in each of the four years she's already served. JODIE ISRAEL: I made a mistake in that I chose the wrong man. But 11 years of my life away from my children isn't right. NARRATOR: Kristen Angelo, a teenager who lives near Seattle, Washington, is learning what happens to a family when a parent is caught growing marijuana. KRISTEN ANGELO: I knew that my Dad grew pot. I didn't know how big it was or, you know, anything like that, but it didn't bother me. I just never really thought twice of it. I never thought the consequences could be this harsh on my family, otherwise I probably would have said, you know, "Hey, Dad, maybe you shouldn't be doing this." NARRATOR: John Angelo, who worked as a design engineer at Boeing Aircraft, had a grow room behind the house where he lived with his family. JOHN ANGELO: This was an underground hydroponic growing facility. I had six trays on each side, 30 feet long. Each side was capable of holding 380 plants. NARRATOR: Angelo says he suffers from manic depression. He is an activist, working to legalize medical use of marijuana. JOHN ANGELO: I've been smoking pot since I was 12 years old. I've been growing it for the last 12 years. I found a long time ago that I'm able to function with marijuana. My oldest daughter knew what I was doing. She never questioned it. KRISTEN ANGELO: You know, he didn't smoke it around me or force me to smoke it or anything like that. Everyone experiments with it. And for a while, I did use it in school and I got very bad grades. It's a lot harder to concentrate. You can't study very well. NARRATOR: John Angelo and his wife, Rachel, say the three younger children never knew about the marijuana operation. RACHEL ANGELO: I'm completely against children using marijuana. They don't need to be putting stuff in their bodies when they're growing, including caffeine, drugs, alcohol- JOHN ANGELO: Nicotine, right. RACHEL ANGELO: -of any kind. Their little minds need to be developing. JOHN ANGELO: I had no idea that they were going to take my children away from me, that they were going to take my property away from me, and that they were going to put me in jail for 5 years. I had no idea. KRISTEN ANGELO: I was out with friends. And I came home from school and we were pulling down the road and my friends said, you know, "There's cop car at your house." And I was, like, "Oh, you're just kidding." You know, "Don't play around with me like that." And they're, like, "No, Kristen, we're serious." You know, "There's a cop car down there." RACHEL ANGELO: They came belting through those doors with their guns in hand and pointing them around the room and, you know, talking and- JOHN ANGELO: Yelling. RACHEL ANGELO: Well, yelling, and yelling for John- "John, come out! John, come out!" KRISTEN ANGELO: My dad was in handcuffs and Rachel was in the car, and I was just- I was shocked. I mean, I was just- I can't even explain how I felt. It was just, you know, total adrenaline rush. I didn't know what to do. I didn't know what to say. I was really scared for both of them. MARK KLEIMAN: Keeping middle-class kids from drugs has always ranked very high among the goals of American drug policy. And a lot of 14-year-olds have now started to use marijuana. NARRATOR: Mark Kleiman, a professor of policy studies at the University of California in Los Angeles, has studied the patterns of marijuana use. MARK KLEIMAN: For a while, the number of users was falling and, particularly, the number of young users was falling. That unfortunately stopped in 1991, and since then, the number of young users has been increasing. And what's really frightening is initiations happening at younger and younger ages. Gen. BARRY McCAFFREY: [at press conference] Marijuana is the principal drug of abuse among youngsters, with increased numbers of hospital admissions or treatment admissions where marijuana is cited as the principle drug threat. NARRATOR: The alarm has sounded for the White House Office on Drug Policy, headed by General Barry McCaffrey. Gen. BARRY McCAFFREY: [at press conference] The drug threat is changing, and student populations are picking up on it, and it's tending to drift into younger years. The first use of marijuana figure - how old were you when you first used marijuana - has steadily dropped. And I anticipate the next time we get a number to give you, it will have dropped further. NARRATOR: You won't get an argument from many American students. In Warsaw, Indiana, schools the talk is about mixed messages, with families and children torn between what the law says and what widespread use, even in their own homes, is telling them. GIRL: I know I lost one of my best friends over marijuana. Her mom found out, and her mom was mad, but her mom also does it, so, I mean, her mom isn't setting a good role model, or her dad. LEE ANN RICHARDSON: I had a girl tell me that her parents were smoking marijuana. And I asked her what she did in that situation, and she said she left and goes to her room. And I said, "That's very good." You know, she's making the right choice, the right decision to get away from the environment, basically. BRET RICHARDSON: Just last week, I had one of my students come to me to tell me about one of his relatives, and he wants something done about it, so the information has been turned over to our drug task force. I tell them all the ramifications of that choice that they are making, and if they want the police involved in it, it's going to disrupt the family life. And then it's up to the student to decide if that's the direction they want it to go. We don't encourage the kids to spy. That's not my role. I'm there as instructor, not as an enforcement officer. LEE ANN RICHARDSON: And you see he becomes- I could see he became partially defensive on it. I think that's a sore subject with us, especially with the D.A.R.E. program, because it has nothing in the curriculum about, you know, turning people in or doing anything that way. [www.pbs.org: How effective is D.A.R.E.?] STEVE WHITE: One year, we did three indoor grows here based on the children of the growers through the D.A.R.E. program. They not only told us about it, they drew diagrams, how to get to Daddy's indoor grow. So that's tough on a family. The more I think about it, the more I wonder. NARRATOR: During his career arresting marijuana suspects, former DEA agent Steve White found himself asking more questions. STEVE WHITE: I had done a lot of undercover work. It was mainly amphetamines, LSD, heroin and cocaine. I thought all dope dealers were scum to various levels, that they would sell out their mother, and I've seen it time after time. When I got into the marijuana program, one thing that amazed me was how cooperative a lot of the people were, how proud of what they're doing, how normal, in every other respect, they were. And there's some of them that I quite frankly like. This is confusing, but I still put them in jail. SUSPECT: I'm not hurting nobody, or at least I don't feel I am. I'm hurting my lungs maybe. You know, buy a joint somewhere and you're a felon, or they want you to be a felon. I mean, you know, that's the name of the game for them. STEVE WHITE: I came to see them as a different breed of cat. They're still criminals, but they don't have some of the characteristics of all the others that I dealt with in the 20 years previously. DENNIS FITZGERALD: There are some agents that don't see crimes associated with marijuana use. They don't see the armed robberies that follow crack use or that follow heroin addiction. They don't see any of the crimes that you associate generally with drug abuse. NARRATOR: Dennis Fitzgerald was a federal drug enforcement agent for 20 years. Now retired from the DEA, Fitzgerald is director of the National Institute for Drug Enforcement Training. DENNIS FITZGERALD: Marijuana abusers don't, generally, when they can't get marijuana, go out and rob a liquor store to get money to buy their marijuana. It just doesn't follow. So an awful lot of law enforcement officers just don't have the personal conviction when it comes to marijuana enforcement that they do with the enforcement of heroin laws or crack cocaine laws or cocaine laws. A lot of agents feel as though the marijuana laws misdirect an awful lot of investigative energies, and people are going to jail for significant periods of time over very small quantities of marijuana. NARRATOR: Agents like Fitzgerald and Steve White have watched the war on marijuana escalate. It is now costing federal, state and local agencies at least $10 billion a year, more than one fourth the total budget for the war on drugs. The enforcement effort has brought other consequences. DENNIS FITZGERALD: The forfeiture of the assets directly enriches the police agency that brings the case against the grow operators. Now, the monies that they receive from asset forfeiture, primarily, it can be used to pay informants. NARRATOR: Dennis Fitzgerald has written a book about how government agencies use informants to make drug arrests. Informants can be paid up to 25 percent of the value of assets seized in arrests, up to $250,000. DENNIS FITZGERALD: What bothers me about the informant situation is the unbelievable amounts of money that the informants are making, that they can make. There are pamphlets that are put out on what to look for in marijuana indoor grow operations: large air-conditioning bills, large power bills, the delivery of firewood, generators. There's a whole laundry list of things that people are told to look for. Ordinary citizens are encouraged. There's just this whole network of people that are out there, just average citizens that have been drawn in to become informants, neighborhood crime watches that have gone a step too far. POLICE OFFICER: Police search warrant! NARRATOR: On this case, an informant had told state police that this house in Indianapolis harbored a marijuana grow. No one was home except the suspect's son. POLICE OFFICER: Is your Dad home? Well, we've got a search warrant to search the house. Where does your dad work? NARRATOR: When the suspect came home, it turned out he was being used as an informant himself on another state police marijuana case, so the charges on this arrest were deferred. SUSPECT: It's all about, I guess, they want you to look for somebody that's bigger than you- stepping stone. JOHN ANGELO: They were able to get a search warrant for an overhead infrared search. So they come over with a helicopter one night and saw the heat signature of the trailer under the ground, and that was their basis for a search warrant, then, at that time to come in and arrest us. NARRATOR: An informant's tip had also led to the arrest of John and Rachel Angelo. RACHEL ANGELO: I feel that the government actually makes people feel good about using the marijuana laws or drug laws as a basis for- or as a bouncing board for people to take advantage of each other and to be vindictive with one another. You know, "Hurt your neighbor. It's the right thing to do." JOHN ANGELO: Although I feel it's an improper law and I should have worked to change that law, and I would like to see laws changed, I agree. Yes, I did break a law. But I was no threat to the community. I was no threat to the environment or to my kids or to anybody else. Justice would have been served a lot better by taking my talents or my abilities to work to let me continue with my job and paying taxes and stuff, but community service and home incarceration, keeping my family together. NARRATOR: Rachel Angelo was facing a five-year prison term. John could get 10 years in addition to a million-dollar fine. Judge THELTON HENDERSON: I think when the sentencing guidelines first came in, we thought they would phase out after some period of time. They're still around, and I see no indication of them phasing out in the near future. But I'm not aware of anything judges can do. We can't lobby. We're pretty much handicapped. We can speak out, such as I'm speaking out now, and state our displeasure and hope that the time will come when Congress will revisit this. Sen. ORRIN HATCH, (R), Utah: The reason why we went to mandatory minimums is because of these soft-on-crime judges that we have in our society, judges who just will not get tough on crime. NARRATOR: As chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah has been a leader in the fight to strengthen anti-crime laws. He strongly supports mandatory minimum sentencing. Sen. ORRIN HATCH: Keep in mind these growers and these pushers, they're killing our kids. They're the reason we have such a drug culture in this society that's just wrecking our country in a lot of respects. In all honesty, I think that when you have people who are pushing drugs on our kids or pushing at all, we ought to get as nails on them, and I don't think- in many respects, we ought to lock them up and throw away the keys. NARRATOR: Over the last decade, mandatory minimum sentencing has been reconsidered by congress. The debates have not led to any change in the law. Rep. STEVEN SCHIFF, (R), New Mexico: [at hearing] I think the debate, if any, should be over how long individuals should be in prison compared to others. The debate should never become whether individuals should spend time in prison. MARK KLEIMAN: We ought to think about sentencing in terms of its actual impacts on behavior, and we ought to frame our sentences in ways that make sense both morally and practically NARRATOR: Mark Kleiman recently joined a group of prominent scientists, drug experts and public officials in proposing a new middle-of-the road approach to national drug policy. [www.pbs.org: Read the proposal.] MARK KLEIMAN: We don't want to debate legalization versus prohibition. We don't want to debate hawks versus doves. We want to say, "Look, this is really a complicated question. We need to look in detail at individual policies and figure out which ones will actually serve the public interest." One of the principles is that we ought to base our sentencing on a balancing of costs and benefits, and not merely use long sentences as a way of expressing disapproval. I think we ought to start basing mandatory sentences on the conduct of the people engaged. Are they using violence? Are they using corruption? Are they using kids? If we do that, I think we'll have a more sensible set of sentences. STEVE WHITE: I cannot see somebody in there doing eight years for marijuana and a rapist being set free. Anybody that abuses another human being I have a certain loathing for. There's a disparity there. But that's not with law enforcement. We don't make the laws and we don't sentence the offenders. All we do is catch people. NARRATOR: John Angelo and his wife, Rachel, agreed to a plea bargain. Rachel testified for the prosecution and was given three months in a halfway house with work release. After she returned home, John would enter federal prison for a five-year term. RACHEL ANGELO: Just exactly what we expected to happen. They went with the plea agreement because it was the easiest thing to do, I think. JOHN ANGELO: And I'm willing to accept what I plead to. I saved Rachel and her father both a lot of pain and suffering, and I'll live by that then. That's it. Let's go home. NARRATOR: Like John Angelo, Doug Keenan says he needs to grow and use marijuana for medical reasons. He's a cancer patient. But Keenan is the kind of marijuana grower who confuses the issue. He freely admits he also uses marijuana for pleasure. DOUG KEENAN: Most of the people that are in this want to see the plant let free. Actually, we'd like to just see the dialogue get started, but we're having enough trouble, you know, getting the government to the table on that. Everybody on all sides agrees that it's not working, what we're doing. Great. What are we going to do next? Dr. DAVID MUSTO: Actually, the American people are, in a way, deciding now about marijuana in a way they never had the opportunity before. We may be unraveling the national consensus on drugs and bringing back to the states the decision as to what to do with drugs because the votes in Arizona and in California suggest that there could be parts of the country in which there's a different point of view. NARRATOR: Both California and Arizona have passed initiatives that permit medical use of marijuana. In California, behind the doors of cannabis clubs like this one in San Francisco, marijuana openly changes hands. The clubs are open to anyone presenting a doctor's letter stating medical need. The existence of the cannabis clubs has been challenged in court. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: The medical marijuana debate is extremely interesting. There's no question that people who want to legalize marijuana are using the medical marijuana issue as a wedge. On the other hand, there are many statements from people who have used marijuana in situations in which they've been greatly helped by marijuana, and that's their testimony. MARK KLEIMAN: And the answer therefore has to be, it seems to me, let's do the research. I've been boring people for five years now by just saying, whenever this question comes up, "Let's do the research. "Let's find out. Let's try it on some patients and see if they get better." We shouldn't debate medical marijuana as a shadow play about the deeper question of legalization of marijuana for recreational use. Sen. ORRIN HATCH: The minute California passed that particular statute, we had marijuana fields start to grow up again, on the basis that they're using it for medicinal purposes. And in the process, of course, we've got a lot of indiscriminate use of marijuana now in California that is even greater than it was before. If you allow people to grow marijuana and to indiscriminately grow and use it, then you're adding to the lack of discipline and the problems that we have in our society and, really, to, ultimately, the harder use of harder drugs. STEVE WHITE: I do not believe that decriminalizing or legalizing marijuana is going to help in any way. I think it's a dangerous drug. I don't think it does any good. Period. DENNIS FITZGERALD: I'm not for blanket legalization of marijuana. I think certain offenses should be decriminalized. MAN AT ANTI-DRUG RALLY: Marijuana is the cure-all wrong message. Dr. DAVID MUSTO: Should the government intrude on your private right to do something? Or does the government have an obligation to take steps to protect you in ways that you couldn't protect yourself? This goes back to the Federalist papers, I mean, or to the Constitution. How should we run our lives? And marijuana has become the symbol of how we should think about something that's medicine or not a medicine, a private right or a public right. And people bring to it their deepest feelings and their image of how they would like the world to be run. STEVE WHITE: It's an emotional issue. It's right there with gays in the military and abortion. Everybody's got an opinion on it. When I started in law enforcement, the general opinion, particularly in the white middle class community, was "Marijuana? Send them to jail," because they're probably black or Chicano, to begin with, and it wasn't something that affected us. Now it touches everybody in America. And I don't think anybody doesn't have a family member in an extended family that hasn't been touched by it. ANNOUNCER: Discover more of our report at FRONTLINE's Web site. Take the marijuana quiz, explore the interactive guide to federal and state laws on marijuana, read an essay by the grower who's gone public, and take a close look at two case histories, plus a timeline on marijuana in the U.S., the best of the pro and con arguments and much more at FRONTLINE on line at www.pbs.org. Next time on FRONTLINE- 1st LAWYER: We've been considered to be tilting at windmills. ANNOUNCER: -a modern-day David and Goliath story. 2nd LAWYER: I wanted to get the truth out. 1st LAWYER: We bet the ranch on it. ANNOUNCER: How a couple of small-town lawyers used secret tobacco industry documents- 2nd LAWYER: The evidence was so powerful. ANNOUNCER: -to build the biggest case in American legal history. 1st LAWYER: When Liggett actually settled, it was earth-shaking. It started the walls crumbling. ANNOUNCER: Get the real story when FRONTLINE goes "Inside the Tobacco Deal." For videocasette information about tonight's program, please call this toll-free number: 1-800-328-PBS1. Now it's time for your letters and the huge response to our program on the origins of Christianity: lots of praise, but also some criticism. Here's a sample. KENNETH FIELDS: [Palmyra, NJ] Dear FRONTLINE: From a purely secular standpoint, an interesting show. From a true Christian perspective, the show was without merit and it is obvious that this show was produced to discredit Christianity as a faith. I'm sorry, but I hoped for something better. JEFFREY CARVER: [Arlington, MA] I can understand the desire of the producers to shy away from the question of Christ's divinity. It's a hot topic, after all. But really, if you're afraid to address that question, then much of the rest rings rather hollow. You can leave belief or unbelief up to the viewer, but you can't just pretend it's not there. JOHN MURRAY: [Redwood City, CA] As a committed Catholic, I was very impressed by your program, even conceding its secular liberal bias. The program did something which, unfortunately, occurs all to infrequently in our parishes on Sunday morning. It actually got us thinking about our faith, how it became formed and what it really means. ANNOUNCER: Let us know what you think about tonight's program by fax [(617) 254-0243], by e-mail [FRONTLINE@PBS.ORG] or by the U.S. mail [DEAR FRONTLINE, 125 Western Ave., Boston, MA 02134]. WRITTEN AND PRODUCED BY Elena Mannes EDITOR Ted Winterburn CO-PRODUCER Libby Kreutz CINEMATOGRAPHY Greg Andracke SOUND Duncan Forbes NARRATOR Will Lyman PRODUCTION OFFICE COORDINATOR Shivani Khullar RESEARCHER Micah S.Fink POST PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR Linda Patterson Sharpley CONSULTANT Eric Schlosser ASSISTANT EDITOR Josh Marston ADDITIONAL CINEMATOGRAPHY Mark Allan Gino Bruno Don Friedell Tom Hurwitz Eddie Marritz Rick Thompson Mark Trottenberg ADDITIONAL SOUND Jeff Duncan Al Feuerbach John McCormick Bernard Russo Frank Tonhazy Russell Beeker ONLINE EDITOR Steve Audette SOUND MIX Jim Sullivan ARCHIVAL MATERIAL ABCNews VideoSource A/P Wide World Photos Archive Films/Archive Photos FAMM High Times Productions Historic Films Human Rights 95 Johnson County Indiana Daily Journal Library of Congress - Prints & Photographs Division National Archives & Records Adminstration The New York Times SPECIAL THANKS Cannabis Cultivators Club DARE America DEA The Drug Policy Foundation Harrison Elementary School, Warsaw, Indiana Indiana State Police Eradication Unit NORML - National Organization Reform of Marijuana Laws Warsaw High School, Warsaw, Indiana POST PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Tim Mangini AVID EDITORS Steve Audette Shady Hartshorne PRODUCTION ASSISTANT Julie A. Parker SERIES MUSIC Mason Daring Martin Brody SERIES GRAPHICS LoConte Goldman Design CLOSED CAPTIONING The Caption Center COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER Richard Byrne PUBLICIST Chris Kelly OUTREACH COORDINATOR Emily Gallagher PROMOTION ASSISTANT Frances Arnaud SECRETARY Denise Barsky SENIOR STAFF ASSOCIATE Lee Ann Donner UNIT MANAGERS Robert O'Connell Valerie Opara BUSINESS MANAGER Karen Carroll WEBSITE RESEARCH ASSISTANT Tracy Loskoski WEBSITE PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Stephanie Ault WEBSITE PRODUCER/DESIGNER Sam Bailey ASSOCIATE PRODUCER Mary C. Brockmyre STORY EDITOR Karen O'Connor STAFF PRODUCER June Cross COORDINATING PRODUCER Robin Parmelee SENIOR PRODUCER SPECIAL PROJECTS Sharon Tiller SERIES EDITOR Marrie Campbell SERIES MANAGER Jim Bracciale EXECUTIVE PRODUCER Michael Sullivan SENIOR EXECUTIVE PRODUCER (pause) David Fanning A FRONTLINE coproduction with Elena Mannes Productions, Inc. (c) 1998 WGBH EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED New Content (c) 1998 PBS Online and WGBH/FRONTLINE *** Date: 25 Jun 1999 11:31:05 +0000 From: "Scott Clevenger" (Scott_Clevenger@wgbh.org) Subject: Reprint of "Busted" Transcript To: "Portland NORML Webmaster" (firstname.lastname@example.org) At 11:31 AM 6/25/99 +0000, you wrote: We recently noticed that you have placed the transcript for "Busted," A "Frontline" program, on your web site at: http://www.pdxnorml.org/980428.html While we appreciate your interest in our "Busted" program. However, we must request that you remove the transcript from that page. Please feel free to link directly to the transcript at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/dope/etc/script.html The reasons why you cannot reprint the transcript are copyright issues and contractual agreements we have with various guilds including the Writers Guild. Please comply with our request ASAP. Any further contact from our end will be through our lawyers. Thank you in advance for your understanding and cooperation. Scott Clevenger Frontline On-line website Assistant WGBH, Boston [to which webmaster Phil Smith replied:] Fuck you. I know what the Fair Use Act says. You can't tell me what to print and what not to print. So sue me, Phil Smith webmaster pdxnorml.org PS - As a courtesy, I will add your link from the Portland NORML page you mention to the "Frontline" URL you provide. However, in the future, I would suggest that you'd get better results if you started out asking nicely, and consider that the people you are harassing might just be familiar with the law.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Stop Herbicide DEAth Squads (Bulletin From Colorado Hemp Initiative Project And Hawai'i Hemp Council Tells How To Lobby Against The DEA's Plan To Use Herbicide Against American Wild Hemp) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 00:27:22 EDT Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: AMMO (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: ACTION ALERT: Stop Herbicide DEAth Squads Please re-distribute and re-post this announcement. ACTION ALERT: Prepared by the Colorado Hemp Initiative Project (email@example.com) and the Hawai'i Hemp Council (firstname.lastname@example.org) April 28, 1998 DEA Takes Public Comment on Chemical Herbicides to Eradicate Cannabis For more information and updates, see: http://www.levellers.org/cannabis.html The "Draft Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statements for Cannabis Eradication in the Contiguous United States and Hawaii" (DSEIS) is available online at: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/cannibis/pubmeet/fednoti.htm (Note: the misspelling of cannabis is the DEA's, not ours.) Deadline for written comment: June 1, 1998 Public meetings: Denver, Honolulu, Boise, Atlanta, and D.C. Summary: This plan is an update to the 1985 and 1986 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) on cannabis eradication. In the Draft Supplement EIS (DSEIS), the DEA seeks to add triclopyr as an herbicide replacement for paraquat (which has been discovered to be toxic to humans since it was approved in 1985) and add amine formulations of 2,4-D to its list of approved chemical herbicides. The DEA will continue the use of glyphosate (Roundup). The DEA also seeks to implement a new technology, called "aerial directed treatment of herbicides" from helicopters, which it claims to be safer than "broadcast aerial treatment". The DEA would also like to allow the use of certain chemical dyes as markers in combination with aerial application. Below are some links on the dangers of biocides (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides) to animal and plant life. See also Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962). Biocides, on food crops alone, are estimated to cause 5,000 to 10,000 deaths per year from cancer. Cannabis has never killed anyone, in over 10,000 years of constant use world-wide. In fact, use of cannabis to replace cotton as a fiber crop would actually save lives, because cotton is such a chemically-intensive crop and cannabis requires NO BIOCIDES to grow as a fiber crop. This is the public's first opportunity to comment on the DEA's biocide application plan in over 10 years. We hope you will use the opportunity and encourage others to do so. Please re-distribute and re-post this announcement, especially to any local or national environmental, pesticide action, or health advocacy groups you may know. Herbicide = genocide We all live downstream. To subscribe to our mailing list for updates (if you aren't already), send email to email@example.com with the word SUBSCRIBE in the title. *** Public Meetings on the DSEIS Public comment on the DSEIS will be taken from 4pm to 8pm in the following cities. Activists in Colorado and Hawaii are planning a press conference/protest to be held at 3pm at the location of the meetings (see addresses further down.) If you live in these areas, please plan on attending and bringing your friends, signs, etc. If you know of anyone organizing a response in other areas, please contact CO-HIP so we can coordinate efforts. 5/12 - Denver, CO - Public Meeting Contact: Colorado Hemp Initiative Project (firstname.lastname@example.org) 5/15 - Honolulu, HI - Public Meeting Contact: Hawai'i Hemp Council: Roger Christie (email@example.com) 5/19 - Boise, ID - Public Meeting 5/20 - Atlanta, GA - Public Meeting 5/27 - Washington, DC - Public Meeting 6/1 - DEADLINE for written public comment (see address further down) *** Deaths caused by pesticides every year = at least 5,000 Deaths caused by cannabis in over 10,000 years of constant use = ZERO *** FOR MORE INFORMATION: 1) How many people are killed each year by pesticides in and on food in the U.S.? Answer: 5,000 -10,000 (Note: The National Academy of Sciences report which is summarized here doesn't even address the use of pesticides on non-food crops such as cotton!) http://www.alaska.net/~anc4hemp/es328.html 2) Hemp can save 400-800 lives per year, if it were used to replace cotton, because hemp requires no biocides. http://www.levellers.org/skid.htm http://www.alaska.net/~anc4hemp/es320.html 3) Vermont State Auditor's Report on hemp eradication in Vermont: http://hemp-cyberfarm.com/htms/countries/usa/eradication.html This report shows 99% of the marijuana eradicated nationwide is DITCHWEED (uncultivated, feral hemp, which usually has low enough THC levels to be categorized as industrial hemp.) Is the DEA eradication plan really a plan to eliminate the U.S. gene pool for potential future industrial hemp crops? 4) Hawaii's failed "War on Weed": http://starbulletin.com/96/07/23/news/story1.html 5) Our Stolen Future: 2,4-D as an endocrine (hormone) disruptor: http://www.osf-facts.org/basics/basics.html 6) Greenpeace's Glyphosate (Roundup) Fact Sheet http://www.greenpeace.org/~usa/reports/biodiversity/glyp.html 7) Use of glysophate on cannabis in Oklahoma: NORML Updates (June 11, 1996: "Environmentalists Voice Concern Over State's Decision To Spray Marijuana With Pesticides") http://www.norml.org/news/archives/96-06-11.shtml 8) Chemical profile of 2,4-D: http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d-captan/24d-ext.html 9) National Resources Defense Council's report entitled "Our Children At Risk" (Nov. 1997) for information on the toxic effects of biocides on children: http://www.nrdc.org/nrdcpro/ocar/chap5.html 10) Pesticide Action Network of North America http://www.panna.org/panna/ 11) Hoosier Environmental Coucil - Pesticides, Toxins & Endocrine Disrupters http://www.envirolink.org/orgs/hecweb/archive/pestfile/pesticide.htm 12) Rachel Carson Homestead Home Page http://www.rachelcarson.org 13) Andean Information Network - Deaths caused by police eradicating coca in Bolivia http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1997/4-23-1.html 14) The DEA's Draft Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statements - April 1998: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/cannibis/pubmeet/fednoti.htm *** For information on the environmental benefits of hemp as a fiber crop: 1) Colorado Hemp Initiative Project http://www.welcomehome.org/cohip/PAGES/IND_HEMP.HTM 2) Dr. Dave's Hemp Archives http://www.pressenter.com/~davewest/hemp.html 3) Eric Skidmore's Hemp Archives http://www.alaska.net/~anc4hemp/skidmor2.html 4) The North American Industrial Hemp Council http://www.naihc.org 5) Ecolution http://ecolution.com/ *** The official notice from the DEA, with locations of meetings and address for public comments, follows: *** U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration *** BILLING CODE 4410- 09-M DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration DEA NUMBER 175N PUBLIC MEETINGS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION ON HERBICIDAL ERADICATION AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that the "Draft Supplement to the Environmental Impact Statements for Cannabis Eradication in the Contiguous United States and Hawaii" (DSEIS) is available for public review and comment and that public meetings will be held regarding this document. On August 13, 1996, we announced our intent to supplement the programmatic EIS's on eradication of Cannabis on Federal and non-Federal lands and welcomed comments (FR 61 42056). The DSEIS is an update of the latest scientific information regarding the herbicidal alternatives in the original environmental impact statement (EIS) documentation. In 1985 and 1986, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) published programmatic EISs for its Cannabis eradication program. The first EIS was prepared for Cannabis eradication on Federal lands in the continental United States, and the second EIS was prepared for the program as it pertained to non-Federal lands, Indian lands, and the State of Hawaii, including Native Hawaiian Homestead lands. The alternatives analyzed in detail in the EIS include the use of manual, mechanical, and herbicidal eradication methods. In the DSEIS, changes to the herbicidal eradication alternatives in the 1985 and 1986 EISs were analyzed. The changes analyzed were (1) the addition of triclopyr as an approved program herbicide; (2) elimination of paraquat as an approved program herbicide; and (3) changes in program delivery, including elimination of broadcast aerial applications of herbicides, use of new technology in aerial directed treatments of herbicides, use of marker dyes, and use of amine formulations of 2,4-D. DATES: Five public meetings will be held: Tuesday May 12, 1998 4 PM -8 PM Denver, Colorado Renaissance Denver (Ballroom) 3801 Quebec Street Denver, Colorado 80207 Friday May 15, 1998 4 PM - 8 PM Honolulu, Hawaii Ala Moana Hotel (Hibiscus Ballroom) 410 Atkins Drive Honolulu, Hawaii 96814 Tuesday May 19, 1998 4 PM - 8 PM Boise, Idaho Boise Center on the Grove (The Summit Room) 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 Thursday May 21, 1998 4 PM - 8 PM Atlanta, Georgia Westin Atlanta Airport (Grand Ballroom 1) 4736 Best Road Atlanta, GA 30337 Wednesday May 27, 1998 4 PM - 8 PM Washington, DC Metro Area Holiday Eisenhower Metro Center (Eisenhower Station Ballroom) 2460 Eisenhower Avenue Alexandria, VA 22314 The public comment period will be open for 45 days beginning with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's formal Notice of Availability, anticipated to appear in the Federal Register on April 17, 1998. The DSEIS will be mailed to the names on the mailing list. CONTACTS: Comments and participation at the public meetings are invited. Speakers are requested to present one original and three copies of the written text of their presentation to register. Speakers may pre-register by facsimile at (301) 734-3640 any time of day or by calling Ms. Vicki Wickheiser, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Speakers should identify which meeting they plan to attend. Speakers may also register starting at 3 p.m. the day of the meeting. Again, they should present written text as described above. ADDRESSES: Comments and participation at the public meetings are invited. Speakers are requested to submit text of their presentation to: Ms. Vicky Wickheiser DOA/APHIS 4700 River Road Unit 149 Riverdale, MD 20737-1228. Anyone unable to attend one of the above meetings, who wishes to submit written comments to the DSEIS may submit them to the above address prior to June 1, 1998. COPIES OF THE DRAFT DSEIS: Copies of the DSEIS have been sent to all agencies and individuals who responded to the DSEIS Federal Register Notice of Intent, and to all respondents from the Original EIS Mailing list who responded positively to a mailing list query, and to other individuals that have requested copies of the document. Persons wishing copies of this DSEIS should immediately contact: Mr. Jack Edmundson, DOA/APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 149, Riverdale, MD 20737-1228, phone (301)-734-4844, facsimile (301)-734-5992. Copies of the DSEIS will be available until May 10, 1998. There will be a limited number of copies of the DSEIS at each public meeting. We have also arranged to have Internet online access to the document through the Drug Enforcement Administration's web site: ( www.usdoj.gov/dea) Click on Programs then select Cannabis. *** Donnie R. Marshall Acting Deputy Administrator *** Distributed as a public service by the: Colorado Hemp Initiative Project P.O. Box 729, Nederland, CO 80466 Our hotline has been disconnected b/c the voice mail company went out of business. :( Email: (firstname.lastname@example.org) Web: http://www.welcomehome.org/cohip.html http://www.levellers.org/cannabis.html "Fighting over 60 years of lies and dis-information with 10,000 years of history and fact." ARE YOU REGISTERED TO VOTE??? *** To be added to or removed from our mailing list, send email with the word SUBSCRIBE or UNSUBSCRIBE in the title.
------------------------------------------------------------------- HIV/STD Prevention Needed For Crack Users ('Reuters' Says The April Issue Of 'Sexually Transmitted Diseases' Warns That Efforts Are Urgently Needed To Prevent The Spread Of Disease Via Crack Cocaine Users Who Sell Sex To Sustain Their Habits) Date: Fri, 01 May 1998 02:12:57 -0400 To: email@example.com From: Melodi Cornett
Subject: MN: US WIRE: HIV/STDPrevention Needed For Crack Users Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Anti-Prohibition Lg Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Reuters HIV/STD PREVENTION NEEDED FOR CRACK USERS NEW YORK (Reuters) -- HIV/STD prevention efforts are "urgently needed" for crack cocaine users who sell sex, according to a report in the April issue of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Such individuals are at very high risk of both transmitting and acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), say researchers. Previous studies have found correlations between crack-smoking sex workers and high rates of HIV infection, noted Dr. Kathleen L. Irwin of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and colleagues. However, no large quantitative studies have focused on the sexual practices in this high-risk population. In the current study, Irwin and members of the Multicenter Crack Cocaine and HIV Infection Study Team evaluated 419 crack-smoking sex workers in three large urban areas. They found that 30% to 41% of both males and females reported having sex with injection drug users, and 8% to 19% reported having sex with individuals infected with HIV. More than 50% said they used condoms inconsistently and 73% to 93% had a history of a sexually transmitted disease. "Sex workers who worked in crack houses or vacant lots, were paid with crack, or injected drugs had the riskiest sex practices," the authors wrote. They also noted high rates of HIV/STDs in these subjects. "More than 25% were infected with HIV (27.9%), syphilis (37.5%) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (66.8%)." Based on these findings, Irwin's group concludes that more effective prevention and treatment methods for crack addiction, along with better access to treatment, "...especially for women and youth, will be critical to sustaining success in (HIV/STD) prevention." Previous studies have also shown that prompt diagnosis and treatment of STDs can substantially reduce the rates of HIV infection. Other areas that require attention include "...the underlying hardships, psychological stressors, psychiatric morbidity, and community disintegration that are associated with initiation of sex work, crack smoking, and HIV/STD risk behaviors." SOURCE: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1998;25:187-193)
------------------------------------------------------------------- US Health Secretary Draws Jeers ('Philadelphia Inquirer' Says AIDS Activists Disrupted A Visit To Bryn Mawr By Health And Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala, Demanding Federal Funding For Needle Exchange Programs And Challenging Her To Resign If She Wouldn't Stand Up For A Disease-Prevention Technique She Herself Said Is Successful) Date: Fri, 1 May 1998 16:15:21 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US: U.S. Health Secretary Draws Jeers Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Kevin Zeese Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Philadelphia Inquirer (PA) Contact: email@example.com Author: Stephanie A. Stanley Philadelpha Inquirer Correspondent U.S. HEALTH SECRETARY DRAWS JEERS AIDS activists disrupted a visit by Donna Shalala, demanding federal funding for needle exchanges. BRYN MAWR -- Dozens of protesters last night greeted U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala with signs bearing the names of those who died after contracting the AIDS virus via dirty needles. The protesters, about 150 strong inside Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church, then chanted, their voices rumbling through the sanctuary: "Clinton, Shalala killed my brothers." "Clinton, Shalala killed my sisters." The AIDS activists, many who journeyed to the Bryn Mawr church from Philadelphia, were there to demand that Shalala lift the ban on federal funding on needle-exchange programs -- programs that, just a week earlier, she had said reduced the spread of AIDS and did not increase the use of illegal drugs. And they were there to challenge her to resign if she would not stand up for a disease-prevention technique that she herself said was successful. "You're refusing to support something that you know works," Joyce Hamilton shouted at Shalala above the chants. "When you get back to Washington . . . you tell them to find some money for us." As the protesters chanted, a few shouting for her to stand up or step down, Shalala, who had traveled from Washington to give a speech titled "Raising the Children of the Next Millennium," sat in a towering wood-backed chair, her chin in her hand, and waited patiently for the voices to quiet. Fifteen minutes after they began, the activists marched outside for another, louder, 20-minute protest, allowing Shalala to begin her speech about the children of the future. Last week, Shalala enraged AIDS activists when she said the scientific community supported needle-exchange programs but added that the Clinton administration would not lift the ban on federal funding to pay for such a program. "I have a deep respect for those who disagree with the administration's decision," Shalala said in a news conference before her speech. "Yes, the science is there. But we made a decision not to fund the program." She strongly encouraged local governments and agencies to develop their own exchange programs. Activists, however, believe she is avoiding her responsibilities as the nation's top public health official. "They're letting politics get in the way of science," activist Paul Davis said in an earlier interview.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Needles, Pinheads And Politicians ('San Francisco Chronicle' Columnist Endorses Needle Exchange But Says Maybe It's All For The Best That The Federal Government Doesn't Get Involved) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 19:09:27 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Melodi Cornett
Subject: MN: US CA: OPED: Needles, Pinheads And Politicians Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Tom O'Connell and Frank S. World PubDate: Tuesday, April 28, 1998 Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/ Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Author: Debra J. Saunders NEEDLES, PINHEADS AND POLITICIANS San Francisco's needle exchange program has been an unqualified success: The city has not reported a single case of pediatric AIDS in three years. And there's not exactly a shortage of junkie moms in San Francisco either. HIV infection among women is low. Nationally, 14.9 percent of adults with HIV are women. In San Francisco the figure is about 3.2 percent. ``One of the reasons is that we've had needle exchange from early on in San Francisco,'' Derek Gordon of the San Francisco AIDS Foundation opined. The needle initiative prevented HIV from spreading through the needle community. For the bargain price of about $500,000 annually, the program has spared the lives of children born to drug shooters. Last year I spent an evening at a local exchange for women. A stream of women -- some down and out, a few remarkably smart looking -- turned in 1,615 used needles. Workers and volunteers in turn provided the women with 1,615 clean needles, drug treatment referrals for the rare user who asked, juice, food, vitamins, medical checks and a play area so that children wouldn't have to watch their moms clutching needles. A lesson learned: Even self-destructive drug addicts can care enough about their health to save their needles up for Thursday nights, gather those of their friends and schlep to Valencia Street to trade them in for clean paraphernalia. Amazing grace, after I wrote a column about the needle exchange, I didn't receive a single complaint from a neighbor. That's how well it was run. (As an aside, there is another exchange a block from The Chronicle. I'm a quiet needle exchange neighbor myself.) Having written the above, this is where I am supposed to trash President Clinton for not keeping his campaign pledge to earmark federal funds for needle exchanges. This is where I'm supposed to excoriate Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala as well, because Clintonia didn't change its policy despite hints that a shift was coming. I can't. I see the success of San Francisco's needle exchange -- and I cringe when I think of what would happen to it if federal funds entered the picture. Federal funds inevitably come with strings attached. I shudder at how Uncle Sam could botch a good program: paperwork, reporting requirements, a phone book-size code on which disability-friendly and transit-accessible buildings could be used, staffing regulations, motor voter, formulas for gender, age and ethnic representation. Ugh. You know that if this Congress would approve funding only for an exchange program if members could add something truly counterproductive or stupid -- like, require clean-needle recipients to watch a DARE film. (And it's not just because Congress is craven. It's also because members understand the need to take their constituents' legitimate concerns to the table when they fund any program.) Which presents a point that needle-exchange supporters generally seem to have forgotten: Not every good deed gets federal money. Some things are better handled by private charities and local institutions. Needle exchange doubtless is one of them. What's more, with zillionaire George Soros' second annual donation of $1 million to needle programs, there is reason to believe that private largesse can continue to carry the load. Clinton critics have faulted the president for putting politics ahead of lives. But if they really want to save lives, they might lay off Clinton and instead fight for funding of smart local programs. (c)1998 San Francisco Chronicle
------------------------------------------------------------------- Anti-Drug Initiative ('USA Today' Says US House Republicans This Week Will Unveil Anti-Drug Proposals That Include A Ban On Loans For Students Convicted Of Drug Violations, And Funding Of Groups Involved In Needle Exchange Programs) Date: Thu, 30 Apr 1998 20:57:03 -0400 To: email@example.com From: Mike Gogulski
Subject: MN: US: Anti-Drug Initiative Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Mike Gogulski Source: USA Today Website: http://www.usatoday.com/ Pubdate: 28 Apr 1998 Author: Paul Leavitt with staff and wire reporters ANTI-DRUG INITIATIVE House Republicans will unveil this week anti-drug proposals that include cutting off federally backed loans for students convicted of possessing or trafficking drugs. The GOP also wants to double a $10 million program for communities to devise anti-drug strategies, and implement a new program to help small- and medium-sized business fight drugs in the workplace. There also would be more money for more border guards and tougher penalties for some drug crimes. Republicans plan a House vote Thursday on their proposal to cut off federal money for any needle-exchange program. Federal money is not used to buy clean needles, but the GOP plan would go further and deny funding to organizations that use their own money to run needle-exchange programs.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ron Paul's Statements On The Drug War (Excerpts From The Congressional Record For April 28, 1998, March 6, 1997 And June 25, 1997, By The Texas Republican US Representative Show A Consistent Disdain For The War On Some Drugs' Impact On The Constitution) Date: Sun, 03 May 1998 22:04:04 -0400 From: Scott Dykstra (email@example.com) Organization: http://www.november.org/ To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: CanPat - Ron Paul's Statement on the Drug War Sender: email@example.com U.S. Rep. Ron Paul (R-Texas) "The real issue here is not drugs but rather the issues of privacy, due process, probable cause and the fourth amendment. We are dealing with a constitutional issue of the utmost importance. It raises the question of whether or not we understand the overriding principle of the fourth amendment. A broader but related question is whether or not it is the government's role to mold behavior, any more than it is the government's role to mold, regulate, tax and impede voluntary economic contractual arrangements. No one advocates prior restraint to regulate journalistic expression, even though great harm has come over the century from the promotion of authoritarian ideas. Likewise, we do not advocate the regulation of political expression and religious beliefs, however bizarre and potentially harmful they may seem. Yet we casually assume it is the role of government to regulate personal behavior to make one act more responsibly. A large number of us in this Chamber do not call for the regulation or banning of guns because someone might use a gun in an illegal fashion. We argue that it is the criminal that needs regulated and refuse to call for diminishing the freedom of law-abiding citizens because some individual might commit a crime with a gun. Random drug testing is based on the same assumption made by anti-gun proponents. Unreasonable efforts at identifying the occasional and improbable drug user should not replace respect for our privacy. It is not worth it." (Congressional Record Apr. 21, 1998) "It is easy to accept the argument by many of us here in Congress that welfare should be a State function, education should be a State or local function. But so often there is a resistance and no consensus on what we should do with the police powers, whether we are fighting the war on drugs or the war on the environment or whatever. But under the Constitution, it was never intended that police powers would gravitate as they have here in Washington. So my suggestion here is that we should seriously think about that in the area of police activity, because now we have a national war on drugs which is a total failure, has not done any good, has done great harm. Not only has it not solved the serious problem that we face with the massive use of drugs, this very dangerous precedent, but it also has cost a lot of money, and it has been a cost to our civil liberties." (Congressional Record March 6, 1997) "The emotional frenzy surrounding the war on drugs has allowed Federal police powers to escalate rapidly into the areas of financial privacy, gun ownership, border controls and virtually all other aspects of law enforcement. Many see this trend as dangerous to our liberties while doing little or nothing to solve the problems of violence, gang wars, deterioration of the inner cities or the decline of the public educational system." (Congressional Record June 25, 1997)
------------------------------------------------------------------- Report Warns Of Rise In Ethnic Smoking ('New York Times' Says The US Surgeon General, Dr. David Satcher, Warned Monday That Increases In Smoking By Minorities, Especially Minority Teen-Agers, Threaten To Reverse Significant Declines In The Incidence Of Cancer) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 01:20:02 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US: NYT: Report Warns of Rise in Ethnic Smoking Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dick Evans) Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: New York Times Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.nytimes.com Author: Cheryl Stolberg REPORT WARNS OF RISE IN ETHNIC SMOKING In a report that afforded President Clinton the perfect opportunity to renew his call for comprehensive tobacco legislation, the surgeon general, Dr. David Satcher, warned Monday that increases in smoking by minorities, especially minority teen-agers, threaten to reverse significant declines in the incidence of cancer. The study, the first surgeon general's report to examine the health risks that tobacco poses to minorities, found that American Indians and Alaska natives were the ethnic group most at risk. Forty percent of them smoked, compared with 25 percent of the general U.S. population. From 1990 to 1995, while lung cancer deaths declined among other minority groups, they rose among American Indians and Alaska natives, the study found. Among teen-agers, cigarette use increased among all racial and ethnic groups in the 1990s. But it was rising most rapidly among blacks, reversing declines in that population in the 1970s and 1980s. If the pattern continues, Satcher estimated, 1.6 million black children will become regular smokers, and 500,000 will die as a result. "These increases in tobacco use are a time bomb for our minority populations," the surgeon general said at a ceremony to present the report, on the South Lawn of the White House. He concluded: "Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in America. So let's get busy and prevent it." Satcher then presented the 332-page tome to the president, who wasted no time in denouncing the tobacco industry for advertising to young people. Nearly three dozen children dressed in bright red T-shirts with the logo of the National Center for Tobacco-Free Kids, a Washington advocacy group, lined up behind Clinton as he spoke. "These are the replacement smokers of the advertisers' strategy," Clinton said, "but these are our children, and we can't replace them." Moments later, he added: "They're just kids. We're the grown-ups. If we know what the danger is, and we know what the remedy is, are we going to do what it takes to save their lives and their health and their future, or not?" Rarely are surgeon general's reports issued with such pomp and circumstance. But Monday's, the 24th in a series on tobacco use that began 34 years ago, and the first issued by Satcher, came at a time of great political uncertainty over the prospects of tobacco legislation. The Senate Commerce Committee has overwhelmingly approved a measure, put forward by Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., that requires the tobacco companies to pay $516 billion over 25 years and raises the price of cigarettes by $1.10 a pack by the year 2003. Senate leaders have said they hope to bring the bill to the floor for a vote next month. Three Senate Republicans were on hand for Monday's White House ceremony; one of them, Sen. Bill Frist of Tennessee, shared a spot on the stage with Clinton, in an effort by the White House to demonstrate, as Clinton said, that tobacco control "is a medical, not a political issue, and an American, not a partisan issue." But the issue is very much partisan in the House of Representatives, where Republican leaders have indicated they will oppose the McCain bill, which is also opposed by the tobacco industry. Proponents of the legislation said that Monday's report will put pressure on the Senate to act quickly. "There is no turning back without the public holding Congress accountable," said Matthew Myers, president of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. The study looked at four major ethnic groups -- black; Hispanic; Native American and Alaska native; and Asian and Pacific Islander -- that together make up a quarter of the U.S. population. The study, based on statistics from 1994 and 1995, found that no single factor determines patterns of tobacco use among these groups, but rather a complex interaction of factors, including socio-economic status, assimilation, stress, biology, targeted advertising and the price of tobacco, accounts for trends that vary widely from ethnic group to ethnic group. For instance, the study found that while Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are the least likely of the four ethnic groups to smoke, several local surveys reported very high smoking rates among recent male immigrants from Southeast Asia. "This new report leaves no doubt that cigarette smoking impairs and kills people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds," Satcher said, 10 million of whom currently smoke. Tobacco, he said, is "holding hostage the hopes for a better life."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Smoking Rises Among Minority Teens ('San Jose Mercury News' Version) Date: Thu, 30 Apr 1998 01:44:10 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Melodi Cornett
Subject: MN: US: Smoking Rises Among Minority Teens Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/ SMOKING RISES AMONG MINORITY TEENS Surgeon general's report warns of `time bomb' for young tobacco users WASHINGTON -- The first surgeon general's report to focus on the smoking rates of racial and ethnic groups showed Monday that, while the overall use of tobacco is declining among adults, it has begun to rise among minority teenagers, creating a ``time bomb'' for minority populations. Unveiling the report by Surgeon General David Satcher in the White House Rose Garden, President Clinton cited it as new evidence that Congress should pass sweeping legislation that protects children from tobacco companies that direct advertising at young people. ``They are still becoming the targets of highly sophisticated marketing campaigns,'' said Clinton, surrounded by junior and senior high school students. ``They are replacement smokers of the advertisers' strategy. But they are our children, and we can't replace them.'' The report on minority smoking habits looked at four ethnic groups -- blacks, Hispanics, Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives -- that together make up a quarter of the nation's population. It concluded that black men ``bear one of the greatest health burdens.'' Although deaths from lung cancer are declining, the study found, it remains the leading cause of cancer death for all four racial and ethnic groups, with black men having the highest lung cancer death rate. Moreover, the report said black men who contract lung cancer are 50 percent more likely to die from it than their white counterparts. But the study also said researchers could not explain the difference. The study echoed findings of a report released earlier this month by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that showed smoking by black students -- once hailed as a success story for their continually low cigarette use -- has almost doubled. Smoking among black teens has increased 80 percent over the past six years, three times as fast as among white students, the study said. And the general trend toward fewer lung cancer deaths could change if minority teens' smoking rates continue to rise. In the past, minority teens were a success story for public health advocates because of their relatively low smoking rates. But now they are catching up with white teens. Smoking rates are especially high among Hispanic high school students (34 percent smoke cigarettes), while almost 40 percent of white teens smoke cigarettes. Clinton turned up the volume on his demand that Congress stop bickering over ``complicated'' details of tobacco policy and pass a sweeping bill this year that would reduce teen smoking rates. But leading Republicans criticized Clinton for not proposing a specific solution. ``The president has not provided leadership on the tobacco issue,'' said Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott, R-Miss. ``He's provided lots of rhetoric, lots of talk. And he's not shown any real courage in saying what things can be done, what things must be done in order to achieve something that will pass,'' said Lott. Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, complained that even if Clinton refrains from proposing his own tobacco legislation, he has called for ingredients like price increases that would bankrupt the tobacco industry and drive young people to marijuana.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Minority Smoking Is Up ('Seattle Times' Version) Date: Thu, 30 Apr 1998 10:36:10 -0800 To: email@example.com From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US: Minority Smoking Is Up Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: John Smith Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Seattle-Times (WA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://seattletimes.com/ Author: Steven Thomma, Knight Ridder Newspapers MINORITY SMOKING IS UP WASHINGTON - A surgeon general's report detailing a dramatic increase in the use of tobacco among young minorities touched off a new round of political sparring yesterday between the White House and Congress. President Clinton used the report to ratchet up pressure on Congress to adopt legislation to curb underage smoking. But even as Clinton focused on the details of the problem, leading Republicans criticized him for not proposing specifics of a solution. "The president has not provided leadership on the tobacco issue," said Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott, R-Miss. "He's provided lots of rhetoric, lots of talk. And he's not shown any real courage in saying what things can be done, what things must be done in order to achieve something that will pass," said Lott. And Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, complained that even if Clinton refrains from proposing his own tobacco legislation, he has called for measures like price increases that would bankrupt the industry and drive young people to marijuana. Between the political sparring, the day focused on the escalating rates at which young minorities are smoking. Surgeon General David Satcher used the annual report to focus for the first time on smoking among young minorities. -- About 20 percent of African-American high-school students smoke. While they still smoke less than other groups - half the rate of whites - their rate of smoking jumped by 80 percent from 1991 to 1997. -- About 20 percent of Asian-American high-school students smoke, up 17 percent from 1990 to 1995. -- About 33 percent of Hispanic high-school students smoke, a 34 percent increase from 1991 to 1997. -- About 50 percent of Native-American high-school students smoke, up 26 percent from 1990 to 1995. "Unless they are reversed, these increases in tobacco use are a time bomb for the health of our minority populations," said Satcher. "If tobacco use continues to increase among minority adolescents, we can expect severe health consequences to be felt in the early part of the next century." With about 30 teenagers from the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids standing behind him, Clinton noted that the tobacco industry, to survive, must attract young people as customers to replace those who quit or die. And he insisted that it is up to parents and other adults to discourage children from smoking. But Lott complained that Clinton is not helping to work out the details of what would be an historic attempt to punish and regulate the tobacco industry. "He's got to quit the critical rhetoric and get in here and . . . help us fight teenage smoking and deal with the health problems caused by smoking, but not just view it as, oh, great, this is a cookie jar whereby we can enlarge government, we can have more taxes."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Federal Judges Get More Power In Drug Sentencing ('Associated Press' Says The US Supreme Court Today Gave Federal Judges Greater Power To Impose Longer Terms Behind Bars For Some Convicted Drug Sellers, Unanimously Upholding The Prison Sentences Given To Five Illinois Men) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 01:02:12 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: US: Wire: Federal Judges Get More Power In Drug Sentencing Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: David.Hadorn@vuw.ac.nz (David Hadorn) Source: Associated Press Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 FEDERAL JUDGES GET MORE POWER IN DRUG SENTENCING WASHINGTON (AP) -- The Supreme Court today gave federal judges greater power to impose longer terms behind bars for some convicted drug traffickers, unanimously upholding the prison sentences given to five Illinois men. Writing for the court, Justice Stephen G. Breyer said it does not matter that a federal jury did not make clear whether it found the men guilty of conspiring to distribute cocaine in its powder or ``crack'' form. The sentencing judge was free, Breyer said, to sentence the men as if they had been convicted of dealing in both illegal drugs. Under federal sentencing guidelines, the punishment for crack-related crimes is much tougher than crimes linked to powder cocaine. Vincent Edwards, Reynolds Wintersmith, Horace Joiner, Karl Fort and Joseph Tidwell were convicted in 1993 for their participation in a drug-selling conspiracy based in Rockford, Ill. The trial judge told jurors they could convict the men of violating a federal drug-conspiracy law if prosecutors proved they were involved with measurable amounts of powdered cocaine ``or'' crack cocaine. After the jury found the men guilty of participating in an illegal conspiracy, the judge sentenced them based on his finding that the illegal conduct had involved both cocaine and crack. Fort and Wintersmith were sentenced to life in prison. The other three received prison sentences ranging from 10 to 26 years, and a federal appeals court upheld all five sentences. All five men appealed, contending that they were entitled to shorter sentences or even a new sentencing proceeding. But today's ruling rejected those arguments. ``The judge was authorized to determine for sentencing purposes whether crack, as well as cocaine, was involved,'' Breyer said, adding that the jury's belief about which drugs were involved was beside the point. The case is Edwards vs. U.S., 96-8732.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Text Of US Supreme Court Decision In Edwards Et Al. V. United States (Defendants Lose Crack-Cocaine Sentencing Appeal) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 16:52:05 EDT Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Maximillien Baudelaire
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: Re: Supreme Court Sentencing Decision Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 10:25:28 -0400 (EDT) Reply-To: martin@WWW.LAW.CORNELL.EDU Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: "Peter W. Martin" To: email@example.com Subject: liibulletin - 28 April 1998 (1 case) *** AN E-BULLETIN LEGAL INFORMATION INSTITUTE -- CORNELL LAW SCHOOL firstname.lastname@example.org *** The following decisions have just arrived via the LII's direct Project HERMES feed from the Supreme Court. These are not the decisions themselves nor excerpts from them, but summaries (syllabi) prepared by the Court's Reporter of Decisions. Instructions for accessing the full text of any of these decisions are provided at the end of this bulletin. *** EDWARDS ET AL . v. UNITED STATES No. 96-8732 -- Argued February 23, 1998 -- Decided April 28, 1998 105 F.3d 1179, affirmed. http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/96-8732.cpanel.html *** At petitioners' trial under 21 U. S. C. Sects. 841 and 846 for "conspir[ing]" to "possess with intent to . . . distribute [mixtures containing two] controlled substance[s]," namely, cocaine and cocaine base (i.e., "crack"), the jury was instructed that the Government must prove that the conspiracy involved measurable amounts of "cocaine *or* cocaine base." (Emphasis added.) The jury returned a general verdict of guilty, and the District Judge imposed sentences based on his finding that each petitioner's illegal conduct involved *both* cocaine *and* crack. Petitioners argued (for the first time) in the Seventh Circuit that their sentences were unlawful insofar as they were based upon crack, because the word "or" in the jury instruction meant that the judge must assume that the conspiracy involved only cocaine, which is treated more leniently than crack by United States Sentencing Guidelines Sect. 2D1.1(c). However, the court held that the judge need not assume that only cocaine was involved, pointing out that, because the Guidelines require the sentencing judge, not the jury, to determine both the kind and the amount of the drugs at issue in a drug conspiracy, the jury's belief about which drugs were involved - cocaine, crack, or both - was beside the point. Held: Because the Guidelines instruct *the judge* in a case like this to determine both the amount and kind of controlled substances for which a defendant should be held accountable, and then to impose a sentence that varies depending upon those determinations, see, e.g., Witte v. United States, 515 U.S. 389, it is the judge who is required to determine whether the "controlled substances" at issue - and how much of them - consisted of cocaine, crack, or both. That is what the judge did in this case, and the jury's beliefs about the conspiracy are irrelevant. This Court need not, and does not, consider the merits of petitioners' claims that the drug statutes and the Constitution required the judge to assume that *the jury* convicted them of a conspiracy involving only cocaine. Even if that were so, it would make no difference here. The Guidelines instruct the judge to base a drug conspiracy offender's sentence on his "relevant conduct," Sect. 1B1.3, which includes *both* conduct that constitutes the "offense of conviction," Sect. 1B1.3(a)(1), *and* conduct that is "part of the same course of conduct or common scheme or plan as the offense of conviction," 1B1.3(a)(2). Thus, the judge below would have had to determine the total amount of drugs, whether they consisted of cocaine, crack, or both, and the total amount of each - regardless of whether he believed that petitioners' crack - related conduct was part of the "offense of conviction" or "part of the same course of conduct, or common scheme or plan." The Guidelines sentencing range - on either belief - is identical. Petitioners' statutory and constitutional claims could make a difference if they could argue that their sentences exceeded the statutory maximum for a cocaine - only conspiracy, or that their crack - related activities did not constitute part of the "same course of conduct," etc., but the record indicates that such arguments could not succeed. Their argument, made for the first time on appeal, that the judge *might* have made different factual findings had he known that the law required him to assume the jury had found a cocaine-only conspiracy is unpersuasive. Pp. 2-5. 105 F.3d 1179, affirmed. BREYER, J., delivered the opinion for a unanimous Court. *** These and all other recent Supreme Court decisions are archived in full text at http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/ (in hypertext versions prepared by the LII and the original word-processing files received from the Court)
------------------------------------------------------------------- Recovering Our Honour - Why Policing Must Reject The War On Drugs (URL Posted For Text Of Controversial Recent Speech At The Fraser Institute By Vancouver, British Columbia, Constable Gil Puder) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 21:12:05 EDT Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jim Rosenfield
To: Multiple recipients of list Subject: New at Think for Yourself Recovering Our Honour "Why Policing Must Reject the "War on Drugs" By Gil Puder, Presentation to the Fraser Institute is now at http://mall,turnpike.net/~jnr/think.htm full text with notes. Jim Rosenfield
------------------------------------------------------------------- There Must Be A Better Way Than The War On Drugs (Staff Editorial In Toronto 'Globe And Mail' Praises Vancouver Constable Gil Puder For Risking His Career To Speak Out Against The War On Some Drug Users) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 20:14:46 -0400 From: Carey Ker
Subject: Canada: OPED: There must be a better way than the war on drugs To: email@example.com Priority: Normal Source: The Globe and Mail, April 28, 1998, Page A23 Newshawk:firstname.lastname@example.org contact: letters@GlobeAndMail.ca THERE MUST BE A BETTER WAY THAN THE WAR ON DRUGS by Gordon Gibson in Vancouver Globe & Mail April 28, 1998 Suppose you were a uniformed policeman preparing for a major conference, and at the last minute you received the following from the chief (who had known the contents for weeks): "I confirm that you were ordered by me not to present your paper titled 'Recovering Our Honour: Why Policing Must Reject the War on Drugs'..." Well, Constable Gil Puder, Vancouver City Police badge number 1167, went ahead and gave his speech anyway. This was not a career-advancing move. The powerful presentation was the wind-up event of last week's Fraser Institute gathering in this city on "sensible solutions to the urban drug problem." Speakers from around North America concluded the obvious: Current drug policy in Canada (as imported from the United States, and then diluted for the gentler Canadian psyche) is just not working, and more of the same won't help. It may be obvious, but as the chief's words above imply, the senior establishment of our justice system is not ready for a fundamental look at alternatives. Various conference papers pointed out the human tragedies, the enormous economic cost of illicit drugs, and the grotesque monopoly profits that accrue untaxed to criminals as a result of the artificial market created by the law. (The legal alcohol and tobacco drugs have costs, too; but the habits are out there where we can see them, tax them and in due course beat them back through education.) Richard Stevenson of Liverpool University argued that the unique and largest cost of illicit drugs is their threat to institutions and to respect for and observance of law and order. The law is called into disrepute just that extra bit further when millions of Canadians are branded cannabis crooks. The financing of other organized crime, the corruption of public officials and the diversion of scarce police resources to chasing the pathetic users take their own toll. As Milton Friedman said almost 10 years ago, "Drugs are a tragedy for addicts. But criminalizing their use converts that into a disaster for society." There are answers out there. Ueli Minder of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health described a large-scale, long-term heroin maintenance experiment in his conservative country, in which a number of addicts were given regular doses of heroin under controlled conditions. The dramatic results have included large drops in homelessness, a major reduction in illicit heroin and cocaine use, an improvement in the employment rate (in the treatment group) to 32 per cent from 14, and an eventual significant switch to other, more conventional treatments such as methadone maintenance and abstinence therapy. Dr. Jeffrey Singer of Arizona explained how, through the use of initiatives in that state (which enable a large enough group of citizens to force a proposed new law to a public vote), a new legal regime has been adopted. Studies had shown that 91 per cent of Arizonans were convinced that the "war on drugs" was a failure, but only 21 per cent were prepared to legalize them, because they didn't want to send the message to young people that any drug was "okay". The new Arizona law, which passed by a margin of 65 per cent to 35, applies to all illicit drugs and makes three changes. The first is tough: Violent crime associated with drug use means no eligibility for parole. But recreational possession draws only probation for the first two incidents (on the third strike, you're out); and the medical use of any drug is permitted, with a doctor's certificate. Many at the Vancouver meeting wondered why we aren't trying such things in Canada. This was not your usual Fraser Institute conference - copies of Cannabis Canada (a magazine) were passed out by the publisher, and people arrived at the microphone to describe their 20-year heroin habit - so there were representatives of drug reality on hand, and they asked that question. One of them, obviously known to the police delegates, asked why not a single politician in the country would carry the case of the three million Canadians (his number) who use marijuana. Economist and former MP Herb Grubel gave one answer. Herb got into big trouble in the last Parliament by asking simple, basic questions about Canada's equally failed aboriginal policy, and was totally trashed by the media and other parties for his pains. Politicians seek votes, he told the Fraser gathering, not hard truths or controversy. As Daniel Savas of Angus Reid told the group, a slight majority of Canadians would support the decriminalization of marijuana, but the political risk is high. We need a few brave leaders - which brings us back to Gil Puder. He is very much his own man, which is no doubt why he is still a constable after 16 years. He is highly respected by the rank and file, and much published. He has shot bank robbers and lost a colleague in a drug raid. He teaches hand-to-hand combat, has beaten cancer - and speaks his mind. There is not enough room here to assess the substance of his analysis and remedies (creating a government-regulated marijuana system, and approaching other drugs as health rather than criminal issues). But here is an insider who has put his job on the line to advance the public debate. Thank you, Mr. Puder.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Shameless Admission (Letter To Editor Of 'Halifax Daily News' Faults Columnist For Her Admission That She Has No Compassion For Drug Addicts) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 19:40:22 -0700 (PDT) To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Alan Randell) Subject: Shameless admission Editor Halifax Daily News email@example.com April 28, 1998 Dear Editor, While I pleased for Nancy Radcliffe that the penny has finally dropped, if only part way (Legalize drugs, all of them, April 26), I am disappointed that the residue of three generations of state- sponsored anti-drug propaganda still lingers in her psyche. Was there ever a more shameless admission of bigotry and hatred published in recent times by a major Canadian newspaper than Radcliffe's statement, "I don't have an ounce of compassion for drug addicts. I'm just tired of watching innocent people pay for their problem. Let's stop trying to save addicts from themselves and start thinking about how we can save ourselves from them." My dear cold-hearted Ms Radcliffe, even a cursory examination of our current drugs fiasco will tell you that it is the prohibition of certain drugs that causes the crime, not the drugs themselves. When was the last time you heard of a robbery being perpetrated "to finance an alcohol habit?" May I respectfully suggest that you do some research and check your prejudices at the door before you clamber aboard your computer next time? Just as Hitler's speeches convinced his citizens to hate Jews, the Canadian government's drug propaganda has spawned within Ms Radcliffe a visceral hatred toward the innocent users of certain drugs. Let's be clear on this. There is no more reason to persecute drug users and distributors today than there was in the past to burn witches at the stake, lynch Blacks or gas Jews. Alan Randell
------------------------------------------------------------------- US Vets Level Charges At Mexico ('Associated Press' Notes A Group Of US Military Veterans Charged Friday That The Mexican Army Is Using US Anti-Drug Military Equipment To Intimidate Indians In Southern Mexico) Date: Wed, 29 Apr 1998 01:25:10 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: Mexico: Wire: U.S. Vets Level Charges at Mexico Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: Kevin Zeese Source: Associated Press Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Author: Julie Watson, The Associated Press U.S. VETS LEVEL CHARGES AT MEXICO MEXICO CITY (AP) - The Mexican army is using U.S. military equipment intended to stop drug-smuggling to intimidate Indians in southern Mexico, a group of U.S. veterans charged Friday. ``Our government is supplying arms, equipment and training to the army of Mexico ... that are being used against the poor people of Mexico,'' said Wilson Powell, a Korean war veteran and a member of the Veterans for Peace delegation. The four-member delegation spent 10 days monitoring military activities in the southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas, where leftist guerrilla groups have risen up in recent years. They also visited the Chiapas hamlet of Acteal, where 45 peasants were gunned down by a pro-government paramilitary group in December. Veterans for Peace, based in Washington, D.C., plans to present its findings to church groups and schools in the United States in hopes of pressuring U.S. officials to monitor the use of its military equipment and training in Mexico. The group says its purpose is to increase public awareness of U.S. military involvement in other nations and end the arms race. Last year, the State Department pledged $6 million to train narcotics officers hired after Mexico purged its anti-narcotics program to fight corruption. The veterans charge that a lack of monitoring allows the Mexican government to use such training, as well as military equipment, for purposes beyond the drug war. Mexico's government dispatched thousands of troops to the highland region following a short-lived 1994 rebellion by leftist Zapatista rebels seeking greater autonomy for Mexico's Indians. The lack of a permanent peace accord has polarized the zone with some Indian communities siding with the rebels. Mexico says its maintains troops there to pacify the area and quell sporadic violence. During their stay, the veterans saw U.S.-made Huey helicopters flying over small villages. They heard accusations that the helicopter pilots intimidated some communities with by flying low over their homes, sometimes daily. In recent years, the United States has donated dozens of military planes and helicopters, including UH-1H Huey choppers, to Mexico to transport troops assigned to intercept drug shipments. Mexican soldiers and immigration officials kept a close watch on the group and repeatedly demanded to see their papers, the veterans said. ``We felt some of the same intimidation the indigenous people who live there feel,'' Powell said. Copyright 1998 The Associated Press.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Resort Seized By Mexican Drug Agents ('San Diego Union Tribune' Says The Mexican Attorney General's Office Wants To Take The Oasis Resort Hotel And Convention Center In Tijuana Through Forfeiture Because Of Purported Evidence The Property Belongs To Alleged Illegal Drug Seller Manuel Aguirre Galindo, Though The Official Owners Deny It) From: "Rolf Ernst"
To: "MN" Subject: MN: US CA: Resort Seized By Mexican Drug Agents Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 16:18:45 -0500 Importance: Normal Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Tom Murlowski Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: San Diego Union Tribune (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.uniontrib.com/ Author: Gregory Gross RESORT SEIZED BY MEXICAN DRUG AGENTS They say evidence links hotel to cartel; owners deny charge TIJUANA -- With its whitewashed buildings, Mediterranean architecture and seaside views, the Oasis Resort Hotel & Convention Center could be taken for some peaceful, sun-washed vacation spot on one of the Greek islands. But this resort, about two miles north of Rosarito Beach, has become the site of a tug of war between a Mexican government bent on rooting out drug traffickers and a hotel ownership that feels it is being unjustly harassed. Mexican federal narcotics agents, backed by elements of the Mexican army, raided the resort Friday afternoon and seized control of its operation. Hotel guests, including members of a Warner Bros. film crew working on a movie at the Popotla film studio south of Rosarito Beach, were startled to suddenly find themselves amid scores of young men in black fatigues toting automatic rifles. The heavily armed agents who patrolled the 150-room beachfront hotel were called off yesterday afternoon after one of the resort's owners, Urbano Hernandez Somero, pleaded with Gen. Josi Luis Chavez Garcma, head of the federal Attorney General's Office in Baja California. The reason given for the takeover was that the Attorney General's Office, known by its Spanish initials PGR, had found evidence that the property belongs to Manuel Aguirre Galindo. Aguirre, alias "El Caballo" or "The Horse," is alleged to be a member of the ruling council of the Arellano Filix drug cartel, based in Tijuana. Major drug traffickers often buy into resorts, office buildings and other expensive properties to launder drug profits through them. They hide their involvement by using go-betweens known in Mexico as prestanombres, or name-lenders. The traffickers put up the cash while the name-lenders sign the papers. Efforts of local news reporters to obtain comments from PGR officials in Tijuana were unsuccessful. However, the owners of Oasis held a news conference yesterday and angrily denied having ties to the region's infamous narcotics trade. "We are innocent," Hernandez told reporters. "All we ask is that you give us a chance to prove it. There is no proof of any crime we have committed to justify these acts (by the government)." Hernandez acknowledged knowing Aguirre and said Aguirre once was part-owner of the 10-year-old resort, licensed under the name "Oasis Tourist Complex." But Hernandez said that he currently co-owns the resort with Aguirre's mother, sister and son and that Aguirre sold out eight years ago. However, the federal Attorney General's Office said it had confirmed that the resort property belonged to Aguirre. Hernandez said he was told by the raiding officers that they had both authorization to seize the facility and a warrant to arrest an unidentified suspect. "They never showed me any warrants or any orders," Hernandez said. "They never showed me anything. They looked around, and they didn't find anybody." It's not the first time the PGR has raided the Oasis in an attempt to link the resort to drug traffickers, Hernandez said. "When they came last November, they didn't even bother saying they had a warrant," he said. "They just said, 'We have orders from our boss.' " The hotel owners are seeking a writ known as an amparo to protect them from further government action. But it may be too late to prevent the Warner Bros. crew from pulling out of the hotel, making a move that could cost the Oasis up to $2 million in lost revenue. Hernandez said he was to meet today with representatives of Warner Bros. in hopes of persuading them to stay.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Hemp Group To Contest Seats (Australian Broadcasting Corporation Says The Group Help End Marijuana Prohibition, In Northern New South Wales, Will Contest Seats In Three States At The Next Federal Election) Date: Sat, 02 May 1998 15:06:23 -0400 To: DrugSense News Service
From: Richard Lake Subject: MN: Australia: HEMP Group To Contest Seats Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Newshawk: Ken Russell Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Australian Broadcasting Corporation HEMP GROUP TO CONTEST SEATS The northern New South Wales based Help End Marijuana Prohibition group says it will contest seats in three states at the next federal election. The National HEMP party will be launched on Sunday during the annual Nimbin Mardi Grass and Cannabis Law Reform Rally. Organisers say they will stand candidates in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. HEMP's National President Michael Balderstone says his group has "high hopes" for the party's success at the polling booths. Mr Balderstone says he does not have any political ambitions and will not be running for parliament as a HEMP candidate.
------------------------------------------------------------------- The Dangerous Ignorance Of Those Who Say 'Legalise Pot' (Op-Ed In Britain's 'Daily Mail' By A Psychopharmacist Admits Cannabis Is Less Dangerous Than Tobacco Or Alcohol, But Alludes To Discredited 'Studies' Purporting To Show Its Dangers, And Cites Her Own Perceptions That Cannabis Causes Long-Term Harm To The Brain) To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (CLCIA) Subject: ART: The dangerous ignorance of those who say 'legalise pot.' Date: Wed, 6 May 1998 14:12:37 +0100 Source; Daily Mail, UK Section : Commentary ART: The dangerous ignorance of those who say 'legalise pot.' Author: Professor Heather Ashton Pub Date: April 28 1998 Contact : email@example.com Comments: "Professor Ashton is a psychopharmacist at Newcastle University who has spent more than 20 years studying the effect of drugs on the human mind." Personally I doubt her qualifications, experience and sincerity. *** The dangerous ignorance of those who say 'legalise pot.' There are literally millions of people of all ages and all classes in this country who have tried cannabis and claim to have had no ill effects. Indeed, as the Government launches its drugs White Paper - a document that maintains the strict official ban on cannabis - it's probably fair to say that the weight of liberal opinion is in favour of its legalisation. There are MPs who argue that its use is harmless. At countless dinner parties the law is derided. One serious broadsheet newspaper has campaigned openly for cannabis to be made legal. Why not, so the argument goes, when the drug is not nearly as dangerous as heroin, nor as addictive as cocaine, nor as unpredictable in its consequences as LSD or Ecstasy? Why not, when the anti-cannabis laws are flouted so openly, when half the students at universities have tried it and when the drug is said to pose fewer dangers than either alcohol or tobacco? Well, there are good reasons why not. As someone who, since the Seventies, has studied the effects on the human brain of various drugs - including cannabis - it seems to me that the 'legalise pot' campaigners are jumping ahead of the evidence in a cause that owes more to fashion than to hard science. During my research I have come into contact with many different types of cannabis user, from students who consume it on a casual basis to habitual users. I must stress I am not speaking as an anti-cannabis campaigners, I'm an academic, not a pundit or a politician keen on promoting a particular policy. But as the pressure grows to legalise cannabis, it seems to me increasingly important that the facts should be understood, particularly by those who argue that cannabis isn't really harmful, anyway. It is time we took a long, dispassionate view of the evidence. Take the claim that cannabis isn't addictive. Research demonstrates that this simply isn't true. My own experience with students users shows that they can and do suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they try to come off the drug. Once I was unable to complete my study of one group of chronic cannabis smokers in a commune because they could not keep their appointments. They lost their academic edge, and their studies suffered badly. And, crucially, those who stopped smoking the drug exhibited nor great improvement. A study in the U.S. conducted about ten years ago, underlined the point. A group of regular cannabis users were given oral doses of the drug under strict laboratory conditions. Later, unknown to them, the drugs were replaced by a harmless placebo. Without their regular genuine 'fixes', they ended up suffering tremors, stomach pains, nausea, headaches and a range of other unpleasant side-effects. One of the reasons is the way cannabis is absorbed by the body. It isn't like alcohol, which can be sweated out within 24 hours. The narcotic effects of a single joint last 48 hours. But the various chemical residues in the drug find their way into the body fat, where they remain for as long as a month. And of course regular users keep on absorbing more and more. Contrary to claims by the legalise pot campaign, it definitely effects the brain function. A Department of Transport study in the late Eighties confirmed that cannabis impairs the ability to drive. Another study showed that, after alcohol, cannabis is the most common drug involved in road deaths. Research into airline pilots who have smoked one moderate dose of the drug not only found that it had a marked impact on performance, but that the impairment lasted up to 48 hours. Just a disturbing was the finding that, after 24 hours, those pilots were unaware that their abilities were still affected, But they continued to make potentially disastrous mistakes when they were tested on a light simulator. Now all this may seem somewhat overstated to the people who smoked the odd joint back in the Sixties and seventies without seeming to suffer any great harm. Indeed, the legalisation campaigners point to the experience of those years as evidence that the drug is relatively safe. But I fear they are missing the crucial point. Over the years, the strength of the average cannabis joint has increased because of careful plant-breeding and hydroponic farming to produce more potent varieties, such as Silver Pearl and Skunkweed. The old reefer of the Sixties offered a relatively mild dose. A modern joint can be as much as 30 times stronger. And of course the very fact of that increase in strength adds to the chemical deposits in the body and stimulates the desire for another strong buzz. Whether or not this ;leads on the experimentation with harder drugs may be open to debate. But I think there is an analogy with alcohol abuse. Most people like a drink, but relatively few go on to become alcoholics. It must be true, however, that the more drinkers here are, the more alcoholics there will be. I suspect the same pattern applies to cannabis. The more users there are, the more will be tempted to try something stronger. This, after all, is what is suggested by the experience in Holland, where cannabis has been legal for years. The use of hard drugs has risen noticeably. It is interesting to note that the Dutch authorities have now reduced the amount of cannabis that can be sold for personal consumption. There is one other point that the legalisers tend to overlook: the risk of cancer. It took decades before the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke were fully understood. How long will it be before it dawns on cannabis users that they risk very nasty cancers of the throat, tongue and mouth, not to mention emphysema and other chest troubles? In fact, in some respects a joint can be more dangerous than a cigarette because it has no filter and a higher igniting temperature. If any future government is tempted to lift the ban on cannabis, it will have to do so despite the evidence that it creates dependency, that it impairs the cognitive function of the brain and that it poses a risk of cancer. The only argument hat is left concerns the undoubted fact that the present law is so widely flouted as to be virtually unenforceable. But wouldn't the law be equally unenforceable if the ban were lifted? After all, since cannabis clearly has a deleterious long-term effect, many groups in society would be forbidden from using it, no matter how liberal the Government wanted to appear.
There has been plenty of emotion in the drugs debate, plenty of passion and commitment. Am I alone in wishing for a more considered approach? And for a climate if in which science and rational analysis can take the place of tub-thumping zealotry? Don't miss out! *** Derek's VIDEO of the IoS Cannabis March in London, is now available from the CLCIA in VHS format at £10 inc. P & P. CANNABIS QUIZ - WIN A TRIP TO AMSTERDAM SEE : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/canquiz.html This is a fund-raising quiz. Entry is just 2 pounds. *** CLCIA On-Line Bookshop : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/webhome.html tested safe and secure purchase through Amazon.com *** Campaign to Legalise Cannabis International Association (CLCIA) 54C Peacock Street, Norwich, Norfolk, NR3 1TB, England. Campaigners' Guide : http://www.paston.co.uk/users/webbooks/index.html CLCIA : http://www.foobar.co.uk/users/ukcia/groups/clcia/clcia.html e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Tel : +44 (0)1603 625780 "The use of cannabis ought to be a matter of choice, not of law." *** The drugtext press list. News on substance use related issues, drugs and drug policy email@example.com
------------------------------------------------------------------- Children To Get Drugs Warning From Age 5 ('The Scotsman' Notes British Drugs Tsar Keith Hellawell Has Unveiled A UK Anti-Drugs Strategy For The Next Ten Years) Date: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 19:04:41 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Olafur Brentmar
Subject: MN: UK: Children To Get Drugs Warning From Age 5 Newshawk: email@example.com Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Scotsman (UK) Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com Website: http://www.scotsman.com/ Author: Jenny Booth Home Affairs Correspondent CHILDREN TO GET DRUGS WARNING FROM AGE 5 PROFITS seized by the courts from convicted drug dealers will be channelled into fighting Britain's £4 billion a year narcotics habit. Putting to positive use the £5 million seized annually from dealers is part of a UK anti-drugs strategy for the next ten years, unveiled by the "drugs tsar", Keith Hellawell. It is built on four priorities: keeping young people off drugs, treating addicts, reducing drug-related crime and cutting the supply of illegal drugs. Stress will be laid on education, with children learning about the dangers of drugs from the age of five in primary school classrooms. The Government hopes that much of the £1.4 billion a year spent on fighting drugs can be reallocated away from "react-ive" enforcement - the revolving door of police, courts and prison in which many addicts are trapped - towards treatment schemes. Drug treatment and testing orders for criminals, under which addicts are given help to stay off drugs or face jail, will be piloted across Britain. The policy will be implemented throughout England, with Scotland cherrypicking key parts for inclusion in its own plans, the Scottish Secretary, Donald Dewar, said last night. "I expect the Scottish Office, with advice from the Scottish Advisory Committee on Drug Misuse, to look for aspects of the new UK strategy which we should pick up ," Mr Dewar said. "We have our own distinctive approach to tackling drug misuse in Scotland." Scotland's anti-drugs strategy was set out in a 1994 ministerial drug taskforce report. The white paper admits that spending on drugs had been "ad hoc, complicated and random" and there had been a "lack of co-ordination between objectives, resources and outcomes". In future, cash would go to programmes that got results. The white paper, Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain, was introduced to parliament by the Leader of the House of Commons, Ann Taylor, and then promoted by Mr Hellawell at the Trocadero mall in Piccadilly. "We have got to recognise that some people do experiment with drugs and some people become addicted to drugs. In the longer term we do want to wean people off drugs," Mr Hellawell said. Targets had been set to ensure the strategy was working, including: Cutting the proportion of under-25s using illegal drugs. Cutting reoffending among drug users. Getting more drug users into treatment, including those in prison. Reducing access to drugs among 5-16-year-olds. Later, Mr Dewar announced a £200,000 Scottish Office grant to expand the Scottish drug misuse database, creating an information strategy which would give a clear picture of Scotland's drugs problem. Mr Dewar said that this information strategy would also allow Scotland to set targets and measure how well it was doing at tackling drugs. The cash was welcomed by David Macauley, the director of the official anti-drugs fund-raising body Scotland Against Drugs. He said: "I would like the database to be used for evidence-based analysis of problems, so for the first time we know what's working and what isn't. ""If half what I hear is true, a lot of the money we are spending on drugs programmes is being wasted." Mr Macauley called for Scotland's criminal justice system and drugs services to act in a more "sophisticated" way, seeking to rehabilitate addicts rather than simply jailing them again and again. The 1994 Scottish task force report had recommended rehab services in Dundee and Aberdeen, yet both cities had still to see them, he added. David Liddell, the director of the Scottish Drugs Forum, said Scotland's new information strategy should take care to measure meaningful factors, such as whether the number of drug-related deaths was rising and falling, to show whether policies were really working. "We are particularly keen for the database to use more anecdotal information from drug users groups, drugs services and the police, as well as hard statistical data, to provide a better picture of what's going on," said Mr Liddell. Some Scottish drugs groups, which refused to be named, were sceptical about the new UK strategy. One warned there was no proof that schools-based drugs education had any effect in "innoculating" youngsters against future drug use. Another said the strategy was the same old rhetoric as before, with its pledge to be tough on dealers.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Teachers Attack Drugs Education For Infants (Britain's 'Daily Telegraph' Says The Government's Plan To Educate Children As Young As Five About The Dangers Of Drugs Was Criticised By Education Leaders Last Night, While The General Secretary Of The National Association Of Schoolmasters Union Of Women Teachers Also Accused Prime Minister Tony Blair Of Setting A Bad Example By Receiving Noel Gallagher Of The Band Oasis, Who Said Last Year That Taking Drugs Might Be As Normal As Getting Up And Having A Cup Of Tea In The Morning) Date: Fri, 01 May 1998 10:40:38 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Melodi Cornett
Subject: MN: UK: Teachers Attack Drugs Education For Infants Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (CLCIA) Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Daily Telegraph (UK) Section: Editorial Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ Author: Philip Johnston and Liz Lightfoot TEACHERS ATTACK DRUGS EDUCATION FOR INFANTS. (Caption: Cartoon of a small girl with her father - the child is saying "I hate Tuesdays, it's double Heroin followed by Cocaine Studies") Government plans to educate children as young as five about the dangers of drugs, as part of a long-term strategy to curb abuse, were criticised by teachers' leaders last night. Nigel de Gruchy, general secretary of the National association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers, also accused Tony Blair of setting a bad example by courting pop stars. "As always, politicians expect others to act," he said. "The Prime Minister could probably achieve more than 1,000 lessons in drugs education if he set a good example and refrained from inviting pop stars associated with the drugs scene to receptions at No 10." Guests at Downing Street have included Noel Gallagher, of Oasis, who said last year that taking drugs might now be as normal as getting up and having a cup of tea in the morning." Mr de Gruchy also attacked the Government for "dumping social problems on to schools. It is unrealistic to expect schools to fill the moral vacuum created by so many different forces at work in society. Dumping on schools is a cop-out by Government and society." A White Paper published yesterday said that the national curriculum should include lessons introducing pupils aged five to the dangers of drugs. Keith Hallawell, the so-called drugs tsar, who devised the strategy, defended the proposal, though some ministers believe that eight or nine would be a more suitable age. "We do not intend to start talking to children aged five about crack cocaine and all the paraphernalia," said Mr Hallawell. "But they need to understand the consequences that drugs have."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Don't Toy With Drugs (Staff Editorial In Britain's 'Daily Telegraph' Also Takes A Dim View Of Anti-Drug Education For Five-Year-Olds) Date: Sat, 02 May 1998 23:29:09 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Melodi Cornett
Subject: MN: UK: Editorial: Don't Toy With Drugs Sender: email@example.com Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (CLCIA) Pubdate: Tue, 28 Apr 1998 Source: Daily Telegraph (UK) Contact : email@example.com Website: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ DON'T TOY WITH DRUGS The protection of childhood innocence is a sacred trust; parents and teachers have a duty to defend the young against the evils of the adult world - among the most harmful of which is the misuse of drugs. That duty is best exercised by keeping children out of harm's way and giving them simple rules and moral guidance; it is wrongly exercised by arming them with knowledge beyond their years and encouraging them prematurely to make judgements of their own. But Jack Straw, the Home secretary, and his "drugs tsar", Keith Hallawell, seem to think otherwise. Spelling out the facts to primary classes is to be an integral part of a 10-year "war on drugs", outlined in a White Paper yesterday. Mr Hallawell has spoken of "appropriate drugs education from the age of five" : but young children do not need to know the difference of effect between one drug and another, or the price on the street - any more than they need to know about techniques of safe sex. They simply need to know that they should never play with pills, just as they should never speak to strange men. To fill children's minds with information they cannot understand is to corrupt them. By talking about illegal drugs in a matter-of-fact way, teachers risk making them seem all too normal; by wrapping drugs education in artful presentation, schools run the risk of glamorising the subject and making it all the more intriguing. Inevitably, the task of drugs education will fall to those teachers who are themselves most familiar with the topic, and more likely to present drug abuse as a matter of adult choice rather than outright evil. Mr Hallawell has supported his proposal by claiming "there is no evidence ... that more knowledge encourages drug misuse". But it is clear, for example, that emphasis on practical sex education, accompanied by free distribution of condoms, encourages promiscuity - leading to more, rather than fewer, teenage pregnancies. It is a failure of moral responsibility to say - whether about sex or drugs - that children are bound to be tempted sooner or later, and better forearmed so that they can minimise the risks if they choose to indulge Children are best equipped against life's dangers not by precocious knowledge of what is "safe", but by real understanding of what is right and wrong. That will not be achieved by filling five-year-olds minds with images of heroin and cocaine. -------------------------------------------------------------------
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