Portland NORML News - Friday, July 10, 1998
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Oregon Medical Marijuana Act Qualifies! (Dave Fratello
Of Americans For Medical Rights Breaks The News
That The Initiative Sponsored By Oregonians For Medical Rights
Will Be On The November 1998 Ballot)
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 22:12:18 GMT To: drctalk@drcnet.org From: Dave Fratello (amr@lainet.com) Subject: Oregon Medical Marijuana Act qualifies! Great news from the capitol in Oregon - The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act (OMMA) has been certified for the November '98 ballot. Petitioners, operating under Oregonians for Medical Rights (OMR), turned in 97,648 signatures against a requirement of 73,000+. The first sample of the signatures showed a validity rate of 79%, meaning no further sampling was necessary. We got word just a short while ago... Onward... Dave Fratello Americans for Medical Rights
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Marijuana, Mail Voting Head To November Election
('The Associated Press' Version)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 02:02:11 GMT
From: Dave Fratello (amr@lainet.com)
Subject: OR: AP on OMMA qualification

Marijuana, mail voting head to November election

By CHARLES E. BEGGS
The Associated Press
07/10/98 8:45 PM Eastern

(AP) -- Oregonians will vote this fall on legalizing medical use of
marijuana, allowing mail voting in all elections and barring government
payroll deduction to collect union dues for political purposes.

State elections officials also announced on Friday that the Oregon Citizens
Alliance failed to qualify an anti-abortion initiative for the November
ballot.

The OCA measure would have banned abortion in the second and third
trimester except to save the mother's life.

The failure is the second general election in which the group opposing
abortion and gay rights has failed to get an initiative on the ballot. OCA
Chairman Lon Mabon has said the organization's future is ion some doubt.

The secretary of state said the OCA petitions had only about 88,000 valid
signatures, with 97,000 needed to put the issue on the ballot.

Workers are about halfway through tallying and checking signatures on the
11 proposed initiative measures filed for the November general election.
The secretary of state's office has until next Friday to finish the job.

Republican gubernatorial nominee Bill Sizemore succeeded in qualifying his
union dues proposal for the ballot. A similar initiative was defeated last
month in California.

Another proposal, to impose tougher sentences for property crimes, was
rated a tossup. The first signature check indicated it was very close to
qualifying, and a second check was ordered.

State Elections Director Colleen Sealock said if she was a supporter of the
property crime proposal, she would be "optimistic ... that they will
qualify."

Signatures are checked by scientific sampling. Only if the first sampling
indicates a proposed initiative does not qualify for the ballot, a second
sampling is checked.

Measure supporters need 73,261 signatures of registered voters to put their
issues on the ballot. A proposed constitutional amendment requires 97,681
signatures to make the ballot.

The marijuana measure is similar to medical pot laws passed last year by
voters in California and Arizona.

Supporters say marijuana can relieve symptoms of cancer, glaucoma, AIDS,
multiple sclerosis and other illnesses. Police organizations have pledged
to fight the measure on grounds it will lead to wider drug use.

The measure, by coincidence, will join another one on the November ballot
that will decide whether to reinstate criminal penalties for possessing
small amounts of marijuana.

The 1997 Legislature passed that law, but those who want the law the way it
was -- no criminal penalties for possession of less than an ounce --
gathered enough signatures to put the issue to a vote.

Meantime, measures on vote-by-mail and adoption were declared qualified for
the ballot Friday.

Mail voting now is permitted in all elections but the biggest ones, the
primary and general elections. Legislators have refused to extend mail
voting to those elections.

The adoption measure would ensure that adopted people 21 and older could
obtain copies of their original birth certificates.
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City Over-Rides Limit Set By Marijuana Law ('The Dominion'
In New Zealand Notes The New Oakland, California, Guidelines
Instructing Police On How To Comply With Proposition 215,
Apparently Under The Illusion That California Attorney General
Dan Lungren's Arbitrary Two-Plant Limit Is The Law)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:43:10 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: City Over-Rides Limit Set By Marijuana Law [Sic]
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: David Hadorn (david.hadorn@vuw.ac.nz)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: The Dominion (New Zealand)
Contact: editor@dominion.co.nz
Website: http://www.inl.co.nz/wnl/dominion/index.html

CITY OVER-RIDES LIMIT SET BY MARIJUANA LAW [SIC]

The city council in Oakland, California has voted to allow medical marijuana
users to stock 24 times the limit set by United States Attorney-General
[sic] Dan Lungren, a fierce foe of medical marijuana.

Mr Lungren had restricted ailing pot-users to two plants for 30 days, which
yields about 28 grams (an ounce) of cannabis or enough for about one
marijuana cigarette a day.

Under the Oakland measure, pot users will be allow to grow up to 144 plants
indoors, and they can also keep up to 645 grams of pot that has been picked
and readied for smoking.

Wheelchair-bound Ken Estes said he was "very happy because an ounce wasn't
enough".

Mr Estes, 40, has been smoking marijuana daily since he was paralysed in a
motorcycle accident 22 years ago.

The move is the latest to define what is legal under Proposition 215, the
medical marijuana initiative approved by voters in 1996 that allowed
patients to use marijuana for side effects of cancer therapy, Aids and other
illnesses with a doctor's recommendation.

The policy was passed unanimously this week.

"This is a landmark issue," said Jeff Jones, executive director of the
Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative.

Police will be asked to honour the policy, but users will be ordered to
forfeit their supply if they cannot provide a doctor's note within two days,
Mr Jones said.

Mr Lungren's office said the policy violated the law.

There has been confusion over the law since its passage.

The initiative allows possession and cultivation of marijuana on a doctor's
recommendation.

Patients can grow the drug themselves or obtain it from a primary caregiver,
defined as one who has "consistently assumed responsibility for the housing,
health or safety" of the patient.

But state courts have ruled that it is still illegal to sell marijuana or
possess it for sale.

The federal government has also become involved, claiming pot possession and
marijuana clubs are illegal under federal law. - AP
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Simpson Lawyer To Defend Pot Club Chief ('The San Francisco Examiner' Version
Of Yesterday's News About Gerald F. Uelman Representing Peter Baez
Of The Now-Defunct Santa Clara County Medical Cannabis Center In San Jose,
California)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 13:54:25 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Simpson Lawyer To Defend Pot Club Chief
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998
Author: Compiled from Examiner staff and wire reports

SIMPSON LAWYER TO DEFEND POT CLUB CHIEF

San Jose Former O.J. Simpson defense attorney Gerald F. Uelman has signed
on to defend a cannabis club director against drug charges.

Uelman and Tom Nolan were named Wednesday to represent marijuana advocate
Peter Baez, founder of a now-defunct medical marijuana club.

Baez, a cousin of singer Joan Baez, was the director of the Santa Clara
County Medical Cannabis Center that opened in early 1997 and closed May 8,
faces several drug charges and a lengthy prison term if convicted.

Uelman, a former dean of Santa Clara University School of Law, is an expert
on constitutional law who won national attention as a member of O.J.
Simpson's "dream team" of attorneys.

Nolan, a criminal defense attorney based in Palo Alto, is widely considered
one of the best in his field.

The Santa Clara County district attorney filed seven felony charges against
Baez in May, accusing him of selling marijuana to people without a doctor's
recommendation, operating a drug house, grand theft and housing fraud.

Deputy District Attorney Denise Raabe said she expected the issues at trial
to be limited to Baez's alleged drug trafficking violations.

But others involved in the medical marijuana movement hope the jury will be
allowed to consider broader issues related to Proposition 215, which
legalized medical marijuana use in California.

Baez's trial, originally scheduled to begin Monday, has been postponed
until Sept. 28.
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Male 'Role Models' Behind Bars Are A Sad Reality (An Op-Ed
In 'The San Francisco Chronicle' By Malcolm Kelly, Author Of 'The New
African American Man,' Laments The Growing Number Of Young Children
Visiting Parents In Prison, And Asks Every African American Adult To Visit
A Jail Or Prison In 1998 As A First Step Toward Creating A New
'Empowerment Paradigm' To Address The Needs Of Such Children)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 11:31:00 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: OPED: Male 'Role
Models' Behind Bars Are A Sad Reality
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: tjeffoc@sirius.com (Tom O'Connell)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Page: A 25
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Author: Malcolm Kelly
Note: Malcolm Kelly, a Bay Area writer, is author of "The New African
American Man," published by Bye Publishing.

MALE 'ROLE MODELS' BEHIND BARS ARE A SAD REALITY

I SUDDENLY REALIZED a few days ago that something is terribly wrong with
the growing numbers of young children visiting their parents in prison. It
was a Sunday that I had the misfortune to visit a relative incarcerated in
the local jail. There, I saw many young black women holding their
children's hands as they waited in long lines to visit a relative, friend
or spouse. Strangely, the children acted as if they were headed to an
amusement park or picnic.

I watched them waiting, fidgeting and wandering about the sterile, lifeless
waiting area. This was the first time I had felt powerless in a long time.
I began to question everything, even the value of empowerment.

During the past five years, since I've been writing about these issues, I
have conditioned myself to perceive every situation from an empowered
perspective, but somehow I could not see it within the children. I wondered
if they thought jail was a natural place to see their fathers. If so, what
did this do to their image of black manhood?

When I observed a little boy holding his mother's hand, I wondered if he
would ever overcome the stigma of talking to his father on a telephone
while separated by a hard, thick glass partition. I looked into his eyes
nestled between a face etched with a scowl. That's when I realized none of
the children were smiling or laughing loudly.

They were orderly like everyone else who enters a prison or jail. It's a
strange feeling. When you walk into one of these places, you immediately
become a part of the culture. When you are in this environment, it is
difficult to imagine any of the visiting children becoming doctors,
scientist lawyers, writers, artists, bus drivers, salespersons, etc. It is
also difficult to imagine them achieving greatness without someone giving
them the love and training necessary to nurture the seeds of greatness
already in their consciousness.

Although I know from an empowered perspective that it is possible to
overcome all adversity, I wonder who in America really cares about these
children. I asked myself who will help them to become empowered? Who will
teach them about manhood? Furthermore, I believe what I saw in Oakland
happens every visitor's day in Philadelphia, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago
and everywhere there are jails and prisons.

Sundays are the time when many people attend church and pray to God. I
wonder if these churchgoers mention the small children who visit their
parents in jail while singing and praying.

Similarly, like most adults, I read about organizations giving
scholarships, and I listen to the welfare and affirmative action debates,
but it is the silence and complacency among many African Americans that
bothers me the most. Although, I realize there are many black children who
have stable family environments, the children who visit their fathers in
prison are the ones who need us to speak loudly on their behalf. Sure, we
talk about the gangs, drive-by shootings, drugs and so on, but we seem to
ignore the children who have powerless inmates as role models. Why do we
expect them to shed these images and become empowered adults?

At present, we have the greatest opportunity to develop a value system that
teaches young black children how to empower themselves while living as
victims of color, status and circumstance.

We cannot allow society to condition us to perceive these children simply
as victims. If we do, then they will become like the homeless people we
ignore every day.

That's why we must create a new empowerment paradigm to address the needs
of young children who have imprisoned parents. So I am asking every African
American adult in this country to visit a jail or prison in 1998. 1 want
everyone to look into the eyes of children who have the potential to
express empowerment. Once you see their faces, I'm sure you will agree:
There's something terribly wrong here. Fortunately, we can make it right.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Judges Given Discretion On Consecutive Sentences
('The San Francisco Chronicle' Says The California Supreme Court
Ruled Yesterday That A Defendant With More Than One Conviction
For A Single Crime Does Not Have To Receive Consecutive Sentences
Under California's Three-Strikes Law, A Decision That Could Affect Hundreds
Of Cases)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:47:05 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US CA: Judges Given
Discretion On Consecutive Sentences
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Author: Harriet Chiang, Chronicle Legal Affairs Writer

JUDGES GIVEN DISCRETION ON CONSECUTIVE SENTENCES

In a decision that could affect hundreds of cases throughout the state, the
California Supreme Court ruled yesterday that a defendant with more than one
conviction for a single crime does not have to receive consecutive sentences
under the three-strikes law. By a unanimous vote, the high court ruled in
favor of a Los Angeles man who had been sentenced to 111 years in prison for
robbing four people at a furniture store.

The trial judge had sentenced David Deloza to four consecutive 25-year terms
for each victim, plus an additional 11 years for the crime itself.

But in yesterday's decision, the high court rejected the state's argument
that the three-strikes law required consecutive sentences when there is more
than one victim.

The ruling settles an issue that has divided the state appellate courts and
created confusion for trial judges.

As long as the crimes are committed on a ``single occasion,'' depending on
the proximity in time and place, a defendant does not have to be subjected
to consecutive sentences, wrote Justice Janice Rogers Brown in the court's
decision.

The court said it was up to the trial judge to decide whether the sentences
should be concurrent. The justices ordered a new sentencing hearing for Deloza.

Prosecutors and defense lawyers said the decision will ease the backlog of
cases that have been put on hold pending a decision from the California
Supreme Court. Los Angeles alone has dozens of cases awaiting final
resolution, they said.

Los Angeles attorney Gary Mandinach, who represented Deloza, said he expects
many defendants who have been sentenced under the three-strikes law to
request reduced sentences relying on yesterday's decision.

``It's going to affect a number of cases,'' the defense lawyer said.

The ruling is consistent with the high court's 1996 decision allowing trial
judges to toss out prior three-strikes convictions if they feel it is just.

``This is simply giving power to judges,'' said Frank Zimring, who teaches
criminal law at the University of California's Boalt Hall School of Law in
Berkeley.

Deputy Attorney General Alan Tate said he did not expect many judges to
change their minds, however, and reduce the sentences of repeat offenders.

``Unfortunately,'' Tate said, ``this defendant has earned 111 years in prison.''

Deloza had been convicted of robbing at gunpoint three employees and a
customer at a furniture store in Highland Park in 1995.

The crime was captured on videotape, and Deloza was positively identified by
all four victims.

The trial judge sentenced him to 111 years in prison, a ruling upheld by a
state appeals court.

In reversing that decision, the high court said Deloza committed all his
robberies at one place and in a short period of time.

``Given the close temporal and spatial proximity of the defendant's crimes
against the same group of victims,'' Brown wrote in the court opinion,
``they were clearly committed on the `same occasion.' ''

In a separate opinion, Justice Stanley Mosk said a 111-prison sentence
amounted to cruel and unusual punishment.

He noted a recent case in Oklahoma in which the court upheld a 30,000-year
sentence against a defendant.

``What is the legal difference between prison sentences of 30,000 years and
111 years? The answer is: None,'' he wrote. ``Both are impossible for a
human being to serve.''

``A grossly excessive sentence can serve no rational legislative purpose,''
he said.
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Judge's Order To Shock Defendant Stuns Witnesses (Cable News Network
Says Long Beach, California Municipal Judge Joan Comparet-Cassani
Ordered A Defendant Representing Himself To Be Zapped With 50,000 Volts
Of Electricity From A Stun Belt Fitted To His Jail Jumpsuit For Interrupting
Her - Amnesty International, Which Opposes The Use Of Stun Belts, Said
The Act Amounted To Torture)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 12:32:29 -0400
From: MAPNews (owner-mapnews@mapinc.org)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: Judge's Order
To Shock Defendant Stuns Witnesses
Newshawk: blackbox@bbox.com (Jim Galasyn)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: CNN
Contact: cnn.feedback@cnn.com
Website: http://www.cnn.com/
Author: Jennifer Auther and The
Associated Press contributed to this report.

JUDGE'S ORDER TO SHOCK DEFENDANT STUNS WITNESSES

LONG BEACH, California (CNN) -- Verbal interruptions by a defendant in a
courtroom prompted a Long Beach judge to order the defendant zapped with
50,000 volts of electricity from a stun belt.

The incident last week marked the first time a defendant has been shocked
with a stun belt since Los Angeles County began using them three years ago,
officials said Thursday.

It has also angered some witnesses and at least one human rights organization.

The defendant, Ronnie Hawkins, 48, was acting as his own attorney at a
sentencing hearing, for an April petty theft conviction, on June 30 before
Municipal Judge Joan Comparet-Cassani.

Shock to the kidneys

Hawkins' constant talking angered Comparet-Cassani, and, after a warning,
she ordered her bailiff to zap him with the stun belt fitted to Hawkins'
jail jumpsuit.

The devices are powered by batteries and deliver an eight-second current to
an area near the left kidney.

The sentencing hearing was then postponed until July 29, because Hawkins
said he needed to recover from the shock.

Hawkins has two prior convictions. Under California's "three strikes" law,
he is facing 25 years to life in prison.

Three bystanders in the courtroom later complained, and the Los Angeles
County Sheriff's department is now conducting a routine investigation.

"Nothing he was doing, in my opinion constituted any sort of security risk,"
said Jacques Cain, a public defender who was in the courtroom.

Is it torture?

But the prosecutor, Christopher Frisco, says the judge was justified.

"He was cited in county jail approximately six times for disciplinary
action. He had threatened the judge. He's HIV positive, which is
unfortunate, but he threatened to spit on people in the courtroom," Frisco said.

Amnesty International, which opposes the use of stun belts, said the act
amounted to torture.

"This is clearly, smack dab in the middle of a definition of torture under
every international human rights law," spokesman Gerald LeMelle told CNN.

The judge declined to talk to reporters on Thursday. But Mike Concha, a
supervisor in the public defender's Long Beach office, said he had spoken to
her.

"She was concerned for the welfare of the client," Concha said, adding that
the judge said she would reconsider using the device again.

More than 15 states and 100 counties across the United States use the stun
belt for inmates, according to manufacturer Stun-Tech Inc. of Cleveland,
Ohio. Stun-Tech says the device has been used 27 times without causing
physical injury.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Rurals Control Medical Marijuana Proposal (An 'Associated Press' Article
In 'The Las Vegas Sun' Notes Nevadans For Medical Rights Collected 74,466
Signatures And Only Needed 46,764, But May Still Fail Because Of Nevada's
Narrow Rules For Ballot Initiatives, Which Require Signatures To Be Gathered
In At Least 13 Of The State's 17 Counties, And From At Least 10 Percent Of
The Voters In Each Of Those Counties)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 14:53:53 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US NV: Rurals Control Medical Marijuana Proposal
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: Las Vegas Sun (NV)
Contact: letters@lasvegassun.com
Website: http://www.lasvegassun.com/
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998

RURALS CONTROL MEDICAL MARIJUANA PROPOSAL

CARSON CITY (AP) - A medical marijuana proposal is struggling because of a
state law that gives more political power to rural Nevadans than Las
Vegas-or Reno-area residents.

The law dating to the 1950s has resulted in a requirement this year for
46,764 signatures on any proposal to qualify for the November ballot - and
the medical marijuana plan's advocates collected 74,466 names.

However, the law mandates that the signatures must come from at least 13 of
the state's 17 counties, and at least 10 percent of the voters in each of
those counties must sign.

Richard Siegel, a political science professor at the University of Nevada,
Reno says that "effectively gives more political power to the people in the
small counties than in the large counties."

In the case of the medical marijuana petition, two rural Nevada counties
control its future. Clerks there have been told to do more work on their
totals of verified signatures on the plan - that's dead unless their counts
go up.

Secretary of State Dean Heller told the Lyon County clerk's office
Wednesday to check all 1,391 signatures collected in that county to see if
there's a legal minimum of 982 valid names.

Fewer than half of the signatures were checked by the clerk's office
earlier, and only 329 were found to be valid.

In Nye County, Heller said an incomplete verification job was done and he
has asked for a second look at 207 names that were rejected earlier.

So far, Nye County Clerk Arte Robb has verified 752 signatures - but the
minimum requirement is 926.

Dr. Eleanore Bushnell's book on the Nevada Constitution says a requirement
similar to Nevada's was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1969
because it gave an edge to voters in outlying areas and discriminated
against residents of populous areas.

However, a 1975 opinion by then-state Attorney General Bob List makes a
case for constitutionality of Nevada's law by saying there's a difference
between introducing and enacting a proposal.

Bushnell wrote the assumption is that all voters will ultimately decide on
a ballot question even if it gets on the ballot through a method "that
overrepresents the people in the small counties."

The medical marijuana initiative would allow people, upon the advice of
physicians, to use marijuana for curing or relieving pain in a number of
illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. Minors would have to receive permission
from their parents and the doctor.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Turney Sentenced For Jury Tampering (Bulletin From The Jury Rights Project
Urges You To Write A Letter Of Protest In Response To Frank Turney
Being Convicted Of Jury Tampering And Being Sentenced To 60 Days In Jail
And Other Outrages For Distributing The Hotline Number For The Fully-Informed
Jury Association Outside A Fairbanks, Alaska Courthouse In 1994)
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 10:56:12 -0600 (MDT) From: Jury Rights Project (jrights@levellers.org) To: Jury Rights Project (jrights@levellers.org) Subject: Turney Sentenced for Jury Tampering Update on Frank Turney Case in Alaska On July 2, 1998, Frank Turney was sentenced to 60 days in jail, 6 years probation, 100 hours of community service and a 500.00 dollar fine. Frank plans on appealing, hopefully with a different lawyer this time. Frank Turney was convicted on March 6, 1998 of three counts of felony jury tampering for distributing the hotline number for the Fully-Informed Jury Association (1-800-TEL-JURY) outside a Fairbanks, Alaska courthouse in 1994. Turney has been leafletting the Fairbanks courthouse since 1990, distributing FIJA brochures that contain quotes about jury rights from radicals like Thomas Jefferson ("I consider trial by jury as the only anchor yet imagined by man which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution") and John Adams ("It is not only his right, but his duty...to find the verdict according to his own best understanding, judgement, and conscience, through in direct opposition to the direction of the court.") Frank should never have been prosecuted for exercising his first amendment rights and educating potential jurors about their rights. It is amazing that a jury would convict him of a crime, but that is indicative of the extent of jury intimidation that is practiced by prosecutors and judges in courtrooms nationwide. (Frank was represented by a public defender.) Letters of outrage can be sent to: Fairbanks Daily News-Miner P.O. Box 70710 Fairbanks, AK 99707-0710 Email: letters@newsminer.com Fax: (907) 452-7917 Limit: 350 words Anchorage Daily News P.O. Box 149001 Anchorage, Alaska 99514-9001 Email: letters@pop.adn.com Fax:(907)258-2157 Juneau Empire 3100 Channel Dr Juneau AK 99801 Email: editor1@alaska.net Fax: (907)586-3028 Limit: 250 words Send copies to: Frank Turney Box 70392 Fairbanks, AK 99707 (907) 457-2333 Or can be emailed to Charles Rollins, Jr., a friend of Frank's who has Internet access. (chuck@mosquitonet.com) Frank is still at home pending his incarceration, so you can give him a call to show your support. Re-distributed by the: Jury Rights Project (jrights@levellers.org) Web page: http://www.lrt.org/jrp.homepage.htm To be added to or removed from the JRP mailing list, send email with the word SUBSCRIBE or UNSUBSCRIBE in the title.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Police Seize Ton Of Marijuana (A Cautionary And Not Altogether Believable
Tale In 'The Arizona Republic' Says Phoenix Police Busted Three People
Thursday And Seized 2,900 Pounds Of Marijuana And $200,000 In Cash
After Responding To A 'Suspicious Persons' Call, Smelling Pot And Seeing
Bundles Of Marijuana Through An Open Door)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 13:37:39 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US AZ: Police Seize Ton Of Marijuana
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: Arizona Republic (AZ)
Contact: http://www.azcentral.com/opinions/letter.shtml
Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/
Pubdate: July 10, 1998
Author: William Hermann The Arizona Republic

POLICE SEIZE TON OF MARIJUANA

Phoenix police seized 2,900 pounds of marijuana Thursday evening when they
answered a "suspicious persons" call at townhouses in the 9200 block of
south 7th Street, officials said.

A police spokesman said that officers answering the call smelled a strong
odor of marijuana when they got to the townhouses.

Sgt. Mike Torres said officers looking into the open door of one of the
townhouses saw, bundles of marijuana.

The officers arrested three men at the scene and are seeking a fourth who
got away.

Police also seized more than $200,000 in cash at the scene.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

State's Top Narc Indicted ('The Arizona Republic' Says Guadalupe Davila,
A Detective With The Goodyear Police Department Assigned To The State's
Gang Intelligence Team Enforcement Mission Task Force, Was Indicted Wednesday
By A Federal Grand Jury On Charges That He Stole Money Intended For
Undercover Work Against Drug Dealers - In Violation Of The Constitution's
Dictum That Trials Must Be Public, His Arraignment Thursday Was Closed)

Date: Fri, 24 Jul 1998 22:58:40 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US AZ: State's Top Narc Indicted
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Chris Donald (ai256@chebucto.ns.ca)
Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998
Source: Arizona Republic (AZ)
Contact: http://www.azcentral.com/opinions/letter.shtml
Website: http://www.azcentral.com/news/
Authors: Susie Steckner and Jerry Kammer

STATE'S TOP NARC INDICTED

Corruption Charges Give Squad A 'Black Eye'

In the dangerous shadowland of undercover police work, where street-wise
cops pretend to be pals with thugs and gangsters, Guadalupe Davila was
known as one of the best.

His supervisors in an elite Arizona anti-gang unit have praised him for an
uncanny ability to infiltrate the tightest gangs, bust up drugs rings, and
shut down operators dealing explosives and guns.

But on Wednesday the bearded 32-year-old undercover officer was indicted by
a federal grand jury on corruption charges.

The indictment, which has been sealed while the investigation continues,
alleges that Davila stole money intended for undercover work against drug
dealers, sources say.

But details about Davila's suspected crime -- how much money was involved
and how long it lasted -- were unavailable. It also was unclear Thursday
who else may be targets in the ongoing investigation into one of the most
secret, high-risk areas of police work.

Davila, a detective with the Goodyear Police Department assigned to the
state's Gang Intelligence Team Enforcement Mission (GITEM) task force, wore
handcuffs and a prisoner's striped uniform Thursday in his initial
appearence before a federal magistrate in Phoenix. The hearing, in which a
prisoner is informed of the charges against him, was closed to the public.

Federal prosecutors refused to comment on the case. But word of Davila's
indictment stunned those who have worked with the Phoenix native and
graduate of Glendale's Independence High School.

"I can't hardly believe it -- it just breaks my heart," said Donna Neill,
a community leader in the Westwood neighborhood of west-central Phoenix.

"Lupe is the kind of person that you trust, and you know that if you have a
problem, you can call him for help and he'll be there," Neill said. "He was
so concerned about the youth, about the pressures that kids face today with
all the gangs."

A member of the GITEM squad who worked with Davila and asked not to be
identified said, "We're all shocked by this. It's a black eye for everybody
here."

Davila became a sworn peace officer in 1990 when he joined the state
Department of Public Safety. He was later a member of the Jerome Police
Department before joining the Goodyear department in 1994.

Davila was hired as a patrol officer and became a detective when he was
assigned to the GITEM task force. He later was assigned to the
gang-targeting unit within the task force, an elite unit of hand-picked
undercover officers who go after hard-core gang members.

That unit worked with the FBI, investigating cases across the state and
country.

By all accounts, Davila was a master at infiltrating gangs. Fluent in
Spanish and wise in the ways of the street, he went undercover with gangs
suspected of murder and dealing in drugs, stolen cars, explosives and
automatic weapons.

Davila's operations were well-planned and designed to minimize risk,
according to a supervisor's account. He was described as being able to
switch gears at a moment's notice to take on any assignment.

And when the task force needed a volunteer to make a "cold buy" -- a risky
job of buying drugs from an unknown person -- officers could always count
on Davila, according to personnel reports.

"You are always willing to do whatever it takes to get the job done," one
supervisor said last December in a written review.

That drive led to a handful of notable assignments for Davila throughout
the Valley and state, according to his personnel file.

In one operation, Davila infiltrated a Phoenix street gang, gathering
evidence that led to the indictment of the top 10 suspects in the gang. In
another, he helped break up a crack cocaine ring in Flagstaff, a bust that
led to the indictment of 13 people.

In still another operation, he took on a California gang in Kingman
suspected of dealing drugs and shooting a resident in the head. According
to his GITEM supervisor, the work led to conviction of the gang leaders on
charges of attempted murder and drug dealing.

Another bust of 35 hard-core members of a Valley gang prompted a letter
from the Maricopa County Attorney's Office praising Davila for his
"professionalism, dedication and work ethic."

DPS Capt. David Gonzales, former commander of the GITEM squad, described
Davila as an "outstanding" officer with an "excellent work ethic."

Goodyear police spokesman Lt. Mark Brown said Davila was "a very good
employee for us here."

He said Davila is on paid administrative leave. The Police Department has
asked the DPS to conduct an internal investigation into the allegations, in
addition to the federal probe.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Prosecutor Says Alleged Dragging Was Theft Attempt (According To
An 'Associated Press' Article In 'The Chicago Tribune,' Prosecutors
In Belleville, Illinois, Claimed Thursday That A Black Teenager Who Said
He Was Dragged Along The Street Last Month By Racially Abusive Teens
Was Trying To Steal Their Money After A Drug Deal Went Bad)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 14:36:50 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US IL:
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Steve Young (theyoungfamily@worldnet.att.net)
Source: Chicago Tribune (IL)
Contact: tribletter@aol.com
Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/
Pubdate: 10 July 1998
Author: Associated Press

PROSECUTOR SAYS ALLEGED DRAGGING WAS THEFT ATTEMPT

BELLEVILLE, Ill. -- The black teenager who said he was dragged along the
street last month by racially abusive teens was trying to steal their money
after a collapsed drug deal, prosecutors said Thursday.

Police investigating Baron Manning Jr.'s claims were unable to find
sufficient evidence to back his allegations, said St. Clair County State's
Atty. Robert Haida.

Manning's "version of the events of June 11 and 12 stand in stark contrast
to all the other statements and evidence in this case," Haida said.

Despite the allegations of drug dealing and attempted robbery, Haida said
he had no plans to charge anyone in the case due to insufficient evidence
and credibility problems.

Manning, 17, told police that three white teens in a Jeep hailed him as he
walked along the street, grabbed him and drove away, dragging him about
three blocks while gouging one of his eyes and shouting racial slurs.
Manning suffered injuries to his head, arms, legs and eye.

Haida said investigators believe the teens were trying to buy marijuana
from an acquaintance of Manning.

They say that Manning dived into the Jeep when the deal collapsed in an
attempt to steal the teenagers' money.

One of the teens has acknowledged that Manning was dragged but has denied
Manning's racial accusations.

Rev. Johnny Scott, who has worked closely with the Manning family as
president of the East St. Louis chapter of the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People, said there are too many inconsistencies in
the police version.

"If there were drugs involved, why didn't they charge someone with drugs?"
Scott asked.

He again accused authorities of showing favoritism to the white teens, at
least one of whom is the son of a St. Clair County attorney. Authorities
have not named the white youths.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Getting A Buzz . . . International Style ('The Chicago Tribune'
Sends A Reporter To Ethnic Chicago Neighborhoods In Search Of
Psychoactive Herbal Drugs Unregulated By The FDA, And He
Comes Up With German Valerian Drops, Brazilian Guarana Soda,
Nigerian Kola Nuts, Pan Leaves From South Asia And More)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 14:35:36 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US IL: Getting A Buzz . . . International Style
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Steve Young 
Source: Chicago Tribune (IL)
Contact: tribletter@aol.com
Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/
Pubdate: 10 July 1998
Author: Monica Eng
Section: Tempo, page 1

GETTING A BUZZ . . . INTERNATIONAL STYLE

In an ongoing quest to calm ourselves when we're anxious and energize
ourselves when we're droopy, the human race has experimented with natural
stimulants and sedatives for centuries.

In the United States we legally ingest a rather unimaginative group of
substances that includes coffee, tea, tobacco, alcohol and the occasional
glass of warm milk. But folks in the rest of the world explore a much wider
spectrum in order to produce a buzz.

You would not have been able to find a lot of them 20 years ago, but since
then many have made their way to Chicago, along with the immigrants who use
them. The substances range from German valerian drops and Brazilian guarana
soda to Nigerian kola nuts and the spice-filled pan leaves of South Asia.

Although the folks at the Food and Drug Administration can't really
regulate a lot of these substances (because of a 1994 act that no longer
requires manufacturers to prove the safety and effectiveness of dietary
supplements) they do stress that consumers should check with their doctors
before partaking of most of this stuff.

Having checked first with our physicians (as well as the FDA and the Drug
Enforcement Administration), we recently spent some time pursuing these
often-exotic concoctions in Chicago's many ethnic neighborhoods. Let the
word go forth: Nothing we bought produces effects stronger than, say, a
double espresso or a mug of beer; but they do offer, shall we say, heady
insights into how the rest of the world chills out.

- First stop, Merz Apothecary, 4716 N. Lincoln Ave. (773-989-0900): Upon
entering this handsome, old-fashioned Lincoln Square shop, you, or more
properly your nose, is greeted by the distinctive smell of valerian.
Popular in several different forms, the plant substance may not do much for
the nose but it has long been used to calm the nerves, according to Merz
pharmacist and owner Abdul Qaiyum.

"Valerian was used (in Germany) for many years before it became popular
here as a tea," he explained. "Older folks would use it as drops and
younger people would use it in capsule form or tablet form. The third most
popular form is the tea. The idea of tranquilizers is not what the
Europeans ever wanted and so it is more of a mild calming agent, as opposed
to a tranquilizer."

Dutch-born Chicagoan Olga DeJongh recalls taking valerian in Holland in her
youth. "I remember my mother would give us valerian drops to make us less
anxious before an exam," she said.

A box of valerian tea at Merz runs about $10, while a small bottle of
valerian tincture drops is $5.95.

- Our next destination was Uptown, where we popped into the Old World
Market, 5129 N. Broadway, to find kola nuts. Nigerian advisers explain that
kola nut noshers should bite off a piece and chew it like a fruit. Most
adults in West Africa eat the nuts and, as with coffee, some find that it
gives them an energy boost while others claim it calms their nerves. This
is unsurprising as its active ingredient is caffeine. Old World sells kola
nuts at the checkout counter, where one would normally expect to find
candy, for 49 cents apiece.

- Heading further north, we visited the Indian and Pakistani district of
Devon Avenue in West Rogers Park. There, amid the produce markets,
restaurants, sari palaces and video stores, we found the House of Chat,
2642 W. Devon Ave. This 10-year-old establishment may use chat (a
chickpea-based snack) in its name, but it is much better known for two
things: its famous lentil and beef sandwiches (called bun kababs) and pan,
the pick-me-up breath-freshener of South Asia.

Made with a fresh betel nut leaf stuffed with fennel seeds, cardamom seeds,
coriander seeds, shredded coconut, ground rose petals, chopped betel nuts,
tobacco and sugar, a pan often resembles a small green taco by the time it
is fully stuffed. House of Chat panmaker Ahmed Mitani says that although
some people use them as a stimulant, these perfumy packets of chaw are
chiefly about flavor.

"Most people use it for mouth-freshening but some use it to stay awake. It
just depends on the amount of tobacco or betel nut they use," he noted.

Those who want to try pan should start by ordering a simple sweet
preparation, then stick the packet between cheek and gum and have a cup
ready for the inevitable red spit that it produces. Warning: Like chewing
tobacco juice, pan juice should not be swallowed. One pan at the House of
Chat costs $1.

- Moving south and west, we made our way to Albany Park's Arirang
Supermarket, 4017 W. Lawrence Ave., to learn how Koreans get a buzz. There
we found, as in most Korean shops, a vast array of health drinks, vitamin
drinks and, of course, ginseng tonics. We picked up a 10-pack of Korean Red
Ginseng Drink which contains sugar, water and Korean red ginseng extract.

Although there are no health claims printed on the product, Korean ginseng
has been shown in studies, including some at the University of Illinois at
Chicago, to be, as one of the studies said, "effective as a preventative or
restorative agent for enhancement of mental and physical capabilities in
cases of weakness, exhaustion, loss of concentration (primarily under
stress) and during convalescence."

According to Lisa Park, daughter of Arirang owner Yun Hee Park, customers
buy the drinks in the belief that it contributes to long-term energy and
health; but she adds that she can't vouch for it either way. A 10-pack of
Korean Red Ginseng Drink costs $12.99.

If you prefer your ginseng in fresher form, head for Ssyal Ginseng at 3604
W. Lawrence Ave. There, you can sip ginseng shakes made of fresh ginseng,
milk and honey for ($2) or purchase a large beaker filled with vodka and
ginseng roots ($70-$200) that, according to owner Ok Soon Kim, customers
buy for sick friends.

- Driving further west, we arrived at a shop that from the outside looks
like a typical liquor store but inside turns out to be a treasure trove of
Argentine culture. The shop, the Buenos Aires Deli, 3100 N. Cicero Ave,
sells more than a dozen forms of the famous Argentine herbal drink yerba
mate--and, as demonstrated by owner Ramon Mario Gimenez, almost as many
kinds of receptacles and straws with which to drink it. This herby beverage
(it comes as a tea and even in soft drink form) has been touted as an
invigorator of the mind and body as well as a promoter of health par
excellence. It also contains healthy levels of vitamins C, E, B1, B2 and
B-complex as well as magnesium, phosphorus, iron and potassium, but Gimenez
says that in his country it is less a health drink than a part of everyday
life.

"We drink it like the English drink tea," he says.

Although Gimenez sells yerba mate tea in bags, he says the more traditional
drink should be made with warmed -- not boiled -- water. After viewing his
wide array of mate cups (including a big, no-spill model for truckers) made
of wood, bamboo and gourds, we purchased a gourd-and-metal one along with a
stainless steel straw (called a bombilla) that features a strainer at one
end to filter out tea leaves and, yes, twigs. The cup costs $7.99; the
straw is $5.99; a 500 gram bag of yerba mate tea costs $2.19; and a
ready-to-drink can of Materva (which Gimenez says he's never seen in
Argentina) is 59 cents.

- After a hunt, we found guarana soda, a supercharged South American
beverage made from the guarana seed, at the primarily Argentine specialty
market El Mercado, 3767 N. Southport Ave. The drink, which can be bought in
large plastic bottles as well as in cans and glass bottles, comes in two
different forms: Guarana Brazilia and Guarana Maracana.

Although guarana is often referred to as a caffeinated drink, it actually
contains guaranine, a different substance that has the same chemical
composition as caffeine.

In addition to its properties as a stimulant, guarana is often used in
Europe and the Americas to treat headaches and promote overall health. A
12-ounce can of Maracana costs 89 cents, while the 12-ounce bottle of
Brazilia is 99 cents.

The foregoing are the buzzes we did find on our tour. But there were at
least three that escaped us. First was the popular chewing leaf called qat,
used for an energy buzz by all ages in Somalia, Ethiopia and Yemen. And
although we found plenty of kava capsules at drug stores, we couldn't find
a place that served the traditional Fijian kava drink in Chicago. And
finally, our search for a place to enjoy the popular Peruvian beverage coca
tea (yes, made from the same leaves that, in much larger volumes, are used
to make cocaine) was never successful. Probably, our difficulty stemmed
from the fact that at least two of these substances are considered illegal
by the DEA.

But as with many other formerly exotic substances, it may just be a matter
of time before they are accepted into the ever-widening cornucopia of
potions that contribute to the American buzz.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Where There's Smoke, There's Another Marijuana Protest
('The Centre Daily Times' In Pennsylvania Says Retired Penn State
Professor Julian Heicklen Was Arrested For The Fifth Time Since January
For Marijuana Possession At The Front Gates Of The Penn State Campus
At The Start Of The '30-Hour Marijuana Smoke Out,' Held Thursday
Through Sunday In Conjunction With The Central Pennsylvania Festival
Of The Arts And Featuring 23 Speakers, Including Dr. Lester Grinspoon
Of Harvard)
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 11:31:00 -0800 To: mapnews@mapinc.org From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US PA: Where There's Smoke, There's Another Marijuana Protest Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World) Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 Source: Centre Daily Times (PA) Contact: pcarty@knightridder.geis.com Website: http://www.centredaily.com/ Author: Chris Gosier, Centre Daily Times Note: Please indicate whether your comments may be considered for publication. WHERE THERE'S SMOKE, THERE'S ANOTHER MARIJUANA PROTEST UNIVERSITY PARK -- Retired Penn State professor Julian Heicklen was arrested for marijuana possession at the front gates of the Penn State campus Thursday during what is being billed as a 30-hour demonstration to protest laws against the drug. Heicklen said that he had already been arrested five times for marijuana possession since January and is awaiting a trial date. "The lighted marijuana weed is the torch of freedom," he said over a portable loudspeaker, smoking what he claimed was a marijuana cigarette. "It is immoral to arrest someone for owning a vegetable." Heicklen and about a dozen supporters sat at the intersection of South Allen Street and College Avenue beginning at noon as crowds attending the Central Pennsylvania Festival of the Arts swarmed around them. Penn State police arrested Heicklen at 12:55 p.m. after smelling the smoke from the cigarette. Heicklen went limp, forcing police to drag him away and lift him into a police car as supporters cheered his cause. District Justice Carmine Prestia arraigned Heicklen at 2:40 p.m. and set bail at $50,000. Heicklen was sent to Centre County Prison, where he was being held as of 4:30 p.m. Thursday. The Centre County Libertarian Party sponsored the demonstration, called the 30-Hour Marijuana Smoke Out. It is scheduled to run eight hours a day from Thursday through Saturday and six hours on Sunday, when the arts fest ends. Lester Grinspoon, a psychiatry professor at Harvard Medical School who has written in favor of legalizing marijuana, is one of 23 scheduled speakers for the event. Other speakers include Libertarian Party candidates for state offices and officials with the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Prior to his arrest, Heicklen acknowledged the harmful effects of smoking marijuana but said that possessing the drug should be legal anyway. "The most fundamental human right of all is to have control over your own body," he said. "That means the right to do stupid things with it, as long as you don't hurt anyone." Other demonstrators said marijuana can be used as an effective sleep aid, pain reliever or antidepressant. Penn State freshman Rebecca Seifried, observing the rhetorical styles at the demonstration as an assignment for an English class, said the medical value of marijuana is not absolute. "Most medicines have side effects," she said, noting that marijuana has been found to cause memory loss. "That's pretty significant," she said. "It might get out of control."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Re - Pot Substance May Stay Strokes (A Letter Sent To The Editor
The Everett, Washington, 'Herald' In Response To The Recent News
About Researchers At The US National Institute For Mental Health
Identifying Two Active Components Of Marijuana They Think Could Be Used
To Prevent Brain Damage After Strokes Notes The Research Isn't The First
To Suggest Cannabinoids May Protect The Brain, And Includes The Text
Of A 1993 'Science News' Report, 'Marijuana And The Brain - Scientists
Discover The Brain's Own THC')
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 19:27:43 -0700 (PDT) From: bc616@scn.org (Darral Good) To: hemp-talk@hemp.net Subject: HT: SENT:STROKE DRUG utilizes ancient medicine, MARIJUANA Cc: Mgreer@mapinc.org Reply-To: bc616@scn.org Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net letters@heraldnet.com Subject: STROKE DRUG utilizes ancient medicine, MARIJUANA Dear Editor, Congratulations for being one of the few newspapers around to report on the new medication -'cannabidiol', which is made from marijuana and very useful for stroke victims. (Pot substance may stay strokes- Herald JULY 6TH 1998) Although I must tell you that this type of information has been common scientific knowledge for many years now. It was reported in an article as early as: Source: Science News, Feb 6, 1993 v143 n6 p88(3). Title: Marijuana and the brain: scientists discover the brain's own THC. (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) Author: Kathy A. Fackelmann If some of the chemicals in marijuana may protect the brain from the damage caused by injuries and stroke, who cares if it gets the users "high"? Many of today's most useful medications make people get extremely high , and we don't ban those medications. ( such as opiates) So far Doctors haven't seen fit to remove the "get high" out of codiene, valium, or morphine. If the benefits of a drugs out-weigh the risks, then it should be up to the Doctors and their patients which herb or medication is ultimately used, after all it's their business, not the police's!. DARRAL GOOD Member of the Board of Directors of the Washington Hemp Education Network for more up to date info on medical marijuana check out: URL: http://www.olywa.net/when/main.html 3023 russel way lynnwood wa 98037 425-771-8936 *** Source: Science News, Feb 6, 1993 v143 n6 p88(3). Title: Marijuana and the brain: scientists discover the brain's own THC. (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) Author: Kathy A. Fackelmann Abstract: William A. Devane isolated a substance in pig brains that resembles delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana. Study of the substance, anandamide, could lead to the development of new drugs for pain and stress. Subjects: Tetrahydrocannabinol - Physiological aspects Neurochemistry - Research Electronic Collection: A13434805 RN: A13434805 Full Text COPYRIGHT Science Service Inc. 1993 William A. Devane was poring over his favorite book, The Life Divine, by Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo, when he came across the Sanskrit word ananda, which means bliss. For several years, Devane had been searching for a brain compound that resembles the active ingredient in marijuana. Then and there he decided that if his quest proved successful, he would name the elusive chemical after ananda. Of course, Devane still had to find the compound, a task that involved sorting through thousands of substances active in the brain. But find it he did. Late in December 1992, Devane and a group of Israeli colleagues at Hebrew University in Jerusalem reported isolating a natural marijuana-like compound in pig brains. Now that he has the marijuana-mimicking, pig-produced chemical, Devane is searching for the same stuff in human brains while working in a cramped laboratory of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in Bethesda, Md. The notion that the brain makes its own marijuana fits in with a previous discovery: During the 1970s, neuroscientists found that nerve cells manufacture compounds that resemble opium, an addictive drug obtained from the juice of the seeds of the poppy plant. This finding spurred an intensive effort to understand the brains natural opiate. Also in December 1992, two separate teams reported that they had mapped the structure of one of the opiate receptors, a protein on the nerve cell surface that recognizes and binds opiates, thus allowing these drugs to produce their mind-altering effects. Taken together, the reports raise many questions about why the healthy brain produces chemicals that resemble marijuana and opium. Many scientists speculate that such internal compounds help humans cope with stress and pain. The findings may help neuroscientists figure out how these brain-made substances work at the molecular level. Ultimately that knowledge will help drug designers develop better painkillers and stress busters. Marijuana-also known as grass, pot, Mary Jane, and a host of other names -- refers to the dried leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativa, a plant widely - and illegally - used in the United States as a recreational drug. Users typically roll the leaves into a paper wrapper and smoke the resulting marijuana cigarette. In small to moderate doses, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant's active ingredient, produces feelings of well-being and euphoria. In large doses, the drug can cause paranoia, hallucinations, and dizziness. But recreation isn't the only reason people smoke marijuana. Many people suffering from glaucoma turn to illicitly obtained marijuana to help restore their vision. The Drug Enforcement Administration still considers marijuana a Schedule 1 drug, however - one that has no accepted medical use. That may change. Joycelyn Elders, the Arkansas state health official who has been tapped as President Clinton's Surgeon General, has gone on record supporting the use of marijuana in the treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Synthetic versions of THC are available with a doctor's prescription. In 1985, a lab-made THC received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval as an anti-nausea agent for cancer patients (SN: 6/15/85, p.377). And in December 1992, FDA approved the same drug to combat the weight loss that afflicts some people with AIDS. Physicians can also prescribe the synthetic THC for treatment of glaucoma, even though FDA has not specifically approved marketing the drug for that use. evane's search for "bliss" began in the 1980s, when he was completing his doctoral studies in pharmacology at the St. Louis (Mo.) University School of Medicine. In 1988, Devane, who had been working with cannabinoid researcher Allyn C. Howlett, discovered that the membranes of nerve cells contain protein receptors that bind THC. Once securely in place, THC kicks off a series of cellular reactions that ultimately lead to the "high" that users experience when they smoke a marijuana cigarette. The very existence of such a receptor implied that the human brain manufactures a marijuana-like substance: It seemed unlikely that humans had a specialized receptor just waiting for the plant-derived THC to show up. Thus, the 1988 discovery had laboratories all over the world scouting for a THC look-alike. Doctorate in hand, Devane left St. Louis for Jerusalem to pursue his search by working with Raphael Mechoulam, the Hebrew University chemist who had determined THC's structure. Before Devane, Mechoulam, and their colleagues could begin looking for the body's version of THC, they had to design a radioactive THC-like drug, or marker, whose location could be traced during brain cell studies. They fashioned such a drug, then mixed it with THC receptors; they found that the marker locked onto its target. The Israeli team needed a reliable source of brain cells. They couldn't get human brains, so Devane turned to a local butcher shop, where he bought pig brains. After grinding the brains up in a blender, the researchers had to sort through and separate thousands of brain chemicals. They tested each one to see if it would displace the radioactive THC from the receptor. Devane calls that search a little like looking for a needle in a haystack. But eventually the team's hard work paid off: They discovered a substance that fit neatly into the THC receptor. The researchers labored for two more years to get enough of the purified compound - a drop of clear, oily fluid - to examine in detail. Using a technique called mass spectrometry, they determined the structure of the substance. Devane, of course, had no trouble coming up with a name, anandamide. Anandamide is derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon carboxylic acid that is the starting point for a cascade of complex biochemical reactions. One branch of that cascade leads to the production of the leukotrienes, key substances in the inflammation process. Another branch leads to substances known as prostaglandins, which play a role in mediating pain. Devane believes another, as yet uncharted branch of this cascade leads to anandamide. The Hebrew University scientists weren't through with anandamide just yet. They had shown that the new compound docked with the THC receptor, but they still had to demonstrate that anandamide stimulates the receptor and leads to effects similar to those produced by THC. So Devane and his Israeli colleagues turned to a classic experiment with mice. They began by isolating sections of the mouse vas deferens, the muscular duct that carries sperm from the testes to the urethra. They knew that the vas deferens contracts when jolted by an electric shock and that THC inhibits this socalled twitch response. The investigators discovered that anandamide works like THC, preventing the vas deferens from contracting after electrical stimulation. Their finding indicates that anandamide behaves like THC, at least in this mouse model. The Israeli team published their findings in the Dec. 18 SCIENCE. The saga of anandamide is far from over. When Devane left Hebrew University last year, he took his interest in this marijuana-like drug with him to NlMH. In Building 36 on the grounds of the National Institutes of Health, Devane and his NIMH colleagues continue to gather data on this intriguing chemical. Indeed, Chris Felder and Eileen Briley, two of Devane's co-workers, have collected more powerful evidence that anandamide functions like the body's own THC. Felder and Briley wanted to construct a laboratory model of the way the active ingredient in pot interacts with a cell. To do that, they inserted the human gene that codes for the THC receptor into hamster cells. When the researchers bathed the doctored cells with THC, they measured the expected drop in the cell's production of cyclic AMP, a key chemical involved in many cellular reactions. Next, Felder and Briley took a petri dish filled with genetically altered hamster cells and poured in a purified form of anandamide. Again, they measured a decline in cyclic AMP Unaltered cells treated with anandamide showed no such drop. Anandamide didn't produce as big a drop in cyclic AMP as THC did. This suggests that the natural marijuana-like substance produced by human brains may be weaker than the plant-derived THC. "It is not quite as potent as delta-9, but it's close," says Felder, who notes that their research has not yet been published. Will purified, concentrated doses of anandamide produce mind-altering effects in humans? Devane and Felder don't know yet, but they are hoping to test the compound in humans shortly, In the smaller doses that occur naturally in the body, anandamide may be involved in the regulation of mood, memory, pain, movement, and other activities, Devane says. The brain's reaction to marijuana may help explain the role of anandamide, says Michael J. Brownstein, chief of the NIMH Laboratory of Cell Biology. He notes that dogs given large doses of THC will stumble as though they were drunk. This observation suggests that a defect in anandamide or its receptor may cause certain diseases characterized by loss of motor control. For example, some scientists speculate that the natural marijuana-like substance may play a role in Huntington's chorea, a progressive hereditary disease that interferes with muscular control. There's no proof that anandamide is connected to Huntington's disease, cautions Miles A. Herkenham, an NIMH scientist. However, Herkenham's preliminary data suggest that people with Huntington's lose lots of THC receptors early in the disease process, even before symptoms start to surface. Herkenham's previous research (SN: 11/26/88, p. 350) produced a map of the THC receptors in the human brain. Others wonder if anandamide plays a role in eating disorders such as anorexia and excessive eating. Regular users of marijuana say that the drug leads to a feeling known as "the munchies." Scientists know that THC can, in fact, trigger a glucose craving. Such evidence suggests that anandamide is involved in appetite control, Brownstein says. The search for anandamide began with the discovery of the THC receptor. The flip side of that story is being played out in the related field of opiate research. Several decades ago, neuroscientists identified endorphins and enkephalins, opium-like compounds manufactured by the human brain. At that time, researchers also had evidence that opiate receptors existed. Yet their search for the structure of such receptors remained unsuccessful until late last year, when peptide chemist Christopher J. Evans of the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues finally obtained a detailed picture of one type of opiate receptor. They published their finding in the Dec. 18 SCIENCE. The endorphins and enkephalins are similar to opium, heroin, and morphine, drugs derived from the seeds of the poppy plant Papaver somniferurm. Evans and his co-workers have identified and described the messenger RNA that carries the genetic blueprint for one type of opiate receptor from the DNA of a cell's nucleus to the receptor's production site. Why did it take so long? Evans says the messenger RNA for opiate receptors is very rare and difficult to isolate. But once they had the messenger RNA, the team could determine the amino acids that make up the receptor. After years of searching for one of these elusive receptors, a second team has also characterized an opiate receptor-almost certainly the same one as Evans' group. In the Dec. 15 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Brigitte L. Kieffer of the Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie in Strasbourg, France, and her co-workers describe an opiate receptor that looks remarkably similar to the one the U.S. team nabbed. The opiate receptor and the THC receptor belong to a family of proteins that do their work via molecules called G-proteins. Evans says such receptors work this way: An opiate or THC-like drug binds with the receptor on the outer surface of the cell. Once activated, the receptor acts on G-proteins inside the cell, a process that leads to a cascade of biochemical reactions - and a feeling of euphoria. The U.S. and French investigators identified the delta opiate receptor, a type of receptor that binds with enkephalins. In the future, researchers hope to find several other types of opiate receptors, a goal that should be easier now that a map of the delta receptor exists. Evans believes that a handful of genes probably direct the production of a host of opiate receptors, including this one. Neuroscientist Gavril W. Pasternak of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City predicts that the mapping of an opiate receptor will "revolutionize" the field of opiate research. Knowing the structure of this receptor (and others, once they are mapped), drug designers can begin to fashion new opiate compounds, perhaps ones that fulfill the age-old promise of relief from pain without ill effects. How is it that the brain evolved to manufacture compounds that resemble drugs of abuse? Some scientists speculate that as organisms evolved from single-celled creatures to complex ones, they needed a system to regulate a welter of interrelated physiological functions. Thus, humans and other creatures developed neurotransmitters, chemical messengers that allow nerve cells to communicate with one another in the brain and with other cells in the body. Like anandamide, the endorphins and enkephalins play a role in the healthy brain and are probably involved in immune function, motor control, and pain relief, Evans speculates. Such brain chemicals also play a part in an organism's response to danger, a throwback to the time when immediate pain relief meant animals could flee from an attacker without delay. Most modern humans don't have to worry much about tiger attacks, but stress remains ubiquitous. As neuroscientists learn more about anandamide, the endorphins, and their protein receptors, they will begin to compile a much better picture of the way these feel-good chemicals influence human behavior. *** [Portland NORML notes: To understand how this research led to other research showing why marijuana is not a drug of abuse, see the 1995 article, Marijuana and the Human Brain, by Jon Gettman, former director of NORML.]
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Justice Department To Appeal Ruling On Testimony
(According To 'The San Francisco Chronicle,' US Justice Department Officials
Said Yesterday They Would Appeal A Startling Ruling By A Federal Appeals
Court In Denver That Forbids Prosecutors From Promising Leniency
To Witnesses In Exchange For Their Testimony Against Other Criminal Defendants)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:55:07 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Justice Dept To Appeal Ruling On Testimony
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: tjeffoc@sirius.com (Tom O'Connell)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Section: A 10
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Author: Joan Biskupic, Washington Post

JUSTICE DEPT TO APPEAL RULING ON TESTIMONY

Surprise decision to bar deals could stifle prosecutors

Washington

Justice Department officials said yesterday they will appeal a startling
ruling by a federal appeals court in Denver that forbids prosecutors from
promising leniency to witnesses in exchange for their testimony against
other criminal defendants.

The ruling last week challenges standard prosecutorial practice of securing
accomplices' testimony, in order to build a case against more dangerous or
important defendants.

The three-judge panel used a novel interpretation of federal law that
conflicts with decisions by her lower courts. But because the ruling now
stands as the law in western states, it has become the talk of federal
prosecutors and criminal defense attorneys around the country.

"If the decision is read very, very broadly, it could have a very
wide-ranging impact," Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder Jr. A yesterday.
"It goes to the way in which prosecutors at the federal, state, local levels
have conducted themselves for a good number of years."

The department is asking the full judicial panel of the 10th Circuit to hear
the case and that the effect of the July 1 decision be postponed while the
appeal is pending. If the decision is upheld by the full 10th Circuit, whose
jurisdiction includes Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah and
Wyoming, the government could petition the Supreme Court. Only if the
Supreme Court were to affirm the ruling would it affect cases nationwide.

The decision rests on the theory that promising a lesser sentence for
testimony at trial violates a federal bribery statute. Although some legal
experts said it was a good candidate for reversal, the decision nonetheless
calls into question how prosecutors operate.

The government often targets the big players in criminal wrongdoing by
offering lesser sentences to their accomplices in exchange for testimony.

"Prosecutors pay off cooperating witnesses with promises of money, soft
sentencing and promises not to prosecute at all," said Gerald Lefcourt,
president of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. "The
enormous power of the government to lock up a defendant for life, or to free
him altogether, creates an enormous incentive to lie."

But Holder said that prosecutors strive for "truthful testimony," even when
it's the product of a plea bargain or other deal. "Any responsible
prosecutor always tries to substantiate (what) any witness for the
government is going to be saying," he said.

The federal law at issue prohibits offering anything of value to a witness
for his testimony. The woman who brought the appeal, Sonya Singleton, had
been convicted on cocaine and money-laundering charges. She argued in the
10th Circuit case that federal prosecutors broke that law by promising
leniency to a witness in return for his testimony against her.

The 10th Circuit panel, in a decision written by Judge Paul J. Kelly Jr.,
said the law provides no exception for prosecutors and concluded, "Promising
something of value to secure truthful testimony is as much prohibited as
buying perjured testimony."

The panel acknowledged that the Supreme Court in a 1972 case had said that
the government must disclose at trial a promise of leniency made in return
for a witness' testimony, but rejected arguments that that ruling means
promising leniency is legal.

The panel noted that its ruling conflicts with decisions from other lower
courts and that its position was based on a reading of federal law, not any
constitutional mandate. As such, if the ruling ever were to be affirmed,
Justice Department officials said, Congress could rewrite the bribery
statute to include an exception for prosecutors.

Since the ruling last week, a high-profile case in the 10th Circuit has been
the subject of some speculation: Timothy J. McVeigh was convicted in the
Oklahoma City bombing after Michael Fortier, who cut a deal with
prosecutors, testified against him. But whether the new ruling could help
McVeigh on appeal is guesswork.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Government To Fight For Plea Bargains ('The San Jose Mercury News' Version)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 14:39:15 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Government To Fight For Plea Bargains
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Author: Mercury News Wire Services

GOVERNMENT TO FIGHT FOR PLEA BARGAINS

It Challenges Appeals-Court Decision Outlawing Prosecution Tool

WASHINGTON -- The Justice Department said Thursday that it would appeal a
Colorado appeals-court ruling that prohibits prosecutors from obtaining
witnesses' testimony with promises of leniency, a ruling that could
jeopardize criminal cases nationwide.

Government officials believe the decision by Denver's 10th Circuit Court of
Appeals undermines a tactic used commonly by prosecutors, and that it might
threaten recent convictions won by plea agreements, including the Oklahoma
City bombing cases.

``If the decision is read very, very broadly,'' said Deputy Attorney
General Eric Holder, ``it could have a very wide-ranging impact.''

In last week's ruling, a three-judge panel said plea negotiating was akin
to bribery, and ordered a new trial for a woman accused in a drug
conspiracy case.

``Promising something of value to secure truthful testimony is as much
prohibited as buying perjured testimony,'' the panel ruled.

``If justice is perverted when a criminal defendant seeks to buy testimony
from a witness, it is no less perverted when the government does so.''

A different panel of the same court is considering the appeal of Timothy
McVeigh, who was sentenced to death for the Oklahoma City bombing.

During McVeigh's trial and the trial of his partner, Terry Nichols,
prosecutors relied on the testimony of Michael Fortier, a co-defendant.

Fortier was sentenced to 12 years in prison after he outlined McVeigh's
plan to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. The blast killed 168
people.

Joseph Hartzler, chief prosecutor against McVeigh, said Thursday that he
believed that the conviction against McVeigh would stand because defense
lawyers did not raise objections to the plea agreement in earlier appeals.

McVeigh's attorneys could not be reached for comment, but former federal
prosecutor Ronald Woods, who helped represent Nichols, said: ``This
decision is a topic of conversation in every U.S. attorney's office across
the country.''

Nichols was sentenced to life in prison last month. His appeal has yet to
be filed.

The Justice Department is asking the nation's U.S. attorney's offices to
notify Washington of an expected flood of requests from defense attorneys
across the country seeking to have their clients'
convictions overturned.

``It goes to the way in which prosecutors at the federal, state, and local
levels have conducted themselves for a good number of years,'' Holder said.

Holder, the former U.S. attorney in Washington, also defended the
prosecutor's art of deal-making with criminals. ``Any responsible
prosecutor always tries to substantiate (what) any witness for the
government is going to be saying,'' he said. ``And especially . . . in
instances where the testimony is elicited after some kind of a deal is
struck.''
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Appeals Court Stays Leniency Ruling ('Reuters' Says The Denver-Based
US 10th Circuit Court Of Appeals Friday Unexpectedly Stayed
Last Week's Ruling By A Three-Judge Appellate Panel That Bars
Federal Prosecutors From Promising Leniency To Cooperative Witnesses
In Criminal Cases)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 13:59:36 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: WIRE: Appeals Court Stays Leniency Ruling
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: David.Hadorn@vuw.ac.nz (David Hadorn)
Source: Reuters
Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998
Author: Robert Boczkiewicz

APPEALS COURT STAYS LENIENCY RULING

DENVER (Reuters) - The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals Friday postponed a
controversial new ruling barring federal prosecutors from promising
leniency to cooperative witnesses in criminal cases.

The Denver-based court unexpectedly stayed last week's ruling by a
three-judge appellate panel, one day after the Justice Department said it
would ask the full U.S. appeals court to reverse the ruling which might
affect many convictions, including those in the Oklahoma City bombing case.

Friday's order said the court was acting on its own initiative to
indefinitely postpone the effective date of the ruling until all 12 judges
of the court can reconsider the decision that was issued by the three-judge
panel.

The July 1 ruling said it was illegal for federal prosecutors to offer
leniency in exchange for testimony. It led to a backlash from prosecutors,
members of Congress and editorial writers because of its negative effect on
law enforcement.

"The appeal will be set for oral argument during the November session of
the court," the court said in a two-page order.

The ruling applied only to the six states of the 10th Circuit, which covers
Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming, but the Justice
Department did not want it to be adopted by appeals courts in other parts
of the country.

Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder said it was difficult to say whether
the ruling would affect the appeals of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols,
who were convicted in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 that killed 168
people.

A key witness in the case, Michael Fortier, testified after reaching a plea
deal with prosecutors that promised him leniency.

Several members of Congress said they would propose legislation to overturn
the ruling.

The panel's ruling had an immediate effect in some states because trials
were approaching in cases in which prosecutors said their cases were
dependent on testimony based on agreements that would be illegal under the
new decision.

REUTERS
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Employee Not Indicted Over Death (A 'New York Times' Story
Carried By 'The Associated Press' Says A Grand Jury In Raleigh,
North Carolina, Refused Monday To Indict A Store Employee Who Beat To Death
A Man Who Grabbed $130 From A Cash Register - Jason Cort's Parents Believe
The Grand Jury Was Swayed Against Their Son Because Crack Was Found
In His Body)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 12:59:30 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US NC: Wire: Employee Not Indicted Over Death
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Associated Press

EMPLOYEE NOT INDICTED OVER DEATH

RALEIGH, N.C. (AP) -- Jason Cort grabbed $130 from the Food Lion cash
register and ran out into the warm May night. A supermarket employee took
off after him.

Cort, the troubled product of a well-to-do suburban family, wasn't fast
enough. Prosecutors say the store employee caught the 23-year-old Cort and
beat him to death with a tree limb.

The thrashing ended the hard-luck life of a young man who had struggled with
depression, a learning disability, alcohol and cocaine.

But the final chapter was written Monday, when a grand jury refused to
indict the store employee, college student Daniel Abram Rodbourn, on
manslaughter charges.

``It's telling the public that in an attempt to recover property, you can
kill somebody,'' said Cort's father, Steven Cort. He and his wife, Cheryl,
said they believe the grand jury was swayed against their son because crack
was found in his body.

``In my opinion, the minute they asked, `Was he on drugs?' the curtain went
down and Jason was on trial,'' Mrs. Cort said.

Cort was a skinny, learning-disabled kid who was so indecisive he would ask
his mother what to order off a restaurant menu. He grew herbs and cooked
with his mother, a neuromuscular therapist. He would scold her if she tossed
their cat off her lap, worried that the drop would hurt the pet.

``He was too sensitive for this world,'' said his father, a chemical
engineer and entrepreneur. ``I think that made him easy prey.''

Rodbourn, a 25-year-old senior at North Carolina State University majoring
in zoology, could not be reached for comment. Neither he nor his parents
have listed telephone numbers, and an entry in the university's student
directory was outdated. Prosecutors did not know if he had hired a lawyer.

Cort's parents had enrolled him in a private school that specialized in
learning-disabled students to help him graduate from high school. He was
hospitalized with depression in his teens and sent to live with a
grandparent so he could break off ties to friends who supplied him with drugs.

Finally, in January, he graduated from a hairstyling academy. His parents
celebrated with a ski trip to Aspen, Colo. A photo of Cort kicking back in
an armchair, his snowboarding boots crossed, sits on a glass tabletop in a
sun room of their home in Cary, a Raleigh suburb.

Trying to stay away from his former drug buddies meant Cort had few friends.
He would turn over his pay from a hair salon to his mother, trying to beat
the temptation of drugs. But his parents suspect someone talked him into
buying a fix and robbing the Food Lion on May 9.

``Jason was not a leader. He was a follower,'' Steven Cort said. ``He was an
easy mark because of his sensitivity and his depression.''

Police told Cort's parents that Cort broke away from two Food Lion customers
who tried to stop him at the door. A woman manager of the supermarket told
Rodbourn, ``Go get him,'' according to police.

Rodbourn caught up with Cort, the two fought, and the 140-pound, 5-foot-10
Cort broke free, police told the family. Rodbourn overtook him again and
beat him, prosecutors said.

Steven Cort said police told him Rodbourn beat his son with a 2-inch-thick,
5-foot-long tree branch. He said police told him one witness reported his
son was struck at least 10 times. A second witness said Cort was hit at
least twice as he lay on the ground. He suffered a broken skull, his parents
said.

Police thought Cort was drunk and had only minor injuries. He was taken to a
hospital to sober up, but lost consciousness. He was taken off life support
on May 13.

A Food Lion spokeswoman refused to discuss the case or the store's policy on
pursuing thieves.

Assistant District Attorney Howard Cummings said he thought there was enough
evidence to indict Rodbourn. ``The message is you get what you deserve, but
I don't want to pass judgment on anybody,'' he told The News & Observer.

District Attorney Colon Willoughby said the grand jury's decision
effectively ends any attempt to prosecute. He said his office has a policy
of not presenting a case to a new grand jury without fresh evidence.

The Corts said they never wanted prison but would have advocated community
service if Rodbourn had been tried and convicted.

``Drugs ruined my family,'' Mrs. Cort said. ``You cocoon them the best you
can and then you have to set them free, and that's the scary part.''

Copyright 1998 The New York Times Company
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Hempfest Set To Reap Reward Of Legal Battle ('The Jacksonville Times Union'
Notes Tomorrow's Hemp Festival At Jacksonville Beach In Florida,
Organized By Scott Bledsoe, Will Take Place Despite The Usual Best Efforts
Of Public Officials To Suppress People's Right To Assemble Peacefully)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 12:42:40 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US FL: Hempfest Set To Reap Reward Of Legal Battle
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Pubdate: Friday, July 10, 1998
Source: Jacksonville Times Union
Contact: http://www.Jacksonville.com/aboutus/letters_to_editor.html
Website: http://www.Jacksonville.com/
Author: Allison Thompson Times-Union staff writer

HEMPFEST SET TO REAP REWARD OF LEGAL BATTLE

Scott Bledsoe has his hands full with last-minute details for tomorrow's
Hempfest at Jacksonville Beach. But he's not so busy that he'll ignore his
plans for the future.

''I don't know if we're going to Jacksonville Beach again,'' Bledsoe said.
''Maybe we'll go to Jacksonville and change the law there, too.''

Bledsoe was referring to Jacksonville Beach's special events policy, which
Hempfest organizers - the Cannabis Action Network - said placed unreasonable
financial and content-based requirements on them.

The organization, which focuses on the legalization of industrial hemp and
marijuana for medical purposes, successfully fought the law in federal court.

Bledsoe expects at least 1,000 people at tomorrow's festival, which is from
noon to 8 p.m. at the SeaWalk Pavilion.

Several speakers, including an AIDS patient and a cancer patient who use
marijuana to treat their illnesses and a woman who receives marijuana from
the federal government as part of an experimental program, are scheduled to
appear. At least five bands are to perform, Bledsoe said.

Organizers will be circulating a petition to amend the state constitution to
legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The petition must have 435,000
signatures by the summer of 2000 to put the issue on the ballot in November
of that year.

Lt. Cliff Shank of the Jacksonville Beach Police Department said about four
officers will be on duty during the daylong event. Police typically don't
see an increase in arrests on weekends when the city hosts a festival, and
Shank hopes that trend continues tomorrow.

''I don't expect any type of problem with it,'' he said.

Bledsoe said he is proud of the work the group did to change the
Jacksonville Beach policy and said other controversial groups will benefit
from the lawsuit. Among the requirements the group protested were ones
calling for the event to be approved by the Special Events Committee and
forcing the group to have insurance.

''I think that we made an inroad and we made history, so to speak, in making
a change to the law,'' he said.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

GOP Jabs Coburn In Needle Program Fight ('The Tulsa World'
Says Oklahoma US Representative Tom Coburn Has Unleashed A Torrent
Of Criticism From Fellow Republicans Because Of His 'Stealth Attack'
On Needle Exchange Programs In Washington, DC)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 12:50:48 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Gop Jabs Coburn In Needle Program Fight
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Michael Pearson (oknorml@swbell.net)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Tulsa World (OK)
Contact: tulsaworld@mail.webtek.com
Website: http://www.tulsaworld.com
Author: Jim Myers, World Washington Bureau

GOP JABS COBURN IN NEEDLE PROGRAM FIGHT

"The government should help drug users break their addictions, not continue
them," Tom Coburn.

WASHINGTON -- A stealth attack from U.S. Rep. Tom Coburn against a needle
exchange program designed to fight the spread of AIDS in the District of
Columbia unleashed a torrent of criticism from Coburn's fellow Republicans.

Some believe it is yet another example of the GOP ignoring its own
principles of staying off the back of local government.

Coburn came up with the proposal, which would prevent the District of
Columbia from using its own funds to pay for the program, but did not run
with it himself.

Instead, he handed it off to Rep. Charles Taylor, R-N.C., who chairs the
House appropriations subcommittee that handles spending issues for the
District of Columbia.

Taylor reportedly has not publicly acknowledged his involvement, and his
office stated Thursday that no one was authorized to comment on the issue.

An aide with the Appropriations Committee also could not answer questions
concerning it.

In testimony before Taylor's subcommittee several days ago, Rep. Connie
Morella, R-Md., said that such interference in local government affairs runs
counter to GOP principles.

``The District of Columbia has one of the highest incidence of HIV infection
in the country,'' Morella said.

``(It) has had a local needle exchange program in place since last year, an
important tool in the city's fight against the spread of HIV and an
important bridge to drug treatment service. Now, some members want to tell
D.C. that it cannot spend its own funds to prevent HIV infections.

``This is simply wrong.'

She pointed out the House has already gone on record against the use of
federal dollars for such programs.

Carol Schwartz, a GOP councilwoman in the district and mayoral candidate,
also urged Taylor's panel to reject attempts to load up legislation with
so-called riders on nonspending matters.

``The District of Columbia does not need to be the guinea pig for 535
individual congressional agendas,'' Schwartz said.

``That is not fair.''

She also said issues of local concerns should be decided by the citizens of
the district.

The U.S. Constitution gives Congress special authority over the District of
Columbia and its affairs; lawmakers from time to time become directly
involved in local issues.

Schwartz said just ``because you can does not mean that you should''
exercise that power.

Coburn was not available for comment.

Besides the argument against congressional interference into local
government, the different opinions on the success of such needle exchanges
and the message they send appear to be driving the ongoing debate.

Morella and others believe they are working.

``Scientific evidence supports the fact that needle exchange programs reduce
HIV infection and do not contribute to illegal drug use,'' she said.

Coburn rejects that view.

In comments made immediately after the House vote to ban the use of federal
dollars for needle exchanges, he compared attempts to limit HIV transmission
by free needle exchanges for drug users to limiting lung cancer by passing
out free low-tar cigarettes to teen smokers.

Coburn also claimed that new studies run counter to claims put forth by
proponents of needle exchanges that they are effective in reducing HIV rates.

Two studies in Canada found needle exchange programs actually contributed to
increased HIV transmissions, he said.

Moreover, Coburn said, such programs send the wrong message.

``The government should help drug users break their addictions, not continue
them,'' he said.

Supporters of the district's program say the year-old program can help fight
drug use in addition to HIV transmission.

Those who receive the free needles must register with the program and are
urged to seek treatment, they say.

No one could say how seriously Taylor's panel was taking Coburn's proposal.

Jim Myers can be reached at (202) 484-1424.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Clinton's 'Up Side The Head' Wakeup Call To America (A 'Reuters' Article
In 'The Toronto Star' Says Half Of The US Government's $2 Billion, Five-Year
Advertising Campaign Promoting The War On Some Drug Users Is To Be Funded
By The Private Sector)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 11:31:00 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Clinton's 'Up Side The Head'
Wakeup Call To America
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Dave Haans
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Toronto Star (Canada)
Page: A14
Contact: lettertoed@thestar.com
Website: http://www.thestar.com/
Author: Reuters

CLINTON'S 'UP SIDE THE HEAD' WAKEUP CALL TO AMERICA

ATLANTA (Reuters) - Seeking to shock children into avoiding illegal
drugs, U.S. President Bill Clinton has launched an unprecedented $2
billion (U.S.) media blitz of provocative radio, television, newspaper and
Internet ads.

The money, half from the government and half to be raised from the private
sector. will be spent over the next five years, beginning last night with
simultaneous anti-drug advertisements on the four major American television
networks.

The ads are designed to be jarring, with one showing a girl screaming and
smashing things with a frying pan while telling the audience this is what
drugs will do to their lives.

Another shows a child recounting her mother's warnings about talking to
strangers and playing with matches. Asked what her mother said about drugs,
the girl is silent.

Officials said they wanted to use the most sophisticated techniques of
television and Hollywood to shake children and their parents out of
complacency about drugs. They described the effort as the largest anti-drug
ad campaign ever launched.

Critics say there is scant evidence such campaigns work and that the $1
billion in government money, and an equal amount in free air time and
advertising space from media groups, could be better spent.

Speaking in Atlanta, Clinton recalled his half-brother Roger's drug habit:

"My brother nearly died from a cocaine habit and I've asked myself a
thousand times: what kind of fool was I that I did not know that this was
going on?

"Nobody in America is free of this. Not the president, not any community,
any school, any church, any neighbourhood. These ads are designed to knock
America up side the head and get America's attention."

Clinton was joined by Republican House of Representatives Speaker Newt
Gingrich, who said Congress, which provided $195 million for the program's
first year, would come up with the rest. "We are all trying to reach out to
every young American and say: Don't do it," Gingrich said.

BETTER SPENT

The campaign has critics.

"For the past 10 years, our nation's kids have been bombarded with
anti-drug messages and it is these same kids who are experimenting with
more drugs," said Ethan Nadelmann, of the Lindesmith Centre.

Lindesmith is a drug policy group, financed by investor George Soros, who
advocates decriminalizing some drugs and emphasizing treatment instead of
punishment.

"While these ads are well-intended, this money could be better spent on
programs proven effective in reducing drug use, such as after-school
programs and treatment on demand."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Clinton, Gingrich Promote New Anti-Drug Ad Campaign (The 'Associated Press'
Version In 'The Chicago Tribune' Says House Speaker Newt Gingrich
Pledged To Try To Win Congressional Approval For Expanding The $195 Million
One-Year Campaign Into A Five-Year, $1 Billion Effort)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 14:34:16 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Clinton, Gingrich
Promote New Anti-Drug Ad Campaign
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Steve Young (theyoungfamily@worldnet.att.net)
Source: Chicago Tribune (IL)
Contact: tribletter@aol.com
Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/
Pubdate: 10 July 1998
Author: Associated Press
Section: Sec. 1, page 14

CLINTON, GINGRICH PROMOTE NEW ANTI-DRUG AD CAMPAIGN

ATLANTA -- Updating "Just Say No" with images to "knock America upside the
head," President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich announced an
anti-drug campaign aimed at bombarding the nation with hard-hitting ads,

Starting Thursday night on network television, the government campaign
intends to reach parents and kids at least four times a week with graphic
images of drugs' destructiveness and children's vulnerability.

"These ads were designed to knock America upside the head and get America's
attention and empower all of you," Clinton told an audience of mostly
children.

Gingrich (R-Ga.) pledged to try to win congressional approval for expanding
the $195 million one-year campaign into a five-year, $1 billion effort.

The government will ask media outlets to match the federal money dollar for
dollar.

In a 1997 national survey, half of high school seniors and nearly one-third
of 8th-graders reported using drugs.

"I wanted to come here today to stand with the president to say that on a
bipartisan basis--Democrats and Republicans, the legislative branch and the
presidency-- we're all trying to reach out to every young American and say,
`Don't do it,' " Gingrich said.

The president recalled his younger brother, Roger, battling cocaine
addiction. "What kind of fool am I that I didn't know what was going on? .
. There's somebody like my brother back at your school who's a good kid,
just a little lost," Clinton said.

The campaign's first ads were in 75 Thursday newspapers. Though most of the
campaign will be televised, the ads, which were produced free by some of
Madison Avenue's premiere agencies, also will run on radio, billboards and
the Internet.

One spot walks viewers past school lockers into a classroom of small desks.
"It's true," the announcer exhorts parents, "The use of marijuana has
actually gone down . . . to the 5th grade. Talk to your kids now, before
someone else does."

Another is a spinoff of the fried egg "This is your brain on drugs" ad so
widely used during the Partnership for a Drug-Free America's 11-year
campaign, with its Reagan-era slogan "Just Say No." The updated version,
about heroin's destructiveness, shows a frying-pan-wielding young woman
smashing an egg and then tearing up her whole kitchen.

That ad has been running since January in 12 test cities where it generated
a 300 percent increase in calls to a national clearinghouse of information
on drug use, said retired Gen. Barry McCaffrey, Clinton's drug policy
director.

At least $150 million of this year's appropriation will be spent directly
on air time targeting middle-schoolers. That, according to 1997 Advertising
Age figures, is more than Nike or Sprint spent to air single-brand ads.

Based on a study of the test campaign, McCaffrey acknowledged it could be
three years before anyone knows whether the ads are actually driving down
drug use. Some activists doubted the ads' effectiveness.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Huge Anti-Drug Campaign To 'Knock America Upside The Head'
(A Lengthier 'Associated Press' Version In 'The Orange County Register')

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 23:42:29 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Huge Anti-Drug Campaign
To 'Knock America Upside The Head'
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk:John W.Black
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Author:Sandra Sobieraj-The Associated Press

Policy:The ads-$1billion worth-will be on TV, radio, the Internet and in
newspapers.

Alanta-Updating "just say no" with images to "knock America upside the
head," President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich announced an
anti-drug campaign aimed at bombarding the nation with $1 billion in
hard-hitting ads over the next five years.

Starting Thursday night on network TV, the government campaign - bigger
than last year's huge Nike and Sprint campaigns for comparison - intends to
hit both parents and kids at least four times a week with graphic images of
drugs' destructiveness and children's vulnerability.

"These ads were designed to knock America upside the head and get America's
attention and empower all of you," Clinton told an audience of mostly
children.

The ads were in 75 Thursday morning newspapers. Though the bulk of the
campaign will focus on TV, ads produced free by some of Madison Avenue's
premiere agencies will also run on radio, billboards and the Internet.

Gingrich pledged to try to win congressional approval for expanding the
$195 million, one-year campaign into a five-year, $1 billion taxpayer
investment in stopping youth drug use. And the government will ask media
outlets to match the federal money dollar for dollar.

At least $150 million of this year's appropriation will be spent directly
on air time targeting middle-schoolers. That, according to 1997 Advertising
Age figures, is more than Nike or Sprint spent to air single-brand ads.

Based on a study of the test campaign, Barry McCaffrey, Clinton's drug
policy director, acknowledged it could be three years before anyone knows
whether the ads are actually driving down drug use. Some doubted the ads'
effectiveness.

The Lindesmith Center, a research project of philanthropist George Soros,
said the money would be better spent on after-school programs and drug
treatment.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Anti-Drug Ad Blitz For Teenagers ('The Los Angeles Times' Version
In 'The San Jose Mercury News')

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 13:47:55 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Anti-drug ad blitz for teenagers
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Author: Elizabeth Shogren, Los Angeles Times

ANTI-DRUG AD BLITZ FOR TEENAGERS

Nationwide campaign, costing $2 billion, will focus on television spots

WASHINGTON -- In a rare meeting of the minds, President Clinton and House
Speaker Newt Gingrich on Thursday jointly launched an unprecedented
nationwide media campaign to discourage teens from using drugs.

The campaign, which began with ads in 75 newspapers and spots on all four
television networks Thursday night, is budgeted at $2 billion over five
years. Although the bulk of the effort will focus on television, ads
produced free by some of Madison Avenue's premier agencies will also run on
radio, billboards and the Internet.

But some drug-policy experts challenged the campaign's effectiveness.

``There's remarkably little evidence that it will work,'' said Ethan
Nadelmann, director of the Lindesmith Center Drug Policy Research Institute
in New York. ``If we're going to spend billions of dollars, let's spend it
on things that will make more of a difference.''

Nadelmann argues that providing drug treatment and alternate activities for
youngsters would be a more savvy -- if less flashy -- approach.

Lawrence Wallack, a professor of public health at the University of
California-Berkeley, termed the campaign ``kind of like agreeing on the
least common denominator and saying because we agree on it, therefore it is
a good thing. It's the kind of strategy that makes everyone feel like
something is being done on the problem. . . . Everybody is happy, but it is
just not sufficient to have an impact on the problem.''

Wallack -- who advocates more mentoring programs and activities for teens
to deal with a wide array of public-health problems from drugs to early
pregnancies -- agreed that the campaign will increase awareness of the drug
problem. This is a good first step, he said, but it is not a solution.

He also criticized the effort for not targeting cigarette and alcohol use
among teens.

The anti-drug media campaign has been under way since January in 12 pilot
cities in response to concern over the steady increase of drug use by teens
in recent years.

The creators of the television ads aimed to shake up children and their
parents to address the problem of drug use.

One shows a young woman wielding a frying pan -- wildly smashing it into
things and then pausing to tell the audience that this is what drugs do to
your brain. Another pictures a child recounting her mother's warnings not
to play with matches. But when she's asked whether her mother warned her
about drugs, she says nothing.

``These ads are designed to knock America upside the head and get America's
attention,'' Clinton said in Atlanta, where he was joined by Gingrich as
the campaign was unveiled nationally.

Drawing on his personal experience, Clinton referred to the drug problems
that once plagued his brother, Roger Clinton, and stressed that the message
of the ads is for everyone.

``My brother nearly died from a cocaine habit and I've asked myself a
thousand times: What kind of fool was I that I did not know that this was
going on?'' the president said.

The advertising blitz, crafted by Clinton's drug-control office in
conjunction with the Partnership for a Drug-free America, will be funded
half through federal dollars and half through donated air time and
advertising space from media outlets.

Although Congress has so far allocated funds only for the first year of the
project, Gingrich said the rest of the money would come.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Schoolkids See Clinton And Gingrich In Rare Joint Appearance
('The New York Times' Version Notes Clinton Used The Occasion
Of The Announcement Of The Anti-Drug Advertising Campaign
To Attend A Political Fund-Raiser)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 12:38:52 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Schoolkids See Clinton and Gingrich in Rare Joint Appearance
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Paul Lewin
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: New York Times (NY)
Contact: letters@nytimes.com
Website: http://www.nytimes.com/
Author: James Bennet

DAYTONA BEACH, Fla. -- President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich
made a rare joint appearance Thursday in Atlanta to crusade against illegal
drug use, even as their parties are preparing to club each other with that
issue in the congressional campaigns this fall.

Before flying here to console the families and praise the firefighters who
are grappling with Florida's fires, Clinton stopped in Atlanta to unveil a
new advertising campaign against drugs that he said was designed to "knock
America upside the head."

Displaying a bipartisan front -- if a rather cool one -- before hundreds of
schoolchildren in a conference center auditorium, Gingrich and Clinton
described how drugs had affected them. The speaker said that the sister of
one of his aides was left in a coma by a drug slipped into her drink; the
president said that his brother, Roger, "nearly died from a cocaine habit."

But with the congressional elections bearing down, the sense of shared
purpose did not last. Immediately after Gingrich finished his remarks
hailing the commercials' "bipartisan basis," an aide to Sen. Paul
Coverdell, R-Ga., handed a statement to reporters in the auditorium that
sharply assailed Clinton's drug policy.

And after the anti-drug event, Clinton moved on to a $500,000 fund-raising
lunch for Michael Coles, a Democrat who is challenging Coverdell for his
Senate seat. He mocked Republicans as misrepresenting Democratic policies
on the budget, guns and foreign policy. "They still milk that old cow every
chance they get," Clinton said.

Here in Florida, the president visited with families who lost most of their
possessions to fire. Several people wept as they told Clinton their stories.

Then the president spoke under a tent to several hundred firefighters and
other emergency workers gathered at the Daytona International Speedway,
which has served as a staging area.

"I'm here," he said, "because I think it's important that every American
knows that this summer, notwithstanding the great movies, the real
American heroes are not up in space fighting asteroids, they're in Florida
fighting fires."

After driving the short distance to the speedway from the airport, Clinton
and his motorcade took a stately quarter-lap on the 2.5-mile oval. The last
car of the three-dozen-vehicle motorcade had barely reached the track as
the first vehicle left it.

As in Georgia, Clinton combined his official duties in Florida with
political ones. He flew to Miami for an $800,000 dinner on behalf of
congressional candidates at the home of the actor Sylvester Stallone.

Presenting Clinton with the boxing gloves he wore in "Rocky," Stallone
compared him to the title character, saying he "has an uphill battle but
doggedly asks for one more round just to keep punching, keep punching, keep
punching until finally he gets his point across."

Stallone concluded: "It's been a grand evening. I shan't forget it."

The president thanked Stallone for the gift and said: "I think I've
established that I can take a punch. Now the time has come for me to
deliver a few."

The new advertising campaign, supervised by the Campaign for a Drug-Free
America, is financed this year with $195 million in federal money that
organizers expect to be matched by media organizations. Some commercials,
tailored to different racial and age groups, have already been broadcast in
test markets; the national campaign began Thursday night.

In Atlanta, the president and speaker sat with several people between them,
but they were careful to compliment each other's work against drugs. Both
seemed to capture the children's attention with their stories.

Clinton described learning from his brother that he had started drinking
beer and smoking marijuana in high school. "I said, 'How often?"' he said.
"He said, 'Every day.' And I thought to myself, 'What kind of family member
was I?"'

He told the audience: "There's somebody like my brother back at your school
who is a good kid, just a little lost," adding: "You can save them."

"The challenge of intellectual life is to be found in dissent against the
status quo at a time when the struggle on behalf of underrepresented and
disadvantaged groups seems so unfairly weighted against them."

- Edward W. Said, Representations of the Intellectual, xvii.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Teen Helps Launch Anti-Drug Campaign ('The Oregonian' Version)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 13:03:49 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US OR: Teen Helps Launch Anti-Drug Campaign
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Michael (Miguet@NOVEMBER.ORG)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Oregonian, The
Contact: letters@news.oregonian.com
Website: http://www.oregonlive.com/
Author: Spencer Heinz

TEEN HELPS LAUNCH ANTI-DRUG CAMPAIGN

James Miller III, a Central Catholic High School student, speaks about his
mother's fight with drugs as a national anti-drug media campaign begins

An impassioned Portland high school student and a flurry of eye-opening
anti-drug ads figured into the presidential kickoff Thursday of an
unprecedented ad campaign to stem teen drug abuse.

Portland played a key part in the last six months as one of 12 test-market
cities for some of the print, TV, radio and billboard ads. Those ads went
national Thursday with President Clinton's and House Speaker Newt Gingrich's
bipartisan push in Atlanta.

"We know that the more young people fear drugs, the more they disapprove of
them, the less likely they are to use them," Clinton said in launching the
five-year, potentially $1 billion campaign. "Therefore, kicking America's
drug habit requires a dramatic change in attitudes accompanied and
reinforced by a dramatic increase in personal responsibility by all Americans."

Beginning this week, the anti-drug campaign will bombard a target audience
of parents and their children, ages nine to 18, with anti-drug messages on
the four major TV networks and in 75 major newspapers. Some of Madison
Avenue's premiere ad agencies produced the ads free. The Oregonian, local
television stations and various other Oregon outlets have been running the
ads as part of Portland's test-market work.

Although Thursday's teleconference program featured the president and others
of prominence, one of the emotional peaks came when James Miller III, 17,
who will be a senior this fall at Portland's Central Catholic High School,
stepped to the microphone. He told a crowd of hundreds of grownups and
children that he had joined the anti-drug movement after seeing the
devastating power of drugs on his mother, who once used drugs.

"James had every one of them spellbound," said Ed Maibach, of the
Washington, D.C., firm that developed the ad campaign strategy.

"James was exquisite," Maibach added. "In my opinion, he was the star of a
stellar day."

Back in Portland, his mother, Linda Annette Miller, 39, a crew supervisor
for Greyhound bus lines, said her son had asked if he could tell about her
successful fight against drugs, and she had proudly given her permission
with the understanding it could give other families hope.

"He wanted to know if he could mention me, but it still kind of bothered
him," she said Thursday evening. She told him to go ahead. "If you don't
talk about the past," she said, "you can never focus on the future."

Linda Miller said she had been clean and sober from cocaine, marijuana and
alcohol abuse since James said something eight years ago.

"James was 9 years old, and he came to visit me, and he said, 'Mama, can we
talk?' And I said sure. He said, 'Mom, people are talking about you, and
they're talking to you around us, and it hurts, and I just wanted to know if
you could get yourself clean and sober, get yourself cleaned up.'

"And I did."

James, who was en route to Portland late Thursday, lives with his father,
James Miller Jr., and stepmother, Jackie Miller. Linda Miller said she and
her son remain close.

Maibach said he understood that James Miller's remarks prompted the
president to depart from his prepared text and to recall his brother Roger's
battle with cocaine.

"What kind of fool was I that I did not know this was going on?" Clinton
said. He added, "There's somebody like my brother back at your school who's
a good kid, just a little lost."

The ad campaign aims to "knock America upside the head," Clinton said in his
kickoff. In a 1997 national survey, half of high school seniors and nearly
one-third of eighth-graders reported having used drugs.

One spot walks viewers past school lockers into a classroom of pint-sized
desks. "It's true," the announcer exhorts parents. "The use of marijuana has
actually gone down . . . to the fifth grade. Talk to your kids now, before
someone else does."

Another is a spin-off of the fried egg "This is your brain on drugs" ad so
widely used during the Partnership for a Drug-Free America's 11-year
campaign. The updated version, about heroin's ruinous power, shows a
frying-pan-wielding young woman smashing an egg and then tearing up her
whole kitchen.

That ad has been running since January in the 12 test cities, including
Portland. The ad generated a 300 percent increase in calls to a national
drug-use clearinghouse, said retired Gen. Barry McCaffrey, Clinton's drug
policy director.

Calls to the Regional Drug Initiative's Portland phone number went from
about 20 a month before the test-market campaign started to about 130 a
month since then, said spokesman Larry Langdon in Portland.

Langdon said, "If it really has a major impact, I think in a year or so
you'll see some reductions in drug use."

For information and referrals in the Portland area, call 294-7074. Elsewhere
in Oregon, call 1-800-822-6772.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

New Drug Campaign Gets Mixed Reviews - Area Parents Say Message
Is Important (Version In The Illinois 'Daily Herald')

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 12:38:52 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: New Drug Campaign
Gets Mixed Reviews -- Area Parents Say
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Steve Young (theyoungfamily@worldnet.att.net)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Daily Herald (IL)
Sec: Sec. 1, page 15
Contact: fencepost@dailyherald.com
Web: http://www.dailyherald.com
Author: TERESA MASK

NEW DRUG CAMPAIGN GETS MIXED REVIEWS -- AREA PARENTS SAY MESSAGE IS IMPORTANT

Just say no.

That's the simple warning students got about drugs during the Reagan era.

Suburban residents remember it well. It was the start of such programs as
Drug Awareness Resistance Education, commonly known as DARE.

But today's students are getting more sophisticated, more expensive
messages, thanks to President Clinton and a $2 billion advertising campaign.

The campaign, which began Thursday, is aimed at bombarding students with
hard-core messages about the dangers of drugs and the importance of
parental involvement.

Suburban parents have mixed reactions about whether the television, radio
and newspaper ads will work, and about the amount of money being spent on
the campaign.

"Certainly you want that message to get out," said Donna Baiocchi, a
Schaumburg Township Elementary District 54 school board member. "But that
kind of money should be allocated to address problems in our community."

She said she doubts students will take notice of the commercials,
especially if they are played during a "disrespectful sitcom or violent
program."

"I can't imagine that it's going to affect more than one or two children in
District 54," she said.

But one or two is all that matters, said Bartlett parent Karen Carney.

"We need to make a difference one kid at a time," said Carney, an Elgin
Area Unit District 46 school board member.

She said the advertisements will be successful because "kids listen when
they are bombarded."

Besides, she said, the more information they have, the better.

Rolling Meadows DARE officer Tony Luzin agrees. Despite a recent study that
said suburban children who took DARE showed a slightly higher use of
alcohol and drugs than those who never had the program, the "say no to
drugs" message should be pushed as often as possible, Luzin said.

In fact, he said, it needs to be pushed continually from the time the
students leave the DARE programs, which often are in fifth or sixth grades.

That's what Arlington Heights resident Debbie Lange would like to see. She
knows the drug messages hit home to younger children, though she's not so
sure it will stick with them as they grow up.

"When they are little, the awareness is there. They know they aren't
supposed to do that and that drugs are stupid," she said. "Whether they
carry that same attitude when they get older, I'm not so sure."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

President To Kids - Don't Inhale Either ('San Francisco Examiner' Columnist
Rob Morse Is Both Critical And Insightful About The US Government's
New 'Anti-Drug' Media Blitz, Concluding That President Clinton Is Wasting
Huge Amounts Of Taxpayers' Money Blanketing The Airwaves And Cyberspace
To Reach Kids Who Will Never Have A Drug Problem, While Leaving The Ones
With Real Problems To Go Without Guidance Or Treatment - Of Course,
He Will Reach All The Voters)
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 17:54:02 -0400 To: mapnews@mapinc.org From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US CA: Column: President to kids: Don't inhale either Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World) Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA) Contact: letters@examiner.com Website: http://www.examiner.com/ Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998 Author: Rob Morse, Examiner Columnist PRESIDENT TO KIDS: DON'T INHALE EITHER PRESIDENT CLINTON launched his $2 billion anti-drug campaign on Thursday and, like most things he does, it was all media hype. He even said so. That's what Clinton calls the five-year program -- the "Anti-Drug Media Campaign," as if all problems can be solved with the right spin in the right ads. It's the thoroughly modern non-answer to a problem by the thoroughly modern politician. The campaign is supposed to let teenagers know -- via TV, the radio and the Internet -- that drugs are bad, and they shouldn't try so-called "gateway drugs" like marijuana. It's a huge, multimedia, dot-com version of "Reefer Madness." Yeah, that'll work. That'll keep kids from trying drugs. "We can see evidence that ads can sell things," said Kendra E. Wright, head of a Beltway drug policy outfit called Family Watch. "But we have no evidence that they can unsell things." Yes, but ads can be so good at selling voters on the idea that you're doing something positive for America's children. In fact, the ads may have exactly the wrong impact. Wright described some of the ads she and her children have seen because Washington, D.C., has been one of the 10 test markets for the campaign. "One ad shows a good-looking kid with a skateboard smoking a joint. We showed it to some social scientists and they said they're almost glamorizing drugs." One of the ads, according to Wright, actually gave the wrong kind of education in drugs. "I have two stepsons, 10 and 14, and they watched one ad about using household inhalants to get high. They didn't know anything about this before. Now they know how to do it." Things you can learn from your government. Another ad was canceled because of the uproar it caused among gays. "It showed a young boy using drugs, so-called gateway drugs, going on to heroin, then becoming a male prostitute selling his body to men," said Wright. "It was as if being gay was worse than being a heroin addict." Well, ad campaigns are very tricky things. "It's hard to boil down large problems to a 30-second spot," said Wright. It's especially hard when you're trying to unsell drugs, and right between ads selling beer. What, exactly, is the message here, when beer is the gateway to alcohol addiction, which is responsible for 100,000 deaths a year? Well, the message I get is that Clinton wants to look tough on drugs, sympathetic to youth, and stay on the good side of TV networks, which earn $626 million a year in revenues from beer ads. Now broadcasters are going to be making almost that much from anti-drug ads, with no mention of alcohol as the most prevalent drug of all. Well, that's not exactly right. TV is the most prevalent drug of all. "What TV and drugs have in common is that they're what kids turn to when they're bored," Wright said. "What kids need is after-school programs. If the kids aren't busy, they turn to drugs." The curious thing about this anti-drug media campaign is that it presumes kids don't have anything better to do than watch TV, listen to radio or surf the Internet. Or take drugs. It doesn't actually give them anything better to do. The president could have funded hundreds of Big Brother/Big Sister Programs, which actually seem to keep at-risk kids off drugs and alcohol. Yes, alcohol, too, something Clinton's media campaign won't mention, along with tobacco. Imagine bored kids' responses when they see anti-drug ads on TV between the images of beautiful young people playing in the Rockies with Coors. Kids are natural skeptics and will know that these anti-drug ads are just the propaganda arm of a failed drug war. Well, that's not what they'll say. They'll just say "bogus" or something else beginning with B. Many of these kids have been through the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program. According to a federally funded study published in the American Journal of Public Health in 1994, kids who went through DARE are no less likely to say no to drugs than kids who had not gone through the program. But adults like the illusion that they're doing something about drugs, especially when so many adults don't really know what their own kids are doing, or have much control over them. They'll probably like the illusion that the president is doing something, too, even though a series of presidents have failed in fighting drugs. The statistics are amazing, considering all the "just say no" and all the films of DEA agents making busts. Ninety-seven percent of high school seniors say marijuana is easy to obtain. Half the kids in America have tried it; however, only 5 percent of them go on to serious drug problems. Clinton is wasting huge amounts of taxpayers' money blanketing the airwaves and cyberspace to reach kids who will have no problems with drugs, while leaving the ones with real problems to go without guidance or treatment. Of course, he will reach all the voters. 1998 San Francisco Examiner
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Jury Is Out On $1 Billion Anti-Drug Effort (A Staff Editorial
In 'The Houston Chronicle' Wonders Whether Young, High Minds
Can Be Won By Hype, And Asks Why Alcohol Abuse Isn't Targeted
In The Government's New Anti-'Drug' Messages)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 14:39:15 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US TX: Editorial: Jury Is Out On $1 Billion Anti-Drug Effort
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: adbryan@onramp.net
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Houston Chronicle (TX)
Contact: viewpoints@chron.com
Website: http://www.chron.com/

JURY IS OUT ON $1 BILLION ANTI-DRUG EFFORT

Once again, Washington politicians have shown skill at spending money and
announcing it with great fanfare. But whether the "hard-hitting" $195
million anti-drug campaign announced by President Clinton and House Speaker
Newt Gingrich this week will have as skillful an impact on young people's
appetites for drugs remains to be seen. Gingrich said he would try to get
Congress to stoke the effort up to $1 billion over five years.

The problem is painfully clear. In a 1997 national survey, half of high
school seniors and nearly one-third of eighth-graders reported using drugs.

But whether young, high minds can be won by the hype is a serious question.
And why, critics have asked, isn't alcohol abuse included in the messages.

Supporters say it could be three years before the campaign's results may be
known.

"These ads were designed to knock America upside the head and get America's
attention and empower all of you," said Clinton to a group of youths. Give
him an A for having the ad man's pitch nailed.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Nation Needs Straight Talk About This War (You Won't Get It
From This Staff Editorial In 'The Dallas Morning News'
About The US Government's New $2 Billion Media Blitz
Against 'Drugs')

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 11:31:00 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US TX: Editorial: Nation
Needs Straight Talk About This War
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: adbryan@onramp.net
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Dallas Morning News
Contact: letterstoeditor@dallasnews.com
Website: http://www.dallasnews.com

NATION NEEDS STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT THIS WAR

The Clinton administration and congressional leaders announced Thursday
that they will pour an unprecedented amount of money into a nationwide
campaign to convince young people to stay away from drugs.

The $2 billion effort will use nearly $200 million to purchase prime-time
slots for television ads that scrape any remaining vestige of glamour from
America's drug scene. Federal officials are seeking half the funds from the
private sector.

Be prepared for jarring scenes of people talking about heroin's ravages to
interrupt your TV sitcoms.

In one commercial commissioned by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America,
a woman brings out the familiar egg and frying pan to describe your brain
on drugs. Instead of frying the egg, she will smash up her entire apartment
with the pan and say, "This is your brain on heroin."

An advertising blitz cannot be the primary answer to the river of illicit
narcotics flowing into the United States. Cutting off the traffickers and
providing more outlets where addicts can receive treatment must be integral
to this battle.

But television can perhaps curtail America's demand for drugs. The
drug-free partnership estimates that teenagers have spent an average of
12,000 to 15,000 hours watching TV by the time they graduate from high
school.

Parents have the primary assignment of keeping their children informed
about drugs. But nightly TV ads discussing the "glamour" of going into
prostitution to pay for drug habits make the task much easier.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Two Online Polls - Vote Early! (The Drug Reform Coordination Network
Urges You To Take A Moment To Express Your Opinions About Drug Policy
At The 'Time' Magazine And 'Associated Press' Web Sites)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 10:58:28 EDT
Errors-To: manager@drcnet.org
Reply-To: ajsmith@intr.net
Originator: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: drctalk@drcnet.org
From: "Adam J. Smith" (ajsmith@intr.net)
To: Multiple recipients of list (drctalk@drcnet.org)
Subject: Two online polls... vote early!

Friends,

Please take a moment to cast your vote in two IMPORTANT online polls.

The first is on the Associated Press site, at
http://www.allpolitics.com/1998/07/09/clinton.drug/ and asks: "whose
responsibility is it to give anti-drug messages to kids?" Possible answers
are 'parents' 'government' or 'both'. Let's "send a message" that it is
families, not government who should be responsible for providing
information and appropriate guidance.

The second poll is on the TIME Online site at
http://www.pathfinder.com/time/ and asks "is the drug war winnable?" The
choices (which don't really correspond to the question) are "U.S. should
legalize all drugs for those over 18" "U.S. should legalize marijuana
only" and ""Continue Prohibition."

PLEASE VOTE! These polls tend to influence editorial policy and
decision-making. And please forward this message to others and urge them
to vote as well! Let's capitalize on the terrific press we've been getting.

- adam

Adam J. Smith, JD
Associate Director,
Drug Reform Coordination Network (DRCNet)
2000 P Street, NW
Suite 615
Washington, DC 20036

V: (202) 293-8340
F: (202) 293-8344

http://www.drcnet.org

http://www.stopthedrugwar.org

http://www.druglibrary.org
-------------------------------------------------------------------

McCaffrey Still Fighting Drugs (An Idolatrous, One-Sided Portrait Of The Drug Czar
As Hero By The Entirely Uncritical 'Associated Press')

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 14:02:28 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: WIRE: Mccaffrey Still Fighting Drugs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Michael (Miguet@NOVEMBER.ORG)
Source: Associated Press
Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998
Author: Janelle Carter

MCCAFFREY STILL FIGHTING DRUGS

WASHINGTON (AP) -- The images of smiling young people who died too soon are
etched in Barry McCaffrey's mind -- not memories of wars fought by the Army
general turned nation's drug policy chief, but haunting visions from
America's fight against drugs.

``I served in a rifle company in combat where essentially all of us got
wounded or were killed,'' said the 56-year-old retired four-star general,
who as director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy sits on
President Clinton's Cabinet and the National Security Council.

During the Vietnam War, he was seriously wounded but insisted on fighting
until the next morning when he eventually passed out.

That kind of persistence helps him deal with the daunting challenges of
drug abuse.

In the 1990s alone, more people have died or been ruined by drugs than all
of the Vietnam War, McCaffrey said. ``In terms of tragedy,'' he said,
``drug abuse in America is overwhelmingly worse than external national
security challenges.''

Such are the driving thoughts of McCaffrey, who is overseeing an
unprecedented five-year anti-drug ad campaign that Clinton kicked off
Thursday in Atlanta. The federal government will spend $195 million on the
project this year.

The goal is to hit the average family at least four times a week, through
TV, radio, newspapers, billboards or the Internet.

McCaffrey, who became drug chief two years ago, does not like to refer to
the nation's drug problems as a ``war on drugs.''

But in many ways -- to the joy of supporters and the angst of critics --
McCaffrey is fighting the way he did during 31 years as a soldier.

McCaffrey, who wears a bracelet engraved with the name of a young girl who
died of a drug overdose, often works 18-hour days. He often can be found
listening to community leaders, negotiating drug strategies with Congress
or traipsing through foreign fields. Federal marshals must guard him after
repeated threats by drug lords.

``You've got to go where Americans are working on this problem,'' says the
man who was awarded the Purple Heart three times and saw two tours of
Vietnam. During the Persian Gulf War, he led the now-famous ``left hook''
assault that cornered Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's elite Republican
Guards.

``He's good at marshaling forces and analyzing a mission and motivating
people to get things done,'' says Gen. Colin Powell, who made McCaffrey his
top aide while chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

But to critics, McCaffrey is simply stubborn.

In April he angered needle-exchange supporters when he lobbied President
Clinton to abandon plans to use federal funds for the program. Last
November, McCaffrey balked at Defense Secretary William Cohen's proposed
fiscal 1999 budget, saying more money was needed for drug-fighting efforts.
The two sides eventually reached a compromise.

McCaffrey's claim of real change in the drug crisis is ``purely rhetoric,''
complains Kevin Zeese, president of the group Common Sense for Drug Policy,
which supports medical marijuana and needle exchange programs.

Too many people are incarcerated instead of treated for drug problems,
Zeese said.

Added Rep. Maxine Waters, D-Calif. who clashed with McCaffrey over
needle-exchange programs, ``He's moving forward with basically what is his
own program. It may be he is not accustomed to working in a give-and-take
atmosphere.''

It often is his blunt style that ruffles critics.

Take a recent hearing on drugs before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Sen.
Jeff Sessions, R-Ala., declared after hearing reports of increased drug use
among young people, ``I don't think we can put a positive spin on what
we've seen. I think you as the drug czar need to be sounding the alarm.''

McCaffrey quickly retorted: ``I resent you suggesting that I'm putting a
spin on it.'' He later declared to Sessions, ``Senator, you're looking at
the wrong book.'' McCaffrey says detractors should give him time.

``My hope is ... in another couple of years we see definite signs the
curves are all coming down,'' he said. ``I think the heart and soul of what
we're going to do ... is community action. That's where America will
understand the problem and confront it.''
-------------------------------------------------------------------

McCaffrey To Visit Europe To Examine Anti-Drug Programs ('The Associated
Press' Notes The US Drug Czar, General Barry McCaffrey, Will Spend Eight Days
'Sharing Strategies' In Sweden, Portugal, Austria, The Netherlands,
Switzerland And England)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 16:18:53 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US WIRE: McCaffrey To Visit Europe
To Examine Anti-Drug Programs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: Associated Press
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Link to earlier story
MCCAFFREY TO VISIT EUROPE TO EXAMINE ANTI-DRUG PROGRAMS WASHINGTON (AP) -- For all the cultural and legal differences, "the problem is the same'' for countries fighting illegal drugs, the government's drug policy director said Friday as he prepared for a European trip to share strategies. Retired Gen. Barry R. McCaffrey will visit major European cities to underscore the need for international cooperation on combating drugs and to look at European treatment and prevention programs. McCaffrey leaves Saturday for Sweden, the first leg of his eight-day tour. He will make stops in Portugal, Austria, the Netherlands, Switzerland and England. "I'm going to Europe to learn about a common problem and to also share the kinds of strategies that we're trying to build to deal with the U.S. population,'' he said. "We all understand that none of us are precisely the same culture or historical context or legal context,'' added McCaffrey. "The common thread running throughout this visit is that the problem is the same ... drug consumption and the terrible damage to humans, to their families, to their economy.'' McCaffrey said two highlights of his trip will be a visit to the headquarters of the United Nations Drug Control Program in Vienna, Austria, where he will exchange views with U.N. officials on global drug cooperation, and to Lisbon, Portugal, where he will visit the European Monitoring Center. In Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands McCaffrey will tour drug treatment facilities. He said he wanted to learn from Swedish officials how to effectively package treatment to help the 4 million chronic addicts in the United States. "We've not yet built the infrastructure required to handle that problem in a more rational way,'' he said. "It's one of the major shortcomings in the United States.'' Asked whether he plans to drop by coffee shops in the Netherlands which openly sell marijuana and hashish, McCaffrey responded: "Coffee shops would be a bad photo op. I'm not sure there's much to be learned by watching somebody smoking pot.'' McCaffrey will wrap up his visit with a brief stop in London on July 18.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Mexican Court Reverses Firings ('The San Francisco Chronicle'
Says Unspecified 'Mexican Courts' Have Ordered The Attorney General's
Office To Rehire More Than Half Of The 826 Law Enforcement Agents
It Dismissed Six Months Ago For Failing Drug Tests Or For Allegedly
Being Corrupt)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:49:50 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Mexico: Mexican Court Reverses Firings
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: tjeffoc@sirius.com (Tom O'Connell)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Section: A 16
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Author: Molly Moore Washington Post

MEXICAN COURT REVERSES FIRINGS

Hundreds of law agents dismissed for drug use, corruption

Mexico City

Mexican courts have ordered the attorney general's office to rehire more
than half of the 826 agents it dismissed six months ago because they failed
drug tests or allegedly were involved in corruption.

In a strongly worded statement Tuesday night, Attorney General Jorge Madrazo
criticized the rulings, declaring that his office "does not agree with these
judicial decisions" and will appeal them.

The struggle between the court system and Madrazo's office is part of a long
and often futile effort by Mexican authorities to clean up notoriously
corrupt police and prosecutorial agencies, many of whose employees are on
the payrolls of drug lords and criminal organizations.

In the past two years, federal and state law enforcement agencies across
Mexico have fired thousands of attorneys and police officers only to have
judges order that they be rehired. In other cases, individuals dismissed on
corruption charges by one law enforcement agency have been hired by another.

Judges argue that the attorney general's office and other agencies
frequently do not build solid cases for dismissal of their employees.

But Madrazo's office said it found the latest round of reinstatements
particularly egregious because most of the 826 agents who were fired in
December -had not passed newly required drug tests.

Results snowed that about half of those dismissed tested positive for
cocaine use, while others were shown to have used marijuana, amphetamines or
other drugs.

Madrazo's statement said that the judges who ruled the firings illegal did
not consider the drug test results.

Last year, in the aftermath of a series of corruption scandals - including
the prosecution of Mexico's former anti-drug czar on charges that he
protected one of the country s most powerful drug cartels - Madrazo's office
decided to revamp its drug-fighting agency and require testing of all the
agents it employs.

Those efforts have had mixed results. Shortly after the new tests were
imposed, newly approved agents - some under the supervision of the U.S. Drug
Enforcement Agency - were among 18 law enforcement officials charged with
stealing a half-ton of confiscated cocaine from a federal prosecutor's
office in the border town of San Luis Rio Colorado.

That caw prompted the U S General Accounting Office to report earlier this
year in its assessment of Mexico's anti-drug efforts that "corruption
continues despite measures designed to root it out."

In recent months, Madrazo's office has investigated the former chief of
Mexico's federal police force on charges of protecting drug traffickers
while in office and has filed kidnapping charges against a former official
in Madrazo's anti-kidnapping squad.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Rehiring Of Agents Protested ('The San Jose Mercury News' Version)

Date: Sat, 11 Jul 1998 14:39:15 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Mexico: Rehiring Of Agents Protested
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/

REHIRING OF AGENTS PROTESTED

MEXICO CITY -- Mexican courts have ordered, the attorney general's office
to rehire more than half of the 826 agents it dismissed six months ago
because they failed drug tests or allegedly were involved in corruption.

In a strongly worded statement Tuesday night, Attorney General Jorge
Madrazo criticized the rulings, declaring that his office ``does not agree
with these judicial decisions'' and will appeal them.

The struggle between the court system and Madrazo's office is part of a
long and often futile effort by Mexican authorities to clean up notoriously
corrupt police and prosecuting agencies, many of whose employees are on the
payrolls of drug lords and criminal organizations.

In the past two years, federal and state law enforcement agencies across
Mexico have fired thousands of attorneys and police officers, only to have
judges order that they be rehired. In other cases, individuals dismissed on
corruption charges by one law enforcement agency are hired by another.

Judges argue that the attorney general's office and other agencies
frequently do not build solid cases for dismissal of their employees, who
are protected by strong workers' laws. But Madrazo's office said it found
the latest round of reinstatements particularly egregious because most of
the 826 agents who were fired last December -- about one-fifth of the
attorney general's employees -- had failed newly required drug tests.

Results showed that about half of those dismissed tested positive for
cocaine use, while others were shown to have used marijuana, amphetamines
or other drugs.

Madrazo's statement said the judges who ruled the firings illegal did not
consider drug-test results but based their decisions on ``various other
considerations.''

Last year, in the aftermath of a series of corruption scandals -- including
the prosecution of Mexico's former anti-drug czar on charges that he
protected one of the country's most powerful drug cartels -- Madrazo's
office decided to revamp its drug-fighting agency and require vetting of
all the agents it employs.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Special Panel Named To Probe Cardinal's Murder ('The Associated Press'
Says Mexico's Government And The Roman Catholic Church Have Created
A Seven-Man Team To Review A Government Investigation Into The 1993 Murder
Of Cardinal Juan Jesus Posadas Ocampo And Five Other People
During A Shoot-Out With Assault Weapons By Two 'Drug' Gangs)

Date: Tue, 14 Jul 1998 16:45:34 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Mexico: WIRE: Special Panel
Named To Probe Cardinal's Murder
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus-Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Source: Associated Press
Pubdate: 10 Jul 1998

SPECIAL PANEL NAMED TO PROBE CARDINAL'S MURDER

MEXICO CITY -- Mexico's government and the Roman Catholic church have named
a seven-man team to review a government investigation into the 1993 murder
of a cardinal during a drug shoot-out.

The panel will consist of three top church officials, three representatives
from western Jalisco state where Cardinal Juan Jesus Posadas Ocampo died,
and Attorney General Jorge Madrazo Cuellar.

In a news release late Thursday, the attorney general's office said both
church officials and the government have agreed the panel's finding will be
final.

President Ernesto Zedillo's administration is said to want to end the
controversy before Pope John Paul II's fourth visit to Mexico in January.
The pope appeared upset during his third visit in Mexico, a few months
after Posadas Ocampo was killed.

Posadas Ocampo and his chauffeur were shot dead in his car May 24, 1993, at
the airport in Guadalajara, the Jalisco state capital, while they waited
for the papal nuncio. Five other people also were killed in a gunfight with
assault weapons by two drug gangs.

The attorney general's office said Posadas Ocampo was accidentally caught
in the crossfire. But medical examiners concluded that was unlikely -- the
gunmen riddled Posadas Ocampo with bullets at pointblank range.

Cardinal Juan Sandoval Iniguez, his successor, and other prelates and human
rights organizations have denounced the government's version of events.

Some have also speculated that Posadas Ocampo, who had received several
anonymous death threats before he died, was targeted because of his many
public denunciations of Mexico's drug cartels.

More than a dozen people have been arrested here and in California and are
awaiting trial in connection with drug trafficking and also for allegedly
taking part in the Guadalajara airport shootout.

The shootout was between a gang headed by the five Arellano Felix brothers,
based in the border city of Tijuana, and rival Joaquin ``El Chapo'' Guzman
Loera.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Double Standard? (A Letter To The Editor Of 'The London Free Press'
In Ontario Compares The Newspaper's Characterization
Of A Convicted Marijuana Offender As An 'Aging Hippie'
With The Media's Portrayal Of Olympic Gold Medal Winner Ross Rebagliati)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Canada: PUB LTE: Double standard?
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:21:16 -0700
Lines: 16
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: London Free Press
Contact: letters@lfpress.com
Pubdate: July 10, 1998

Double standard?

Regarding, Aging 'hippie' jailed for cultivating pot (July 3).
It's interesting that some "aging hippie" was given 90 days in the
slammer for growing his own pot and smoking it while Olympic
snowboarder Ross Rebagliati got off on his friends' second-hand pot
smoke and was cheered as a Canadian hero when he brought home a gold
medal. A double standard?

MARY AGBAKLI
London
-------------------------------------------------------------------

LSD Experiments 'Good Research Back Then' ('The Ottawa Citizen'
Notes Dorothy Mills Proctor, Who Was Given LSD Experimentally
In The Early 1960s As A 17-Year-Old Inmate At The Kingston Prison
For Women In Canada, Filed A $5 Million Lawsuit Yesterday
Against The Prison's Former Head Of Psychiatry, The Federal Government,
Another Prison Psychiatrist And A Psychologist, Claiming The LSD
Was Given To Her Against Her Will And Still Affects Her)

From: creator@islandnet.com (Matt Elrod)
To: mattalk@listserv.islandnet.com
Subject: Canada: LSD experiments 'good research back then'
Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:22:47 -0700
Lines: 128
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: Ottawa Citizen
Contact: letters@thecitizen.southam.ca
Pubdate: Friday 10 July 1998
Author: Mike Blanchfield

LSD experiments 'good research back then'

Prison's former head of psychiatry stands behind testing on inmates

Back in the early 1960s when he was the head of psychiatry at
Kingston's Prison for Women, George Scott saw the arrival of LSD as
one more tool in what he believed was a heroic struggle to treat the
deviant criminal mind. In his own mind, he was not unlike the Wright
Brothers, the builders of the first airplane.

A lawsuit filed yesterday in court by an ex-inmate offers a much
different description of the experiments Mr. Scott approved a
generation ago. It calls them "callous and reckless." Mr. Scott and
other prison staff, the lawsuit claims, were motivated by the need to
use the woman now suing them for "experimental purposes, as opposed to
a desire to promote the plaintiff's health and well-being."

"It's a lot of bull---t," Mr. Scott, 83, said yesterday when contacted
by the Citizen. "It was good research back then. It was good research
with good motivation, with good supervision, and the government
supplied the bucks for the whole thing."

Dorothy Mills Proctor is suing Mr. Scott, the federal government,
another prison psychiatrist and a psychologist for $5 million,
claiming LSD treatments given against her will when she was a teenage
inmate in Kingston still affect her to this day. Ms. Proctor suffers
from acid flashbacks and other hallucinations.

Ms. Proctor is suing the government because she says it has taken too
long to deal with her complaint. Last year, Corrections Canada
investigated and a board of inquiry determined she was one of 23 women
who were subjected to the LSD experiment. The board concluded it was
"a risky undertaking."

It recommended an apology and compensation. It concluded Ms. Proctor
could not give proper consent in the coercive prison setting. At 17
and serving a three-year robbery sentence, she received at least one
treatment in a 1.5-metre-by-2.5-metre windowless basement segregation
cell, lit by a single bulb with only a mattress and a hole in which to
pass bodily waste.

Corrections Canada has since shelved its own report and referred the
matter for further study to the McGill Centre for Medicine, Ethics and
the law. It did not meet its May deadline.

Advocates for prisoners' and human rights have joined Ms. Proctor in
criticizing the government for the delay. "The need for compensation
and the responsibility of the government has been well documented in
the first report," said Kim Pate, executive director of the Canadian
Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies.

"What kind of informed consent was Dorothy Proctor able to give?"
asked Rubin Freidman, director of government relations for B'Nai
Brith's League for Human Rights. "Giving someone an LSD trip in
solitary confinement doesn't seem to be an ethical use of drugs."

Last year, the Corrections report said of LSD's potential to be a
psychiatric wonder drug: "This promise was considered more of a
hypothesis than a proven fact."

Reached yesterday at this home outside Kingston, Mr. Scott, the former
prison psychiatrist, adamantly maintained he had done nothing wrong.

He said the government fostered a climate of research, which medical
professionals such as himself embraced. If a new wonder drug presented
itself, its potential had to be explored. LSD was no different.

"That's why we did it, to see what would go on, to see if this would
unearth suppressed memories in small doses, maybe help abused kids."

That bold research approach was not unlike what drove the Wright
Brothers, who built the first successful airplane, he said. "Everybody
laughed at them."

Mr. Scott says he is not worried by the lawsuit.

"She's entitled to sue anybody for the moon if she likes. But it's a
sucker's game, that's all," said Mr. Scott.

"What can anybody prove, what can they disprove? This girl -- whoever
she is, I don't remember her at all -- some people have nothing better
to do than to raise hell.

"And after 30 years it's very difficult to say, 'Well, 'if you hadn't
fed me pea soup, I would have been feeling better.' "

Yesterday, Mr. Scott said he had no direct involvement in the LSD
experiments. He said he did approve the study, but that he was not the
person who administered the drugs.

Mr. Scott reviewed the LSD project and concluded: "No harm could be
done in any situation whatsoever as long as the people being given it
had a reasonably stable background, had no evidence of mental illness,
had no evidence of neurological illness, no evidence of violence."

Unfortunately, this did not suit Dorothy Proctor's profile. She was
born in Nova Scotia, abandoned by her mother, and raised in foster
homes where she was sexually abused. She eventually took to the
streets as a runaway before her arrest.

When reminded that last year's board of inquiry could find no evidence
of written consent, Mr. Scott replied, "Well, they had to agree,
whatever. I'm sort of like the guy in the ivory tower wondering what's
going on in the basement."

Mr. Scott said he had no memory of Ms. Proctor. "Their names are as
sticky as postage stamps, as far as I'm concerned," he said. "That's
probably 30,000 patients ago."

Mr. Scott has no plans to offer any apologies to the women involved.

"That's the government's problem, not mine," he said. "To hell with
it."

The retired ex-doctor says his biggest concern these days is spending
time with his horses and travelling with his wife. They've travelled
recently to Ireland and Puerto Rico, on the spur of the moment.

"We disappear from time to time," he said with a laugh.

Copyright 1998 The Ottawa Citizen
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Canada's Drug Strategy (A List Subscriber Posts The URL For The Text
Of The Canadian Government's Official War On Drugs Strategy)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 10:27:11 -0400
To: mattalk@islandnet.com
From: Dave Haans (haans@chass.utoronto.ca)
Subject: Canada's Drug Strategy

We all thought it was dead, but Canada's Drug Strategy been revived (or at
least renewed) and can be found in PDF format at:

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/alcohol-otherdrugs/pdf/englishstrategy.pdf

Cheers,

Dave.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Dominicans Are Best (According To 'The San Francisco Chronicle,'
The White House Drug Czar, General Barry McCaffrev, Believes
Increasing Tourism In Cuba Is Leading To Increasing Use Of Illegal Drugs,
Although 'The Dallas Morning News' Says Cuba And The United States
Are Quietly Cooperating In The Drug War - Another US Agent
Says The Colombians Are Shifting Away From The Use Of Mexican Allies
To Dominicans In The Caribbean)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 14:32:41 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: US: Dominicans are Best
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: tjeffoc@sirius.com (Tom O'Connell)
Source: San Francisco Chronicle (CA)
Contact: chronletters@sfgate.com
Website: http://www.sfgate.com/chronicle/
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Author: Lewis Dolinsky

DOMINICANS ARE BEST

Drug smuggling will probably move into Cuba, says the White House drug
czar, retired General Barry McCaffrev At the Cuban Foreign Ministry,
Fernando de Cossio says, "Tourism brings drugs. Greater contact with the
outside world brings drugs. More airlines traveling to Cuba brings drugs."
They were quoted by Tracey Eaton of the Dallas Morning News, who indicates
that Cuba and the United States are already quietly cooperating in the drug
war.

Eaton says the Caribbean has become a major drug route for or Colombian
cartels for an obvious reason: It's much cheaper than going through Mexico.
The Mexicans were taking a 50 percent cut, and Colombians were paying them
not in cash but in kind - thus, in the words of U.S. drug enforcement agent
William Mitchell, creating their own competitor.

According to another U.S. agent, the Colombians' most reliable partners are
Dominicans. Even though the Dominicans are "very hungry for power and money
... there are no ripoffs."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Jail Suicide Toll Forces Sentencing Shake-Up ('The Scotsman' Says That,
After The Deaths Of Five Inmates In Ten Days, The Government Yesterday
Launched A 1.1 Million Initiative To Tackle The Problem, With Scottish
Home Affairs Minister Henry McLeish Moving To Expand The Availability
Of Non-Custodial Sentences, Including Electronic Tagging
And New Drug Treatment Orders)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 16:01:37 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: UK Scotland: Jail Suicide Toll Forces Sentencing Shake-Up
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: shug@shug.co.uk
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Scotsman (UK)
Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com
Website: http://www.scotsman.com/
Author: Alastair Dalton

JAIL SUICIDE TOLL FORCES SENTENCING SHAKE-UP

1.1m initiative announced after deaths of five inmates in ten days

THE Government yesterday launched a 1.1 million initiative to tackle
Scotland's spiralling jail suicide rate following the worst spate of deaths
in the prison service's history.

New measures to identify and help prisoners at risk of killing themselves
were announced yesterday by the Scottish home affairs minister, Henry
McLeish, after the deaths of five inmates in ten days.

Mr McLeish signalled moves to extend the availability of non-custodial
sentences, including electronic tagging and new drug treatment orders, which
he predicted judges and sheriffs would take up.

The initiatives come in response to a report ordered by Mr McLeish last week
into the latest suicides after The Scotsman highlighted the extent of the
problem.

Improvements will be made to the regimes at the three prisons with the
highest suicide levels, with 33 extra staff drafted in and a task force set
up to investigate this year's ten deaths.

Mr McLeish expressed shock at the latest spate of deaths, but stressed there
was no quick fix to the problem. He said that the measures were designed to
beef up a suicide risk management strategy introduced last month.

The strategy, introduced two days before the first of the latest deaths,
focuses on encouraging mutual awareness of - and support for - prisoners at
risk within jails, rather than isolating them in solitary confinement.

A senior Scottish Prison Service official told The Scotsman yesterday the
SPS was "bloody good" at caring for prisoners who were known suicide risks,
almost all of whom were prevented from killing themselves. However, the
problem centred on identifying the others before it was too late, but
prisons needed to get more information from courts and doctors about
offenders' drug and psychiatric backgrounds.

This year's suicide toll, half of which came between 24 June and 4 July,
compares with 14 deaths in 1997 and 16 in 1998.

The latest deaths were those of Mary Cowan, 27, who was awaiting sentence in
Cornton Vale women's prison, near Stirling, for theft; Ian Taylor, 26, on
remand at Barlinnie prison in Glasgow for breaching the peace while on bail;
Stuart Adam, 19, on remand at Longriggend remand centre, near Airdrie for
sexual offences; and Paul Morrow, 26, serving life for murder at Glenochil
prison, near Alloa.

Eighty prisoners have killed themselves in Scottish jails since 1992, with
the death rate now almost twice that of prisons south of the Border.

The new measures include an eight-bed unit for vulnerable prisoners, with
three extra nurses, at Barlinnie, where 11 prisoners have killed themselves
since 1996.

At Gateside prison in Greenock, which has seen nine deaths in the same
period, improvements will be made to the regime and admission procedures in
the troubled A Hall, "to create a more therapeutic environment". The chief
inspector of prisons, Clive Fairweather, said last month they might as well
install an undertaker's office in the hall.

Twelve extra staff will added, while illegal immigrants housed there while
awaiting deportation will be moved to Longriggend.

Cornton Vale, which has had five deaths since 1996, will receive an extra 16
staff, while cells will be converted from single to shared units to reduce
inmates' isolation.

The task force, which will include members of outside groups, will
investigate the circumstances surrounding this year's suicides, all of which
will also be the subject of fatal accident inquiries. It will report by
September, with Mr McLeish promising further action if required.

The minister also announced the appointment of a second co-ordinator to
monitor and assess the suicide prevention strategy, which aims to encourage
prisoners to seek help provided by a range of staff rather than just the
prison's medical officer.

More than 3,000 of the 4,600 SPS staff have received awareness training
under the strategy. A prison listener scheme, in which prisoners are trained
by the Samaritans to counsel fellow inmates, will also be extended.

Mr McLeish said: "I want to reassure the public about the seriousness with
which I and the Scottish Prison Service are approaching the tragic problem
of prison suicides. We are deeply conscious of the concern that has been
expressed."

Acknowledging the role played by The Scotsman, he said: "We will do our
utmost to tackle the problems highlighted in the press in recent weeks."

He said: "This is a complex area, there is no quick fix."

Mr McLeish said the problem should be seen in the context of increasing
suicide rates, particularly among young men in the west of Scotland, coupled
with rising drug use.

A particular problem existed at Barlinnie, which admitted up to 200 new
prisoners every Monday.

Mr McLeish said: "I want to ensure that prison is not used inappropriately
so that those who have to be held there receive the best attention we can
give them."

Mr Fairweather said the new measures anticipated recommendations to be made
in his forthcoming annual report, but he stressed the importance of caring
for remand prisoners.

Jim Dawson, deputy general secretary of the Scottish Prison Officers
Association, welcomed the moves, but called for more staff at Barlinnie.

He said: "Alternatives to custody are fine, but the public has a right to
expect to be protected from habitual petty criminals."

Susan Matheson, chief executive of the penal reform group SACRO, said: "We
are absolutely delighted at the greater emphasis on non-custodial alternatives."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Challenging The Prison Culture (A Staff Editorial In 'The Scotsman'
Applauds The Efforts Of Scottish Home Affairs Minister, Henry McLeish,
To Reduce Suicides By Scottish Inmates By Encouraging The Use Of Electronic
Tagging And Drug Treatment As Alternatives To Incarceration - But Says
McLeish's Real Challenge Is To Persuade The More Conservative Members
Of The Judiciary That Imprisonment Is Often A Very Bad Idea)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 15:57:04 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: UK: Editorial: Challenging The Prison Culture
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: shug@shug.co.uk
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: Scotsman (UK)
Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com
Website: http://www.scotsman.com/

CHALLENGING THE PRISON CULTURE

Our home affairs minister, Henry McLeish, is to be congratulated. His new
initiative to tackle the appalling suicide problem in Scottish jails may come
only weeks after he announced a strategy which ought already to be grappling
with the problem, but at least he has proven that he is willing to listen.
UKP1.1 million and 33 extra staff at the prisons with the highest suicide
toll cannot guarantee that no new tragedies will occur, but they do
demonstrate good intentions.

The minister's new task force, which will investigate the ten suicides which
have already occurred this year, also deserves our support. But all of these
announcements deal with the problem not the causes. Mr McLeish's most
positive virtue is his willingness to do more than that.

Yesterday he indicated that he also wants to extend the availability of
non-custodial sentences using techniques like electronic tagging and drug
treatment orders. This is the correct approach but Henry McLeish knows that
making available serious alternatives to incarceration is not sufficient in
itself.

For his enlightened approach tp penal policy to pay dividends it is also
necessary to persuade the sheriffs and judges to play their part. 'The
Scotsman' has already revealed the extent to which some courts appear
reluctant to make full use of the non-custodial options available to them.

The minister can move heaven and earth to improve prison regimes and to
train staff to identify prisoners at risk of suicide. He has indicated that
he will make strenuous efforts in those areas. The real challenge is to
persuade the more conservative members of the judiciary that imprisonment is
often a very bad idea.

This is difficult. For decades our judiciary has been lambasted for showing
excessive leniency. Few sheriffs or high court judges fear condemnation by
tabloid newspapers or politicians when they err on the side of harshness.
They have become accustomed to being pilloried for precisely the opposite.

Henry McLeish has a battle to fight if he is to change that culture.
Politicians who express views on sentencing are ritually accused of
compromising judicial independence. Without making that mistake the minister
must continue his efforts to create a culture in which a prison sentence is
regarded as a flawed last resort. It will not be easy, but he can rely on
our continued support.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Meths Loses Its Stigma As Retail Barrier Comes Down ('The Scotsman'
Says Experts Believe The Abuse Of Alcohol Is Now So Rare In Scotland
That The Scottish Office Announced Yesterday It Will Allow
The Unrestricted Sale Of Methylated Spirits For The First Time Since 1937,
So Chemists And Hardware Shops Can Sell It For Cleaning And As Lamp Fuel
Without Fear That It Will Be Drunk By Those Desperate For A Cheap
And Powerful Drink)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 12:38:52 -0800
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: UK: Scotland: Meths Loses
Its Stigma As Retail Barrier Comes
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: shug@shug.co.uk
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: The Scotsman
Website: http://www.scotsman.com
Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com

METHS LOSES ITS STIGMA AS RETAIL BARRIER COMES DOWN

After 61 years, Government allows the spirit to go back on unrestricted
sale Colin Urquhart

Methylated spirits, once the favoured tipple of down-and-outs and
alcoholics, will go on unrestricted sale for the first time since 1937, the
Scottish Office announced yesterday.

Experts believe that the abuse of the alcohol is now so rare in Scotland
that it is safe for chemists and hardware shops to sell it freely for
cleaning and as lamp fuel, without the fear that it will be drunk by those
desperate for a cheap and powerful drink.

>From the end of July, retailers will be able to sell meths without
restriction or the need to keep detailed records. It will still not be
available to under-14s.

Methylated spirit is alcohol that has been rendered undrinkable - and thus
tax-exempt - by adding methanol. Manufacturers also add a violet dye to
make it even less attractive and so that it cannot be drunk by mistake.

Until the Second World War, methylated spirit was a popular but dangerous
drink. But there still remains a hard core of drug and drink addicts who
will try any stimulant to get a new sensation.

Beauchamp Colclough, 50, a drugs and drink counsellor with a client list
that includes the singer Elton John and the model Paula Hamilton, drank
meths along with an array of other substances before his reform.

Dr Bruce Ritson, director of the alcohol problems clinic at the Royal
Edinburgh Hospital, said that he had seen few cases of meths abuse.

He said: "The effects of meths are very damaging. It is damaging to the
liver, nervous system, sight and it can be fatal. It was principally drunk
by street drinkers but I have not come across anyone drinking it for a very
long time, probably because it has been carefully controlled."

The Scottish Office consulted police, health authorities, social work
bodies and similar groups before deciding to end the restrictions.

A spokeswoman for the Scottish Office said: "The 1937 act regulating the
sale of meths was introduced to address a specific social problem of the
time in Scotland.

"In the 1930s, the drinking of crude spirits, and methylated spirits in
particular, was seen as a cheap alternative to more expensive forms of
alcohol. Information from the police confirms that this form of alcohol
abuse is no longer a problem in Scotland."

Meths was originally made from wood - the word methyl, which gives the name
methanol, derives from the Greek for the wine from wood. It has been used
in bootleg spirits because it is cheap and the producers do not care about
quality.

One batch uncovered in 1996 was found to contain 2 per cent methylated
spirits which was enough to cause harm. However, it is now more likely to
be used to remove ticks or to ward of midges in the Highlands, than as a
drink of last resort.

In some parts of Scotland, the spirit was known as "feek", a corruption of
fake. Its drinkers were known as feekers and they included middle-class
alcoholics as well as the poor. Alcoholics appreciated the extra "buzz"
from meths.

Poverty in the 1930s forced some people to go to great lengths to dull
their senses. Another common way of getting a hit was to inhale coal gas
bubbled through milk.

But in 1937, the high number of deaths, illnesses and cases of blindness
from meths abuse forced the government to take action to restrict the sales
of methylated spirits.

Sellers were forced to register with local councils and record every sale.
Buyers had to justify their purpose.

The sale of meths was also subject to trade restrictions associated with
alcohol even though it was not sold in pubs and off licences. Until 1994,
meths could not be sold on a Sunday.

It was not only in Britain that harmful alcohols were popular. Absinthe, a
French forerunner of 'pastis', was banned in 1915 because it was
responsible for causing hallucinations, mental deterioration and sterility.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Tobacco Men Stand Firm Against Link With Cancer (The Irish 'Examiner'
Says Mr Ian Birks Of Gallaher Group, A British Tobacco Company,
Refused To Admit Yesterday To The Irish Joint Committee On Health
And Children That Smoking Causes Cancer - Smoking Was A Habit
Which People Could Take Up Or Give Up, Not An Addiction, He Insisted)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 16:04:45 -0400
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
Subject: MN: Ireland: Tobacco Men
Stand Firm Against Link With Cancer
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project
http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Martin Cooke (mjc1947@cyberclub.iol.ie)
Pubdate: Fri, 10 Jul 1998
Source: The Examiner (Ireland)
Contact: exam_letters@examiner.ie
Author: Evelyn Ring

TOBACCO MEN STAND FIRM AGAINST LINK WITH CANCER

ONE of the leading companies in the tobacco industry yesterday refused to
admit that smoking caused cancer when it appeared before Joint Committee on
Health and Children.

Mr Ian Birks, head of corporate affairs of Gallaher Group (UK), told the
committee that smoking was a habit which people could take up or give up. It
was not an addiction, he insisted.

Quizzed on the health issue, Mr Birks said warnings carried on cigarette
packs outlined the health risks.

Mr Birks, who admitted that he smoked cigars but not cigarettes, did not
accept that smoking caused health problems, such as lung cancer, bronchitis
and heart disease.

Greens TD John Gormley accused tobacco companies of being drug pushers,
albeit legal drug pushers.

Mr Birks said such comments were unhelpful. He believed there was no
question of addiction. But he was sure the addiction question would be
examined in a court of law.

Managing director of Gallaher (Dublin) Limited, Adrian Goodrich, told Fine
Gael's Alan Shatter, that he never had an interest in smoking. But he said
he had no difficulty in managing a tobacco company.

Asked if he had concerns about the effects of smoking on his health, Mr
Goodrich replied: "None whatever."

Committee chairman Batt O'Keeffe said that all the tobacco companies in
Ireland had been asked to appear before the committee and commended Gallaher
for accepting their invitation.

Mr O'Keeffe praised Mr Birks for "batting well" on the smoking issue. But,
he said, a lot of questions had been left unanswered.

Mr O'Keeffe said that smoking as a health issue highlighted the need for the
introduction of legislation which would allow the committee to compel
witnesses and send for documents.

Meanwhile, a Dublin solicitor planning to take civil actions against the
major tobacco companies in Ireland said he was not surprised by the comments
made by the industry and their unwillingness to accept responsibility for
the illness and deaths caused by their products.

Peter McDonnell said that since he had started work on the cases 36 of his
clients had died - six in the last seven months. He pointed out that over
6,000 people are killed every year in Ireland from smoking related illnesses
- a figure that equated to over 15 deaths every day.

Mr McDonnell said: "Though we are clearly disappointed about the lack of
remorse shown we are not surprised. The tobacco industry will find us very
difficult and determined opponents and we are confident that we will win."

Another firm of solicitors, Ward and Fitzpatrick, Dublin, who are the
largest plaintiff tobacco litigation firm in Europe with over 1,000 clients,
claimed that cigarettes were king-size killers. But the tobacco industries'
response to such carnage had not been appropriate nor acceptable.

Solicitor Francis Fitzpatrick of Ward and Fitzpatrick noted the similarity
between the current Dail hearings and the American Congressional hearings in
the United States in 1994.

A video tape of the congressional hearings shown at the recent trial in
Minnesota showed senior tobacco executives testifying under oath that
nicotine was not addictive. Internal tobacco documents revealed that the
industry knew nicotine was addictive prior to 1994.

Ms Fitzpatrick said: "Internal documentation from Irish and UK manufacturers
must be produced at the trial in Ireland and any statements made would be
reviewed in the light of those documents."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

The Week Online With DRCNet, Issue Number 49 (The Drug Reform Coordination
Network's Original News Summary For Activists, Including - Reports -
Correlation Between Alcohol And Crime Much Stronger Than Correlation
Between Illicit Drugs And Crime; Heicklen Arrested At Start Of
30 Hour Protest At Central Pennsylvania Festival Of The Arts;
Special Report - Drug Policy Down Under; And An Editorial By Adam J. Smith,
Running Ads Vs. Protecting Kids)

Date: Fri, 10 Jul 1998 17:06:52 EDT
Errors-To: manager@drcnet.org
Reply-To: manager@drcnet.org
Originator: drc-natl@drcnet.org
Sender: drc-natl@drcnet.org
From: DRCNet (manager@drcnet.org)
To: Multiple recipients of list (drc-natl@drcnet.org)
Subject: The Week Online with DRCNet, Issue No. 49

THE WEEK ONLINE WITH DRCNet, ISSUE No. 49 -- JULY 10, 1998

-- PLEASE COPY AND DISTRIBUTE --

(To sign off this list, mailto: listproc@drcnet.org with the
line "signoff drc-natl" in the body of the message, or

mailto:drcnet@drcnet.org for assistance. To subscribe to
this list, visit http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html.)

(This issue can be also be read on our web site at
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html.)

THE WAR OVER THE WAR ON DRUGS

***

Dear friends:

Yesterday was a momentous day in the anti-prohibition
effort. As the federal government kicked off its billion
dollar anti-drug ad campaign, the very media that are
running the ads greeted them with an air of skepticism.
Even in the once sacrosanct realm of kids and anti-drug
messages, there is now another "side".

Drug policy reformers aren't against prevention. In
fact, most of us see such efforts as part of a peaceful
alternative to current policies of police and prisons. But
we do have things to say on that issue, as well as about
prohibition itself, and the media is now ready to include us
in the debate. And as one of our supporters has pointed
out, people from outside the ranks of the reform movement
have begun to make our points for us, perhaps the most
convincing evidence so far that the tide of public opinion
is slowly but surely shifting in our direction.

Bill Press, before switching to a commercial break on
CNN's Crossfire last night, referred to the drug policy
debate as "the war over the war on drugs". CNN wouldn't
call this a "war" if they thought it was just a discussion
among intellectuals that was destined to fade away into
insignificance. The drug policy debate -- the war over the
war on drugs -- has begun in earnest. Our moment in history
has arrived.

You, the members and readers of DRCNet and the
organizations with which we have allied, have a special role
to play. Wonderful events of the past two years -- medical
marijuana passing in California and Arizona, the open letter
to Secretary General Kofi Annan, for example -- have had an
enormous impact in opening the debate on drug policy,
bringing us to this exciting point in time. But bringing
the final victory home will also require a true mass
movement of citizens, getting the phone calls going into
Congress, the letters into the media, setting up the forums,
handing out the flyers, circulating the petitions, marching
in the streets.

Because of our Internet structure, the ease of
connecting with and staying in touch with us, DRCNet is very
well suited to the task of building this movement. Our
numbers have passed the 6,000 mark. We need your help to
build that 6,000 to 60,000 and that 60,000 to 100,000 or
more. You can help by sending your friends to our web site,
talking about us in online forums, redistributing our
bulletins, collecting e-mail addresses at public events, and
of course by responding to our action alerts and maximizing
their impact. (Though we ask that you tell people first
what you are signing them up for and get their permission.)

You can also help by becoming a supporting member of
DRCNet. Thanks to enthusiastic reader response, our paid
membership rolls broke the 1,000 mark this week! Yet many
more are needed in order to strengthen the organization's
finances and help us grow and do more. Will you cast your
vote for reform and join today? Annual membership dues are
$25, or $10 for "virtual", e-mail only membership. Sign up
through our secure registration form at

http://www.drcnet.org/signup.html (hit reload if you get an
error message), or just send your check to: DRCNet, 2000 P
St., NW, Suite 615, Washington, DC 20036. Note that
contributions to DRCNet are not tax-deductible.

Thank you for your support, and for marching with us in
this time of change!

David Borden
Executive Director

P.S. Check out the July 13 issue of New York magazine, now
on the stands, for an outstanding 1 1/3 page review of Mike
Gray's Drug Crazy -- or read it online at
http://www.newyorkmag.com/Critics/view.asp?id=1551. Pick
up Drug Crazy in your local bookstore, and when you do, read
about DRCNet on page 203! Or visit the Drug Crazy web site
at http://www.drugcrazy.com.

***

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Government Kicks Off Billion Dollar Anti-Drug Ad
Campaign
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#partnership

2. Feds File Motion to Allow Marshals to Shut Down Medical
Marijuana Dispensaries
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#federalmotion

3. Oakland City Council Adopts Liberal Medical Marijuana
Guidelines
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#oakland

4. Reports: Correlation Between Alcohol and Crime Much
Stronger than Correlation Between Illicit Drugs and
Crime
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#alcohol

5. Federal Study Suggests Marijuana May Prevent Brain
Damage in Stroke Victims
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#study

6. Anti-Needle Exchange H.R. 3717 Moves to Senate
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#hr3717

7. Michigan Legislature Reforms "650 Lifer" Law
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#650lifer

8. Heicklen Arrested at Start Of 30 Hour Protest at Central
Pennsylvania Festival Of The Arts
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#heicklen

9. Special Report: Drug Policy Down Under
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#australia

10. Editorial: Running Ads vs. Protecting Kids
http://www.drcnet.org/wol/49.html#editorial

***

1. GOVERNMENT KICKS OFF $1 BILLION ANTI-DRUG AD CAMPAIGN

This week (7/9) the Office of National Drug Control Policy,
along with the Partnership for a Drug Free America, launched
the most expensive and wide-ranging anti-drug media campaign
ever targeted at America's youth and parents. The proposed
five-year plan will cost taxpayers $1 billion and the
government hopes that an additional $1 billion can be raised
from private sources. According to media sources, the
campaign will be the fifteenth-largest media buy in history,
surpassing Nike, American Express and Sprint, among others.

Interestingly, American media outlets, many of which stand
to reap large profits by selling time to the campaign, were

nevertheless willing to air dissenting opinions in their
coverage of the launch. From CNN's Crossfire and Talk Back
Live to the national network news shows, drug policy
reformers were well-represented. This level of coverage is
a continuation of a trend which has been building for some
time but which has become even more pronounced in the wake
of high-profile protests during the recent United Nations'
Special Session on Narcotics in June.

"As recently as two years ago, a launch like this would have
been portrayed in the American media as a feel-good fest,
with drug warriors, unopposed, preening for the cameras and
telling America how much they are doing for their children"
said DRCNet executive director David Borden. "The media's
response to what would once have been seen as a non-
controversial, if politically-motivated program indicates
that the reform movement can no longer be brushed-off as a
fringe group. The debate, once limited to one "side"
advocating more prisons and the other "side" advocating many
more prisons, is now very definitely seen by the media
gatekeepers as being between the Prohibitionists and the
reformers. And since people tend to become more inclined
toward reform the more they learn about the issue, this
constitutes a major, major step forward for the reform
movement."

Reformers, including The Lindesmith Center's Ethan Nadelmann
(http://www.lindesmith.org) and Mike Gray, author of the new
book "Drug Crazy" (http://www.drugcrazy.com), spoke of the
need to address more serious concerns, such as children's
unabated access to drugs, as well as the need to support
programs that have been proven to work in reducing teen drug
use, such as after-school programs. Gray challenged drug
czar Barry McCaffrey on the drug policy record of The
Netherlands, pointing out that Dutch officials are upset
enough at the U.S. government's mischaracterizations that
they are considering filing a diplomatic protest.

Ty Trippet, a spokesman for The Lindesmith Center, told The
Week Online, "think of what a billion dollars invested in
after-school programs, invested directly in kids, could do
in terms of connecting them with mentors and involving them
in positive activities. That is real prevention. That is
how we'll keep kids off drugs. This campaign is more about
putting a do-something face on an accomplish-nothing drug
war. And people, media included, are starting to get it."

Nightline featured a discussion of the ad campaign,
including Brandweek Senior Editor David Kiley, who pointed
out that there has been very little research or data
gathered on the effectiveness of these types of ads
(http://www.drcnet.org/rapid/1998/5-22.html#brandweek).

(Transcripts of yesterday's discussions on CNN Talkback Live
and Crossfire are available on CNN's web site, at
http://cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/9807/09/tl.00.html and
http://cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/9807/09/cf.00.html. CNN's
report on the ad campaign, with video audio samples, are at
http://www.allpolitics.com/1998/07/09/clinton.drug/. As

of this afternoon, Nightline had not yes posted a transcript
of this report, but it will probably be there within a few
days; check at http://www.abcnews.com/onair/nightline/.

***

2. FEDS FILE MOTION TO ALLOW MARSHALS TO SHUT DOWN MEDICAL
MARIJUANA DISPENSARIES

The federal government filed an ex parte motion with U.S.
District Court Judge Charles Breyer (7/7), asking that the
U.S. Marshal be authorized immediately to close down medical
cannabis clubs in Oakland, Marin, and Mendocino County. If
granted, the motion would mean immediate forcible closure of
the clubs, which currently serve over 2,000 Bay Area medical
marijuana patients.

The government also filed motions ordering the clubs to show
cause why they should not be held in contempt of a
preliminary injunction ordering them to cease operations,
and asking the judge to grant a summary judgment holding
them in contempt. Hearings on the contempt motions will
be held on August 14th at 10:00 am.

Attorneys for the defendants are hopeful that the hearings
will lead to a jury trial of the defendants, who enjoy
strong support in their local communities. In the meantime,
medical marijuana advocates are praying that Breyer will not
let federal authorities close the clubs.

An earlier government motion to let marshals close the clubs
was rejected by Judge Breyer last May. This time, the
government is arguing that the clubs have continued
operations in violation of the court's injunction, which
forbids distribution of marijuana in violation of the
federal Controlled Substances Act. As evidence, the
government has submitted testimony from DEA agents that the
clubs are still open to patients. However, agents
conspicuously failed in an effort to buy marijuana at the
Oakland club, in an episode videotaped by news media on May
21. (The operation coincidentally took place at the same
time the club was holding a well-attended press conference.)

Defense attorneys contend that the clubs' distribution of
medical marijuana to patients is not illegal under the
Controlled Substances Act, and that they are therefore not
in violation of the federal injunction.

California NORML coordinator Dale Gieringer denounced the
federal motions as a "cruel and immoral assault on patients'
rights and a gross usurpation of powers rightly reserved for
the states and local communities."

Jeff Jones, who runs the Oakland club, told The Week Online,
"We're expecting a bust any day now. The feds, acting
against the stated intention of the local government, are
totally out of hand. But we're awaiting our day in court.
We strongly believe that we are not in violation of the
court order. This is about people, sick and suffering
people, and a community that wants to allow them to help
themselves in the best way they see fit. It is also, thanks
to the 'zero-tolerance crowd' about an abuse of power and
the overstepping of boundaries in an effort to enforce a
punitive and morally bankrupt ideological position. We are
extremely confident that in the end, the warriors will be
exposed for what they are... and they won't end up looking
too good."

***

3. OAKLAND CITY COUNCIL ADOPTS LIBERAL MEDICAL MARIJUANA
GUIDELINES

Oakland, July 7, 1998: The Oakland City Council this week
unanimously approved what are thought to be the nation's
strongest and most patient-friendly police guidelines to
protect medical marijuana users from arrest.

The guidelines, based on the federal government's own dosage
allotments to the eight medical marijuana patients it
supplies, allow patients to possess up to 1.5 pounds of
marijuana (a three-month's supply) or up to 6 pounds (a one
year's supply) if grown in their own gardens.

Chuck Thomas, communications director for the Marijuana
Policy Project (http://www.mpp.org), told The Week Online,
"What sweet irony it is that these guidelines, which will
undoubtedly upset people like (California Attorney General
and gubernatorial candidate) Dan Lungren, are taken directly
from the federal government's own guidelines. These amounts
were arrived at by the federal government's own doctors.
That'll certainly make it difficult for them to credibly
complain. Sheer genius."

Patients may grow up to 48 flowering plants indoors, or up
to 96 total (allowing for unflowering males), or 30
flowering plants outdoors, up to 60 total outdoors.

"Oakland is to be congratulated for leading the way out of
reefer madness and towards a truly enlightened policy on
marijuana," commented California NORML coordinator Dale
Gieringer, an Oaklander.

Substantial parts of the two previous stories were reported
by Dale Gieringer of California NORML. You can reach Dale
at canorml@igc.apc.org and you can find NORML on the web at
http://www.norml.org, or California NORML at
http://www.norml.org/canorml.

***

4. REPORTS: CORRELATION BETWEEN ALCOHOL AND CRIME MUCH
STRONGER THAN CORRELATION BETWEEN ILLICIT DRUGS AND CRIME
- Chad Thevenot, Criminal Justice Policy Foundation

A report released this week by Drug Strategies, a drug
policy think-tank based in Washington, DC, finds that in
1996, 41% percent of all South Carolina arrestees tested
positive for illegal drugs on the day they were arrested,
However, because marijuana, the most commonly used illicit
drug, is fat-soluble, making it detectable in the body much
longer than alcohol and other drugs, this figure is
misleading. Arrestees testing positive for an illegal drug
does not accurately indicate if such persons were under the
psychoactive effects of a drug while committing the offense.
According to the Drug Strategies report, in 1996, four
percent of arrestees in South Carolina tested positive for
alcohol, while 51% admitted having used alcohol within
three days prior to the arrest (Drug Strategies, "South
Carolina Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs," 1998).

In 1995, forty percent of probationers reported being under
the influence of alcohol when they committed their offense
compared to 14% who reported being under the influence of
illicit drugs, according to a Department of Justice report.
In regards to violent offenses, the gap in percentages
widens to 41% of offenders reporting being under the
influence of alcohol and 11% reporting being under the
influence of drugs (Christopher J. Mumola, "Substance Abuse
and Treatment of Adults on Probation, 1995," Bureau of
Justice Statistics Special Report, March 1998, NCJ 166611)

According to a Department of Justice report on alcohol and
crime, "nearly 4 in 10 violent victimizations involve use of
alcohol, about 4 in 10 fatal motor vehicles accidents are
alcohol-involved; and about 4 in 10 offenders, regardless of
whether they are on probation, in local jail, or in State
prison, self-report that they were using alcohol at the time
of the offense." Sixty-five percent of spouse violence
victimizations involved alcohol only, compared to 5%
involving illicit drugs only. In regards to rape and sexual
assaults, 30% of offenders were using alcohol while 4% were
using drugs (Lawrence A. Greenfield, "Alcohol and Crime,"
Bureau of Justice Statistics report, April 1998).

(Chad Thevenot is Operations Manager for the Criminal
Justice Policy Foundation, 1899 L St., NW, Suite 500,
Washington, DC 20036, phone: (202) 835-9075, fax: (202) 833-
8561.)

***

5. FEDERAL STUDY SUGGESTS MARIJUANA MAY PREVENT BRAIN DAMAGE IN
STROKE VICTIMS - Kris Lotlikar

The National Institute on Mental Health has begun testing
certain chemicals in marijuana for whether they might
protect brain cells during a stroke. THC and cannabidiol
have both exhibited promising results, but the study is
being concentrated on cannabidiol because of its lack of
psychoactive properties. Cannabidiol (CBD) proved to be a
potent antioxidant in a test tube for protecting brain
tissue exposed to toxic neurochemicals produced during a
stroke. Aiden Hampson, the team leader feels that CDB is a
better candidate than the other chemicals found in
marijuana. Dr. Hampson's research team has now started
giving intravenous CDB to rat and reveal the preliminary
results are promising. He stated to the UK Guardian, "We
have something that passes the brain barrier easily, has low
toxicity, and appears to be working in the animal trials.
So I think we have a good chance."

This discovery has special importance in the political
arena, with medical marijuana initiatives possibly appearing
on five states ballots this fall. "This study adds to the
list of studies showing that there are more useful chemicals
in the marijuana plant than just THC," Chuck Thomas,
director of communication for the Marijuana Policy Project
told The Week Online. "This should be no surprise,
considering that most patients prefer smoking marijuana to
the THC pill (Marinol)."

Dr. Hampson claims that cannabidiol has so far been
considered an inactive ingredient. According to Paul
Armentano, director of communication for NORML, however,
cannabidiol has been studied for various uses in the past.
"This may look like a new discovery, but Israeli pharmacists
have been studying it for about 4-5 years," commented Mr.
Armentano to The Week Online. Research on CDB has been
conducted to treat epilepsy and Huntington's disease. In

Israel, a biotechnology company called Pharmos has developed
a derivative of CDB called Dexanabinol, and has recently
begun phase III testing, using human subjects. Pharmos
claims Dexanabinol can control neuronal cell death, the
damage caused by head trauma and strokes.

***

6. ANTI-NEEDLE EXCHANGE H.R. 3717 MOVES TO SENATE
- Taylor West

(EDITOR'S NOTE: DRCNet supporters come from the ranks of the
progressive left, who support government funding of social
services, to the libertarian right, who largely feel the
government shouldn't be doing anything. We respect all of
these people's viewpoints, and are happy to have them as
allies. The issue of federal funding of needle exchange is
one where we believe that lifting of the ban on such funding
would actually make things better from both points of view.
The reason is that the federal government is already funding
AIDS prevention. The ban on use of such funds for needle
exchange programs amounts to discrimination against drug
users and those with whom they come into direct of indirect
contact. Lifting the federal ban simply amounts to a
deregulation of federal AIDS funding, or a deference of the
federal government to state-level decision making. Hence,
we see this funding issue as independent of the government
vs. private sector debate; and we also believe that
furthering the social acceptance of needle exchange will
foster the development of a humane drug policy, which is
antithetical to the prohibition that it causing so much
harm. This is why we are opposing the federal needle
exchange funding ban. Note that the bill discussed here
would have even further-reaching discriminatory effects than
the current policy.)

House Resolution 3717, which would permanently ban the use
of federal funds to support needle exchange, passed the
House of Representatives on April 29th and has taken its
place on the calendar to be considered in the Senate. While
the Senate schedule is always tentative, the bill is
expected to see debate on the floor as early as this week.

This legislation, sponsored in the House by Rep. Gerald
Solomon (R-NY), amends the Public Health Service Act to
state that no money provided by the federal government
during any fiscal year may be used "directly or indirectly"
to fund the distribution of needles to intravenous drug
users. It passed the House by a vote of 287 to 140.

Not surprisingly, H.R. 3717 has drawn sharp protest from
needle exchange advocates. "It's economic foolishness.
It's inhumanity. And we'll pay for it in the end," warned
Dan Bigg of the Chicago Recovery Alliance. Ellen Goldstein
from the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies concurred.
"It's the worst example of ignoring science and developing
policy based on political pressure," she stated this week.

"This is a particularly nasty piece of legislation for three
reasons," said Chris Lanier, of the National Coalition to
Save Lives Now. "First, it takes the authority for
decision-making on needle exchange out of the hands of the
administration and the Department of Health and Human

Services. Second, it makes the ban we already have a
permanent one, which would require more action by Congress
to reverse. And third, the language of the bill makes it
possible that funding that goes to programs for any sort of
intervention could be banned."

That language -- particularly the use of the words "directly
and indirectly" -- has other organizations worried as well.
Jeff Jacobs, Director of Government Affairs for AIDS Action,
told the Week Online, "We're very concerned about the bill
language. It could mean that people are prevented even from
getting treatment, something both sides agree addicts should
get." Because there is not a clear idea of what constitutes
"indirect" expenditure of funds on needle exchange, both
Jacobs and Lanier fear that organizations which provide many
other services in addition to exchange might be cut off
entirely.

Another point of contention which has spurred protest from
several House members is the process through which H.R. 3717
has seen debate. The bill was put directly on the House
floor, without the usual committee hearings or discussion,
by the House Rules Committee, of which sponsor Solomon is
the chair. Following less than three hours of debate, the
bill was passed on to the Senate. Now, once again without
committee hearings, it has been placed on the calendar of
the Senate floor for debate within the next few weeks.
"What we're seeing happen," says Lanier, "is that the issue
is not well understood, and yet it's acted on anyway... It
allows for greater reliance on politics and less on a
reasoned examination of the science."

Despite the bill's overwhelming passage in the House,
support is not expected to come quite so easily in the
Senate. Indicators from related legislation seem to show
that only two or three votes may separate the opposing
sides. This means that constituents' efforts to influence
their senators may play a major role in the fate of H.R.
3717. For the next week or longer, pressure from the
outside will have a vital influence on the course of this
legislation, and thus on the future of funding for U.S.
needle exchange. Please call your two Senators; you can
reach them through the Congressional Switchboard at (202)
224-3121, or write them at United States Senate, Washington,
DC 20510.

***

7. MICHIGAN LEGISLATURE REFORMS "650 LIFER" LAW
- Kris Lotlikar

The "650 Lifer" law in Michigan is the toughest drug law in
the country. It requires a mandatory sentence of life
without parole for individuals convicted of delivery of 650
gram or more of cocaine or heroin. A bi-partisan effort in
the state legislature has passed two important reforms to
this law. "650 lifers" will now be eligible for parole at
15, 17 1/2, or 20 years, depending on if the individual is a
repeat offender and whether the individual cooperated with
law enforcement. Judges will also gain some discretion in
the sentencing of persons convicted of "650" offenses. The
law will now hold a penalty of "life or any term of years,
but not less than 20 years." Governor Engler is expect to
sign the bill into law this August.

Representative Barbara Dobb spearheaded the reform effort.
"I would hope this acts as a catalyst for legislators to
take a hard look at the harsh mandatory minimum penalties,"
Rep. Dobb told The Week Online. "Instead of targeting drug
kingpins, it has mainly incarcerated low-level addicts and
couriers for life, at a tremendous cost to the taxpayers.
It's long past time to be smart on crime and make sure that
those most involved in the drug trade serve the longest
sentences," she also stated. Representative Ted Wallace,
Representative Mike Nye and Senator William Van Regenmorter
were all instrumental in pulling together this risky
election year legislation.

"Make no mistake, the '650 lifer' law remains one of the
harshest drug laws in the U.S.," said Laura Sager, director
of Families Against Mandatory Minimums' Michigan Project.
"There is nothing 'soft' about a penalty that is still more
severe than that of second degree murder. In addition, it
is very difficult for individuals sentenced to life to meet
the stringent parole requirements for those with life
sentences -- fewer than one percent of individuals serving
parolable life sentences for other crimes have been released
in the last decade."

Many members of the community have worked to get these
reforms in place. Activists include family members, judges,
attorneys, clergy and other individuals whose lives have
been touched by this law. This is a "tremendous achievement
for grassroots activism," Laura Sager commented to The Week
Online.

Families Against Mandatory Minimums is a national, non-
profit sentencing reform organization with 33,000 members
nationally and 3,100 in Michigan. Visit them on the web at
http://www.famm.org.

***

8. HEICKLEN ARRESTED AT START OF 30 HOUR PROTEST AT CENTRAL
PENNSYLVANIA FESTIVAL OF THE ARTS
- Alex Morgan

Penn State Professor Julian Heicklen is in Centre County
Prison in lieu of $50,000 bail following his arrest for
marijuana possession during the first hour of a 30 hour
marathon "Smoke Out" coinciding with the four-day Central
Pennsylvania Festival of the Arts.

The protest began at "High Noon" at the university's main
gate in downtown State College, with Heicklen reading a
statement summarizing his six month civil disobedience
campaign. Penn State police arrived at 12:15 to inform
Heicklen he was in violation of a university policy
prohibiting use of a bull horn without a permit. Heicklen
responded that the university lacked the power to pass
legislation and ordinances and that "... it's my policy to
use the bull horn." The police left saying they would be
back.

Heicklen lit a joint and passed it around a crowd of
supporters. About nine of the 70 protesters smoked
marijuana, although the demonstration was witnessed by
hundreds of the 100,000 visitors that are in "Happy Valley"
for the festival which runs through Sunday night. Also in
attendance were reporters from the local CBS and Fox
affiliates, as well an editor and photographer from "High
Times" magazine.

Heicklen repeated his claim that he is not a pot advocate
but a "political smoker... The lighted marijuana weed is the
torch of liberty... I believe in freedom. Not only that but
I'm a tired old miser, I object to supporting the pot heads
in prison with my money. I want all those pot heads out of
prison, on the street and working so they can support me and
raise my Social Security payments."

The police returned at about 12:30pm, but the joint was out,
and they once again failed to convince Heicklen to cease
using the bull horn and left saying they would return.
Finally, the police returned when Heicklen lit up a second
time, confiscated the joint, confirmed it was marijuana and
arrested him at 12:55pm.

Heicklen went limp and made the officers carry him into the
police car and later into District Magistrate Carmen
Prestia's office. According to Heicklen associate Charlie
Miller, who attended the hearing, Prestia asked Heicklen if
he intended to continue with the protest at the Arts
Festival, and Heicklen asked the magistrate if he was asking
him to indict himself for crimes not yet committed. Prestia
then said he was tired of playing Heicklen's games, and that
he was "carrying this thing too far." Prestia set
Heicklen's bail at $50,000 cash and scheduled his
Preliminary Arraignment for July 15 at 10:00am. Normal bail
for possession of a small amount of marijuana in Centre
County is $500.00. Heicklen was lodged in Centre County
Prison in lieu of bail to await his hearing next Wednesday.

Charlie Miller, Press Liaison of the Centre County
Libertarian Party, co-sponsors of the protests, will now
lead the four day rally during Heicklen's incarceration.
"It will definitely continue. We made commitments. These
people are showing up (the rally speakers), and we will keep
pressing the issue, although its unlikely that a lot of
people will be smoking pot." Among the scheduled speakers
are nationally known authors Drs. Lynn Zimmer, John Morgan
and Lester Grinspoon.

After Heicklen was arrested, the police told the
demonstrators that they could not use any "sound
amplification." The campus police maintained a strong
presence in the area all day, as did the State College
police across the street.

Miller said, "This is our 26th week of having political
protests. We never had a problem before (with the bull horn
and literature tables); the police are obviously very
sensitive because of the Art Fest. They're saying we're not
allowed to pass out literature in State College because
people might litter, and on Penn State property we're not
allowed to sit down on the sidewalk, and anything we carry
to the protest has to be carried, we can't set anything
down. We're going to see if we can get around that. As
Libertarians we're a political party and that's
constitutionally protected."

Miller and local activist Diane Fornbacher are making
alternative plans to house the speakers that were going to
stay with Professor Heicklen. Miller said he doesn't expect
Heicklen to be out of jail before the protest ends on Sunday
(6/12) at 6:00pm.

***

9. SPECIAL REPORT: DRUG POLICY DOWN UNDER
- Greg Ewing for DRCNet

On June 21, the mayor of Melbourne (Australia), Ivan
Deveson, proposed the establishment of a heroin trial in
Melbourne as a way to reduce the growing number of deaths
from heroin overdose. Deveson said the trial should be
similar to one proposed for the Australian Capital Territory
(ACT) last year, and which was cancelled by the Federal
Government only shortly before it was scheduled to begin.

Counselor Deveson also revealed that the city is close to a
decision on introducing safe injecting rooms for heroin
users. "We're either going to surpass the road death (with
heroin overdoses), or we'll trial a safe injecting room."

Counselor Deveson was critical of Prime Minister John
Howard's leadership on drug policy, and also voiced his
despair over resistance to change amongst his peers: "... if
anyone puts their foot in this water, they will be seen as
too soft... because the community is so conservative.
(It's) led by our PM, a friend of mine. Two years ago I was
just as conservative. But I would have to acknowledge I
have shifted in this journey. And I despair at the number
of my generation who haven't come on that journey and who
now will not understand when I tell them about the problem."

Last year, the province of New South Wales established a
joint committee to investigate use of injecting rooms. In
one description of a de-facto shooting gallery in Sydney's
Kings Cross, the committee was told an average of 60
customers paid $5 for the use of a room for 10 minutes over
a 24-hour period. A knock on the door signaled when your
time was up, and also gave workers an opportunity to act
quickly on an overdose. An ambulance was required to attend
three overdoses a week. There had been 10 deaths on the
premises over the previous nine years. The committee's
report, submitted in February this year, contained a
majority recommendation against establishing safe injecting
rooms because of safety concerns, arguing that heroin
remains an illegal and uncontrolled substance.

Frankfurt has had a steady decrease in the number of people
dying from drug overdoses since the city introduced
injecting rooms in 1991. By 1996, fewer than 50 people died
each year. In Victoria, the total has been climbing
steadily since 1991, to more than 160 deaths in 1996.

New statistics show that the Melbourne ambulance service
attends 180 overdoses a month, or almost 6 a day. In most
cases Narcan can be administered and the patient comes-to
immediately. A report last year by the Australian Bureau of
Criminal Intelligence cited the absence of reporting systems
for the non-fatal overdoses as a reason for the lack of a
clear understanding about Australians' heroin use.

Following the mayor's heroin trial proposal, the Victorian
Government said that they would endorse a national trial but
not approve one held only in Melbourne. The Premier said
that such trials in Melbourne could be counter-productive by
attracting drug barons as well as users from other states.
Educators, students, and several medical bodies
applauded the calls.

Mayor Deveson later agreed that the council did not have the
power to set up injection rooms, but he said "we're reaching
a point where more young people between 15 and 25 are dying
of drug overdoses than road death. We haven't reached that
point, but we will very soon if we don't consider an
alternative".

The Lord Mayor states that his concern for Melbourne stems
from his experience working in Detroit in the 1960s where he
saw a degradation in standards. Over the past few years,
many more areas of Melbourne have developed a very visible
street-trade in heroin. Demand for syringes in the city had
trebled in the past 3 years.

HEROIN USE INCREASING, ESPECIALLY AMONG YOUNG AND FEMALE

Victorian Drug Trends 1997, a federally commissioned report
and the most comprehensive assessment of illicit drug use in
Victoria, reveals an alarming trend for users to be younger
and female. Polydrug abuse was also on the increase.
Heroin may no longer be regarded as a "hard drug" by the
drug community. "In the past, drug users would say to us
that they and their friends wouldn't use heroin -- heroin
was for losers -- but now that's changed," said researcher
Dr. Greg Rumbold. He speculated that this could partly be
explained because heroin had become more easily available
and cheaper. Most respondents (58%) said the price was
stable while a third said it had dropped as purity had
increased.

Just under two-thirds (62%) reported involvement in crime in
the previous month and, despite most believing there had
been more police activity at the time of the survey, most
(60%) said this did not make it harder to get drugs. Forty
percent of those involved in criminal activity had dealt in
drugs and 36 percent admitted to property crimes.

The survey showed that 56 percent of respondents had
overdosed at least once and three-quarters had witnessed an
overdose.

Evidence collected also backs up national data showing that
most heroin-related overdoses occur in older, more
experienced users. The median age of overdose victims
attended to by ambulance was 27.

Victoria To Trial 4 Drugs To Facilitate Heroin Addiction
Treatment

The first trial will compare two drugs, LAAM and
buprenorphine, as maintenance treatment in 522 users,
against methadone in 522 users. Another maintenance
treatment trial will involve 40 people taking slow-release
oral morphine. The third trial will have 250 addicts
taking buprenorphine as a withdrawal treatment. In the
final trial, 100 former users taking naltrexone to prevent
relapse will be compared with 100 people taking dummy pills.

VICTORIA ANNOUNCES CAUTIONING SCHEME FOR DRUG USERS (7 JULY)

Following the success of a 6 month trial, Victoria announced
that from September 1, first-time cannabis users will be
cautioned if they are in possession of less than 50 grams.
A pilot for a similar cautioning system for other illicit
drugs including heroin and cocaine is also to take place.

Those cautioned will be offered help and advice. For drugs
other than cannabis, users would have to undertake to accept
some mandatory drug assessment and treatment in return for
the caution. The government has approved $600,000 for extra
assistance to the 13 to 15 drug treatment agencies that
could be involved in the pilot.

During the earlier cannabis-cautioning pilot program, only 8
of the 97 offenders cautioned re-offended during the 6 month
trial period and 93 percent of police officers surveyed said
the procedure saved resources for more serious matters.

Professor David Penington, who headed the Premier's Advisory
Council on Illicit Drugs, yesterday congratulated police on
their "substantial" change in attitude. "They've recognized
that the (drug) problem hasn't been solved by simple
prohibition and that the problem was getting worse, with
more young people especially getting involved in the heroin
scene."

In an interview with the Melbourne Age, the Chief
Commissioner of Police said that during two decades working
as a police officer he had been locked into a hard line
approach to drug users. But he admitted the approach had
not worked and said "I have in recent years changed my mind
considerably."

The cost to the Victorian police and court system, through
trying and then judging first-time marijuana users, is about
$A25-$A30 million.

A SNAPSHOT OF CURRENT AUSTRALIAN CANNABIS LAW STATE BY STATE

* South Australia

Most relaxed laws in country. Decriminalised low-level use
in 1987. Cultivation and possession of up to 100 grams or
10 backyard plants attracts $A50-$A150 on the spot fine.
For greater amounts normal prosecutions apply.

* New South Wales

Offenders must face court. Fines and prison terms are
common, although magistrates can release offenders without
conviction.

* Queensland

Same as for New South Wales.

* Tasmania

Cabinet approval imminent on proposals to introduce a formal
written caution for first-time possession of up to 50 grams.
Modeled on the new Victorian policy and will be tried for 12
months.

* Australian Capital Territory

Personal use decriminalized in 1992. Generally up to a
$A100 fine, no conviction if found with less than 25 grams
or less than 5 plants. Police do however have the
discretion to lay a criminal charge.

* Western Australia

Conservative Government has been resisting calls for minor
cannabis use to be decriminalized. Offenders must face
court but most minor offenders walk away with small fines.

* Northern Territory

On-the-spot fines for possession of amounts less than 50
grams which were intended for personal use.

***

10. EDITORIAL: RUNNING ADS VS. PROTECTING KIDS

This week, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, in
conjunction with the Partnership for a Drug Free America,
launched a $2 Billion anti-drug media campaign. Advertisements
will run nationwide, on television, radio and the
Internet. The ads will warn, threaten, cajole and plead
with kids to stay away from the illicit drugs that we, after
nearly eighty years of drug prohibition, have been unable to
keep out of their reach.

The ads, insofar as they are truthful, will probably do no
harm, though there is scant evidence that they will do much
good, other than to convince American parents that their
government is at least doing something. But the very
presence of the ads begs the larger and more important
question: Why are these dangerous substances so far outside
of the control of responsible society that we cannot keep
them out of the hands of kids? The answer is that drug
prohibition, like alcohol prohibition before it, has failed
our children, and failed them spectacularly.

We have been here before. On February 9, 1925, nearly
halfway through America's disastrous national experiment in
alcohol prohibition, Colonel William L. Barker, Northern
Division, Salvation Army, was asked by a Minnesota newspaper
reporter about the impact of Prohibition. Col. Barker's
response, which speaks to a vastly increased level of access
by children to prohibited substances, is as relevant to the
parents of today as it was to the parents of the time.
"Prohibition has diverted the energies of the Salvation Army
from the drunkard in the gutter to the boys and girls in
their teens," he said. "The work of the Army has completely
changed in the past five years... Prohibition has so
materially affected society that we have girls in our rescue
homes who are 14 and 15 years old, while 10 years ago the
youngest was in the early twenties."

Today, we are faced with the shocking reality of twelve and
thirteen year-olds using heroin, methamphetamine and LSD.
And despite ever-increasing efforts to enforce prohibition,
Michigan University's Monitoring The Future Survey shows
that over the past twenty years, while America's incarce-
rated population has grown nearly ten-fold, access by kids
to these substances has either risen almost across the
board. As for marijuana, the Michigan study shows that
nearly 90% of twelfth graders say it is "easy" or "fairly
easy" to obtain. And a survey, released in 1997 by the
Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, found that when
asked which is easier to buy, nearly four times as many 12-
17 year-olds answered 'marijuana' as 'beer'.

Drug prohibition, far from a form of "drug control", is in
reality the surrendering of control over dangerous and
addictive substances into the hands of criminals. Envision
a system under which licensed and highly regulated
professionals (such as pharmacists) sell well-labeled and
reliably pure substances at small profit margins from
limited numbers of outlets to adults with valid proof of age
under penalty of losing their livelihood. Now consider the
reality of our current prohibition, a system under which
unknown numbers of individuals, cloaked in secrecy, realize
obscene profits by selling unlabeled substances of unknown
purity in school yards and on street corners to anyone, of
any age who can be convinced to buy them. And kids, young
kids, are advantageous customers as they are very unlikely
to be either cops or informants.

In testimony on Capitol Hill last month, Drug Czar Barry
McCaffrey bemoaned the presence of an insidious "elitist
group" and their "devious" attempts to reform our nation's
drug policy. He spoke of the "horrifying" prospect of
"legalization", including "heroin being sold at the corner
store to children with false identifications." But when was
the last time that a child in this country, attempting to
buy heroin, was asked for identification, false or
otherwise, under the present system?

In the face of McCaffrey's blatant mischaracterization,
there are a growing number of responsible Americans, people
like Mayor Kurt Schmoke of Baltimore, Ronald Reagan's former
Secretary of State George Schultz, journalistic icon Walter
Cronkite, and millions of American parents, doctors,
educators and others who are calling for a re-examination of
the very premise of prohibition. These dissenters are
neither "devious" nor motivated by some desire to see the
drug problem in this country get worse, especially as it
relates to children. They simply understand that drug
prohibition has not protected our kids any better than
alcohol prohibition protected the youngsters of the nineteen
twenties.

At the ceremony heralding the launch of the media campaign
in Atlanta, President Clinton told students, "These ads are
designed to knock America upside its head and get America's
attention." But "knocking Americans upside the head" is
exactly what the drug war has done for decades, with
disastrous consequences. What is needed is rationality and
a strategy that emphasizes taking control, not more
violence, psychological or otherwise. And who decided that
kids, at whom the ads are primarily targeted, will respond
to being "knocked upside the head" by their elders? Better
we should take the drugs off the streets and concentrate as
a society on providing kids with meaningful opportunities to
become engaged, to connect with their communities and with
people worth emulating. Has Bill Clinton, baby-boomer
darling, forgotten how powerful is the pull of youth to
ignore or even actively oppose the threats and the
moralizing of ones' parents' generation? Or is Clinton,
together with the rest of the Drug War establishment, buried
so deep in their own bullshit that they are unable or
unwilling to recognize the blatant hypocrisy in the rhetoric
they trumpet as gospel?

While it is certainly important to provide kids with
information and warnings about the potential dangers of drug
use, especially use at an early age, it is unlikely that the
campaign will have much impact in an era of Prohibition. It
is feel-good spending and election-year politics, diverting
the public's attention from a record of failure that should
shame even the most shameless politician. In the face of
very real threats to the safety of our kids, such tactics
ought to be repaid in spades on election night. If this is
the best that our leaders can do, while junior high school
students purchase heroin from the people to whom we have
ceded the trade, then it is time for new leadership.

This week, politicians from across the political spectrum
will cheer the launch of the government's newest and most
sophisticated anti-drug media campaign. But as you watch
those spiffy new Partnership ads, ask yourself why our
leaders insist on clinging to a system which abandons our
children to an uncontrollable black market. And why we, the
adults, have been reduced to begging them to just say no.

Adam J. Smith
Associate Director

***

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