------------------------------------------------------------------- Measure 67 Cover Story (A Letter To The Editor Of 'Willamette Week' In Portland Finds Its 'Dope With Dignity' Article To Be Favorable, And Urges Voters, Especially Conservatives, To Support The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act) Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 16:53:36 -0700 (PDT) From: Bear (email@example.com) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: DPFOR: M67: letter to Willamette Week Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/ Following is the text of a letter I sent to Willamette Week immediately after the publication of their Measure 67 cover story. This week they printed my letter in its entirety. Joseph Bear Wilner email@example.com Hedonics, Communalism, History, Explorations, Stillness, Animations, Noise ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Wed, 12 Aug 1998 22:14:30 -0700 (PDT) From: Bear (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: email@example.com Subject: Measure 67 cover story Kudos to Patty Wentz and _Willamette Week_ for an articulate and balanced story on Measure 67. It will certainly be interesting to see how the campaign plays out. If past is any prologue, other states' experiences to date with similar initiatives show us that political conservatives will feature prominently in the No on 67 campaign. Why is this important? Because each wave of contemporary conservatism, from Barry Goldwater's to Ronald Reagan's to Newt Gingrich's, has made limiting the powers of government its mantra. If this is the case, why in California, Arizona, and Washington have so many of these men's followers chosen to oppose oppose measures similar to Measure 67 that would enhance the rights of citizens as against the powers assumed by what they might otherwise term the Leviathan State? Today, we are supposed to believe that "government interference in the health-care system" has become a national bogeyman. So shouldn't the folks (such as Dr. Cornelia Taylor, who was mentioned in your article) who brought us Harry and Louise argue in favor of a vote that would help shield doctors and their patients from threats of fines, forfeiture, and prison? I urge every conservative in Oregon to avoid the temptations of hypocrisy, to stand by their defenses of freedom in other instances, and to join the rest of us who support Measure 67.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Protest Brings Differing Accounts ('The Oregonian' Describes An Attempt By African-Americans To Assemble Peaceably In Northeast Portland, Only To Have Police Shoot Them - The Protest Was Directed Against Police Who Broke Up A Black Community Celebration At Sellwood Park, In The Name Of Fighting Drug 'Gangs')The Oregonian letters to editor: firstname.lastname@example.org 1320 SW Broadway Portland, OR 97201 Web: http://www.oregonlive.com/ Protest brings differing accounts * Participants say the police reaction reflects continuing harassment, but officers say the marchers presented a traffic hazard Wednesday, August 19 1998 By Peter Farrell and Laura Trujillo of The Oregonian staff Travis West said pride would not let him run away when police officers pointed guns at him Monday night as he tried to leave a protest rally on Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. The 31-year-old Olympic wrestler and former Self Enhancement Inc. staff member said that before police ordered the crowd to disperse, he had been talking to young people, warning them to avoid arrest by moving along. He went south on the boulevard and came face-to-face with helmeted police with raised guns, "as if it was a firing squad." "I couldn't believe they were going to shoot. For what?" He did not know police were firing what they call less-lethal weapons, shotguns that shoot a bag filled with lead shot. He was perhaps 50 yards from the officers when the pouch hit him, breaking the skin on his thigh. He was stunned but not surprised, he said. Although in pain, he was able to walk away from the confrontation. West has known Daniel Binns, who organized the protest Monday, since boyhood. And he said Monday's confrontation with police, which eventually drew perhaps 200 people in three different groups to Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, was not about Binns but about what he called a pattern of police harassment of Portland's African American population. As several people in the crowd complained Monday, West said the large number of police called out represented an overreaction to a peaceful march. The most common complaint: The police seemed determined not to let Binns throw a party that they said has become an important annual event. Police said Monday's march capped weeks of problems between them and Binns and his friends. The rally started peacefully enough but later became a hazard, according to police, when marchers impeded traffic and there seemed to be a danger that some pedestrians would be injured. Police say they haven't harassed anyone but have reacted to complaints about noise and acted to quell potential problems after Binns' party last year led to a shooting. A march planned for Tuesday evening was called off after organizers met with police, politicians and community leaders and agreed to work more closely next year on permits and security for Binns' annual party. Rep. Margaret Carter, D-Portland, set up the meeting Tuesday at the Portland Community College Cascade campus for 10 party organizers; Rep. JoAnn Bowman, D-Portland; Sen. Avel Gordly, D-Portland; Northeast Precinct Cmdr. Derrick Foxworth; community activist Richard Brown; and several clergy members. Organizers said they thought the meeting was positive. "Communication is the key," said James Mathis, 36. "There were mistakes made on both sides. But as long as we have someone in a position like Derrick Foxworth, who cares, we can work together." A dozen people were arrested Monday, including Michael Lawrence Fesser, 26, who was accused of attempted first-degree assault. Police said Fesser threatened a police officer and then, as an officer chased a man, Fesser swerved his rented 1997 red Ford Taurus at the officer. He missed the officer by about 2 feet. Police later located the car and Fesser. The protest went for a quarter-mile along Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. Marchers first went to the Police Bureau's Northeast Precinct and then to the home of Police Chief Charles A. Moose near King Boulevard and Going Street, where the crowd halted. When Binns was arraigned Tuesday in Multnomah County Circuit Court, the district attorney's office asked that he be ordered to stay away from Moose's house. Judge Harold Cinniger ordered Binns to stay at least four blocks away; he lives about five blocks away. Angel Lopez, representing Binns and Fesser at the brief arraignment, said Binns would have no public comment about his arrest. No one was seriously injured in Monday's protest, although West was treated at a hospital for the injury to his thigh. Sellwood Park closed The protest was specifically about how police closed Sellwood Park on Sunday to prevent Binns from throwing a birthday party there, and then used officers on horseback to clear Irving Park, where many people barred from Sellwood ended up. Police canceled the party and closed the park, saying many of the 2,000 people likely to come were involved in gangs. Since then, many of the party-goers say they've been harassed by Portland police. Police say that if Binns had had a permit to play host to Sunday's party in the park, they would not have canceled it. "We ask a large group like that to work with us, with security," said Lt. Cliff Madison, acting information officer for the Portland Police Bureau. "They would have had security and insurance. But they didn't. A lot can happen and get out of control." Madison said police did not harass the group Sunday at Irving Park but acted to keep the community safe. "We have too many families and kids there to have them in the middle of this party with no security," he said. Police said that initially 50 people showed up Monday near Northeast Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Going Street to demonstrate. They were angry that they weren't able to have Sunday's party, and some said they were mad that they weren't allowed to file a complaint Monday afternoon at Northeast Precinct, although Madison said he could find no record of anyone trying to file a complaint Monday. Through the evening, the crowd grew to 100 or 150 people. "It wasn't outrageous, but the potential for something more was there," Madison said. "There were bottles and rocks thrown at us." After Foxworth stood in the center of the road with a bullhorn demanding that people leave the area, officers stood guard with bean bag guns. When West and others ran south on the boulevard instead of leaving along Going as ordered, police stationed at Prescott Street fired four rounds of the bean bags. The rounds can hit with the same intensity as a baseball line drive. Foxworth said police fired because they were unsure whether the protesters were approaching to harm them. He said he thinks police have used the bean bags in the past for crowd control, but he was not sure exactly when. Madison said police had them at the ready Sunday night. Foxworth said the Police Bureau will review Monday's protest and shooting and the events that led up to them. Moose stayed inside his home during the demonstration, Madison said. "If someone wants to meet with the chief, we can set it up. But he can't outshout the crowd. And we thought it might be inciteful for him to come out," he said. Moose did meet and talk with Binns on Sunday night after the incident at Irving Park. "(Moose's) initial thoughts were that Danny was going to go home that evening, and everything would be peaceful and calm," Madison said. Police concerned about friends Madison said police weren't so concerned about Binns -- who hasn't been arrested since 1990 -- but about his friends invited to the party. "At last year's party, someone was shot in the mouth," he said. "We had people coming to the party that the gang team was aware of; we were concerned," he said. "There supposedly were 2,000 people. Granted, a lot of people were just going because it was the party, the place to be." Police said Binns, who has told police he is 37 and other times 31, has been arrested in the past on charges of cocaine possession, fourth-degree assault, probation violations, concealed weapons and other similar charges. His friends, some of whom showed up at the arraignment, said all that is in the past. Vanessia Crawford, a friend of Binns' and a salon owner in Northeast Portland, said Binns has been a personal friend. "To me," she said, "he is a very sweet person, a very cool friend I can talk to and get advice." Crawford, 25, said she has known Binns about 10 years. She has been to previous birthday parties but did not try to attend the party on Sunday and generally did not know the party side of Binns. Problems at the birthday parties, she said, depended on who attended. "I don't think it all reflects on him." Binns is not a gangster, Crawford said. He knows members of gangs, she said, but "he is pretty much cool with everybody. That gangster stuff is hockey puck." Mathis, also a friend of Binns', called police differences with Binns personal. "He is a good person. Everyone has a past," Mathis said, adding that Binns had not been in trouble from some years. "Daniel is a friend of the community." He said the annual event has had its own crowd control. "We have always provided security," with about 100 men taking part. The shooting last year, he said, was 11 blocks away from the party. Moose should know that the event "has always been a peaceful gathering." Marshall Richmond, Binns' nephew, said the protesters just wanted police to treat their event the same. "Whites have the Beer Fest and The Bite, even the carnival (Rose Festival fun center) comes once a year," he said. "Every event that comes to Oregon isn't perfect. Somebody's going to get pushed or shoved, like at the carnival there was a stabbing. Crawford also criticized the media attention given the incidents Sunday and Monday. "When they see a black person trying to do something, they always try to down the black person," she said. When whites are involved in crimes or difficult situations, Crawford said, "There's not that much publicity." Staff writers Dionne D. Peeples, Dan Hortsch and Art Marroquin contributed to this story.
------------------------------------------------------------------- The West Hills Cocaine Caper (The 'Willamette Week' Version Of Yesterday's News About An Upper Crust Portland Cocaine Dealer) Willamette Week 822 SW 10th Ave. Portland, OR 97205 Tel. (503) 243-2122 Fax (503) 243-1115 Letters to the Editor: Mark Zusman - email@example.com Web: http://www.wweek.com/ Note: Willamette Week welcomes letters to the editor via mail, e-mail or fax. Letters must be signed by the author and include the author's street address and phone number for verification. Preference will be given to letters of 250 words or less. August 19, 1998 The West Hills Cocaine Caper * A year after the celebrated drug bust, investigators begin to unravel what really happened. BY MAUREEN O'HAGAN firstname.lastname@example.org Just over a year ago, certain members of the exclusive Multnomah Athletic Club broke into a major sweat. The treadmills hadn't been amped up, and the sauna wasn't stuck on high. Instead, a number of these well-to-do Portlanders were worried because a cocaine dealer named Michael Hipps had been busted. With that late-May arrest, not only were their drug supplies cut off, but their futures were in jeopardy as well. Hipps, it turns out, had kept his customers' names and phone numbers in several address books. Looking through the books, authorities found listings for doctors, lawyers, stockbrokers and other professionals, some of them members of the Multnomah Club, according to the cops' almost gleeful public statements. Multnomah County Deputy District Attorney Dave Peters was the first well-known Portlander to fall. Finding Peters' direct-dial work phone number in one of the so-called "black books," police in September searched his house. They found cocaine residue and marijuana. "This is the tip of what may turn out to be a very prominent iceberg," The Oregonian editorialized at the time. "Peters' tragic experience serves as a reminder that the drug problem is not limited to the young, unfortunate or ill-informed. And it also indicates that the prominent cannot necessarily escape the consequences of involvement with drugs." Michael Hipps once told an informant, "We run a pretty straight deal. ... We can keep you happy."A year later, however, it would appear that the prominent have escaped the consequences. Of course, the dealers were punished: This week, Hipps received a 16-month prison sentence, and in July, Adam Wylie, Hipps' sometime partner, received 13 months. Yet none of the other well-to-do buyers listed in the black books has been prosecuted, although many have been interrogated. Behind the scenes, however, law enforcement authorities have been building a case that may eventually put even more affluent people behind bars. Willamette Week has learned that the investigation has grown significantly and now involves the Internal Revenue Service, as well as the Portland Police Department. In July, a federal grand jury issued a secret indictment charging three people--the owner of a Portland bed and breakfast, a Napa, Calif., wine merchant and his wife--with an extortion plot that allegedly cost Hipps $55,000. Additionally, a Portland CPA has been implicated in a money-laundering scheme with Hipps-a scheme in which other Portlanders may have been involved. The case still isn't over. Authorities have renewed their interest in the black books and are again interviewing alleged customers with vigor. While it's highly unlikely that any of them will be charged for merely using drugs, authorities say they may issue indictments for those whose crimes are more serious. Michael Hipps is by no means the biggest cocaine dealer in Portland, but his arrest sent shock waves through the West Hills crowd. Now, a year after the investigation began, it has developed as many twists and turns as Skyline Boulevard and includes "scenery" that's just as fascinating. If he hadn't spent his time selling drugs, Michael Hipps would have made a great corporate manager. At 6 feet 3 inches, he has an imposing presence, although his sweatshirt-and-shorts style of dress reveals an easygoing demeanor. With a master's in business administration, Hipps also had an air of Republican toughness about him. Forty-eight years old and unmarried, he was never a strong supporter of social programs. He is said to believe that people should pull themselves up by their bootstraps. Friends say he has a harsh attitude towards criminals--but only those of the violent sort. Until the early '90s, Hipps ran his own business, Sterling and Associates, which provided financial consulting services to small companies. In 1994, he got another offer. For several years, according to federal court documents, Hipps had been buying cocaine from [name removed], a North Portland man who, as a cover, claimed to own a landscaping business. By the early '90s, [name removed] reportedly wanted out of the drug trade. So, just like a dentist who might sell his practice before retiring, [name removed] allegedly decided to sell his client base--his list of drug customers--to Hipps. "I've never seen that before," says Sgt. John Cordell, the Drug and Vice Division officer who broke the case against Hipps. After being introduced to [name removed] clients, Hipps took over, building a healthy business. He later enlisted the occasional help of a partner, Adam Wylie. According to police, by 1997 they had developed an impressive list of customers. "These guys were pretty damn unique," Cordell says. "They were dealing with prominent people in Portland." Their service was top-notch, too. Hipps maintained a strict noon-to-nine, six-days-a-week schedule and would gladly make deliveries--but not at taverns and not to groups of people. Sometimes he'd arrange to meet his customers in the parking lot at Zupan's Market at the foot of the West Hills, where exchanges of drugs for money would take place on the leather seats of Saabs and BMWs. Never interested in being a Hollywood-style drug kingpin, Hipps sold his cocaine in small quantities and chose his customers wisely so as not to attract attention. At the same time, he did well enough to buy a condo in Breckenridge, Colo. Cordell says Hipps claimed to have sold an ounce or two of cocaine each week, although Cordell believes the amount to be somewhat higher. If what Hipps says is accurate, he would have grossed between $54,000 and $208,000 a year. "Hipps was a good businessman," Cordell said. "It wasn't as though you were meeting somebody in a dark alley. He would deliver it to you, your home, your business. He provided a service in that regard." Being at heart a businessman rather than a street-smart dealer, Hipps couldn't have been more surprised when the police came knocking on his door. Something about John Cordell makes him different from most other Portland cops. Maybe it's his style. A slim, balding man of 47, he has the slow and meticulous approach of a solitary rock climber, plotting every move with a single goal in mind. As many cops will attest, he is one of the more dogged members of the force. "He's a hard-working guy who doesn't like to let go," says one Portland cop. As a drug and vice officer Cordell has taken down his share of dealers, but until he stumbled onto Hipps he never made any headline-grabbing busts. "It was the case of a lifetime," says one defense lawyer who is involved with the case. In June of this year, after two decades on the force, he was promoted to sergeant and reassigned to East Precinct. Cordell got to Hipps with the help of an informant, which is common practice in investigations of more sophisticated drug dealers. "It's more difficult to get into those circles than somebody on a street corner," Cordell says. "I've always been interested in developing an informant into those circles." Ray Carpenter was Cordell's man. Although authorities won't reveal any details about Carpenter, they will concede that he has helped the Portland Police Bureau several times in the past. In April of 1997, Cordell had Carpenter looking for cocaine connections. Carpenter came across Hipps after a Southwest Portland realtor gave him the dealer's pager number. (Authorities have refused to reveal the name of the realtor.) In April 1997, Carpenter called the pager and reached Adam Wylie, who by chance was filling in for Hipps that day - one of just a dozen or so occasions on which Wylie acted as Hipps' emissary. That's where the the drug-dealing duo got into trouble. Normally, Hipps wouldn't sell to a total stranger. In this case, Wylie assumed that Hipps knew Carpenter. And when Carpenter later contacted Hipps, Hipps assumed Carpenter was a friend of Wylie's. Over the next few weeks, Carpenter wound up buying drugs from Hipps three different times, according to police reports. By May, Cordell had enough evidence to obtain a search warrant for Hipps' apartment at 2320 SW Cactus Drive. According to a police report, authorities found 212 grams of cocaine. They also found $10,000 in cash, numerous business documents and the now-infamous black books. The documents and address books gave Cordell and IRS special agent Michael Maney enough work to keep them busy for months. Although they had both been working in Portland for years, Maney and Cordell had never met. Michael Hipps brought them together. By coincidence Cordell was digging into the Hipps case around the same time Maney was investigating [name removed], 36, who moved from Portland to Napa with his wife, [name removed], in 1995. [name removed] tax statements didn't match up with his lifestyle. Between 1993 and 1994, [name removed] claimed to net less than $6,500 from his landscaping business, the only source of income he reported, according to court documents. In 1995, [name removed] finances were so poor that he was represented by a public defender when he was charged with Assault IV. (He had accidentally run over a cop's foot after the cop had given him a ticket. He later plead no contest to reckless endangering, a lesser charge, and was sentenced to probation.) Maney now thinks [name removed] landscaping business was a front, according to court documents. [name removed] owned landscaping equipment and a truck, but "the truck never moved," Maney's search warrant affidavit quotes a friend as saying. Another friend allegedly told authorities he only knew of one job that OPI Landscaping had completed: [name removed] own yard at 1610 North Portland Blvd. For a guy who a never seemed to work, according to a neighbor, he lived pretty well. When [name removed] left Portland for Napa, he had to rent a trailer just to carry his collection of wine, some 2,500 bottles, federal court documents say. Financial statements filed by [name removed] show he owned $15,000 in stamps and $40,000 in art, according to those same documents. In Napa, [name removed] bought a house for $175,000 and spent thousands on renovations. He now runs a wine shop there. Authorities now believe that at least some of [name removed] money came from drugs. They came to this conclusion after talking with Michael Hipps. By last summer, Hipps knew he was in serious trouble. The U.S. Attorney's office was looking to prosecute him in federal court, where the potential sentence was significant. In order to avoid those federal charges, Hipps agreed to talk. His confession was startling. "I've been in this business a long time," said Assistant U.S. Attorney Claire M Fay. "There's not too much that surprises me. But there is kind of a different twist on this whole thing." According to court documents, [name removed] did more than just sell Hipps his drug-dealing business. He also allegedly told Hipps that he had been paying off a Portland police officer for protection. Hipps would have to keep up those payments if he wanted to avoid prison, [name removed] reportedly said. Hipps complied. Over the course of the next year or two, he received four different extortion notes, which police reportedly found when they searched Hipps' house. One doubled the monthly payments from $500 to $1,000; another demanded a $6,000 holiday bonus; the third demanded a summer cash bonus of $12,500, and the fourth demanded an additional $10,000 in cash. In all, Hipps sent 59 money orders to two different Portland post office boxes, leaving the payee's name blank, according to court documents. In total, he sent the unnamed cop $55,000. In 1996, Hipps finally learned the truth. There was no dirty cop. Instead, he allegedly found out from a customer that [name removed] had concocted the scheme himself. When Hipps confronted [name removed], [name removed] allegedly threatened to expose him as a cocaine dealer. He also allegedly told Hipps that for a final payment of $3,000, the demands for money would stop. When authorities traced the money orders, Hipps' story seemed to check out. The [name removed] had spent 52 of the 59 money orders, sometimes using them to pay their mortgage or for renovations to their Napa house, according to court documents. The [name removed] allegedly weren't the only ones to profit from Hipps' payments. Two friends, Paul Oliver and Archie Lanning Blanks Jr., let [name removed] use their post office boxes in exchange for a cut of the proceeds, according to an affidavit filed by Maney. Oliver, a North Portland handyman, earned $200 for forwarding 10 money orders from his post office box to [name removed] in California. Blanks, who until last year managed the restaurant in the Mallory Hotel--and who, in 1997, bought Northeast Portland's White House Bed and Breakfast with a partner--allegedly did the same, earning an undisclosed amount for forwarding 44 money orders. Last month, a federal grand jury issued a secret indictment charging [names removed] with mail fraud, money laundering, receiving the proceeds of extortion and drug conspiracy. (The indictment has become public since [name removed] July arrest.) Blanks was charged with mail fraud, money laundering and receiving the proceeds of extortion. Oliver has not been charged with any crime. Blanks referred all questions to his lawyer, Steve Houze, who declined to comment. Oliver would not answer WW's questions about the case. The [names removed] did not return several WW phone calls, but [name removed] told The San Francisco Chronicle, "These are just stories from a convicted drug dealer ... [Hipps is] full of baloney. [The indictment] is a bunch of bull. These people in the federal government think they have a case against us. Well, that remains to be seen." Their first scheduled appearance in U.S. District Court is Sept. 10. With the federal indictment, Maney had answered a lot of questions. But the investigation still wasn't complete. In order to be successful, a drug dealer needs two things: a regular supplier and a way to disguise his income. "Hipps knew he couldn't gain financially from dealing cocaine if he couldn't get cocaine," Cordell said. "He also knew he couldn't gain financially if he couldn't launder his cash." Cordell says Hipps had both ends sewn up. He allegedly got his cocaine from Shawnee Arbogast and her boyfriend, Fidel Cortez-Hernandez, both of Washington County. As part of his deal with authorities, Hipps gave up his supplier's identity and led police to Arbogast last December. Arbogast and Hernandez were charged in Washington County with distribution of a controlled substance. Earlier this year Arbogast was sentenced to two years probation, and Hernandez received 22 months in prison. Hipps enlisted friends to help him disguise his cash, according to Cordell. The dealer's own documents allegedly helped to prove it. Among Hipps' papers, Cordell found a promissory note for $60,000 signed by David Tarlow, a certified public accountant. To the drug investigator, the document was curious. Cordell decided to ask the Portland Police Bureau's financial investigator for help. In July, the police talked to Tarlow at the downtown accounting firm in which he was a partner and asked him why a drug dealer owed him so much money. He had a plausible explanation. According to a police report, Tarlow told authorities that he lent Hipps $60,000 in 1996 to help Hipps buy a condo in Breckenridge. Tarlow said that although he hadn't received any payments from Hipps on the loan, he did receive a $9,000 loan fee. In addition, Tarlow said he received a trust deed on the property. Hipps told a different story. To make the cash he earned from selling drugs look like legitimate income, Hipps allegedly told authorities he got help from Tarlow. From statements in federal court documents and police reports, it appears that Hipps gave Tarlow $69,000 in cash and asked him to launder it. Tarlow allegedly complied, taking the cash and giving Hipps a check in exchange. It's unclear how Tarlow may have accomplished this task. As an accountant, Tarlow didn't regularly deal in large amounts of cash, according to his former partner, Ron Stefani. Therefore, doing the obvious--depositing the money in his own bank account and writing a check on it--probably would have looked suspicious. What was Tarlow's alleged technique? Police won't say for sure. But it's reasonable to assume that if he couldn't do it alone, he may have gotten help from other moneyed Portlanders. Five months after he was first contacted by police, Tarlow told Stephani that he was resigning from the firm "for personal reasons." Stephani says Tarlow now works as a lumber broker. Tarlow hasn't been charged with a crime. His lawyer, Norman Sepenuk, refused to comment on the case. Sitting behind bars in Snake River Correctional Institution, Adam Wylie, who assisted Hipps in selling cocaine, is not an unbiased observer in this war on West Hills drug dealing. But he makes an interesting argument as to why the efforts may have been misdirected. The way he tells it, he sold cocaine on just 10 to 15 occasions. Even the cops say that most of his customers were occasional users, not addicts, and they had developed their fondness for the drug long before he made his deliveries. The deals were done discreetly, so they didn't affect the city's livability - a common complaint about other drug dealers. "I'm still kind of struggling with who's the victim in this, except for the people I've let down," he said. "Are any of Hipps' customers victims? Does the state of Oregon feel like a victim?" Wylie was by no means a high-level dealer. He had no prior convictions, held a full-time job and has a family, including two young daughters. Under state sentencing guidelines, he could have gotten probation. Yet he was sentenced to 13 months in prison, a comparatively long sentence for someone with that profile. Wylie says his sentence is the result less of his behavior than of the public frenzy surrounding the bust. The involvement of a deputy DA didn't help matters, either. "My attorney said, Adam, you don't mess with the West Hills crowd. Because you're perceived to have done that, you're probably going to do some time." Cordell has little sympathy. "Wylie's an intelligent man, has a pleasant personality, is educated and had a substantial income," he says. "So what's the excuse? Besides, Cordell thinks that the law shouldn't let middle-class white guys slide. "I think a lot of wannabe drug dealers aspire to be the wealthy sophisticated drug dealer they see on TV. It's my belief that we need to go after that image because it is that image which causes a lot of these youngsters out there to try and emulate that." *** Hipps normally sold cocaine by the sixteenth of an ounce for between $65 and $125. He sold the drug not in balloons, as is common today, but in 1980s-style paper folds. Most cocaine on the street is sold in smaller quantities; a half gram might cost $40. (One-sixteenth of an ounce is 1.7 grams.) After his arrest, Dave Peters went through a five-week intensive outpatient treatment program. Police won't prosecute Hipps' customers for drug use based merely on their inclusion in the black books. Law enforcement would need to mount an investigation, an expensive proposition that wouldn't be worth the effort. [name removed] was sentenced to three years in prison in 1983 for theft and burglary. He was also convicted of harassment in 1991. Authorities say that several of their targets had something in common: They were all tall. Hipps, Wylie, [name removed] and Blanks are all over six feet two inches. Although police say Hipps and Wylie sold in small quantities to maximize their profit, neither had the lifestyles of some of their customers. Officer John Cordell says, "Not all persons in the black books are associated with drug activity. The vast majority are, but there are some who are not." [name removed] faces several years in federal prison for each count of the indictment. He may lose his Napa house and some of his possessions under federal forfeiture laws. *** Lead Story Sidebar - Crime and Punishment So far, a number of people have been ensnared in the West Hills cocaine caper, and there could be more to come. Here's a look at the comparative guilt and punishment of some of them The Charges Michael Hipps: Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, a felony Adam Wylie: Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, a felony Dave Peters: Attempted possession of cocaine, a violation Hipps' Other Customers: None The Story Hipps had a financial consulting business, but police say that in recent years cocaine dealing has been his full-time job. Although he didn't live a lavish lifestyle, he earned at least $69,000 from selling cocaine. Wylie was painted in headlines as a big-time drug dealer, but he says that isn't accurate at all. Instead, according to court testimony, Wylie was a friend and customer of Hipps'. But he was also a cocaine addict, snorting at least one-sixteenth of an ounce of the stuff daily. Wylie held a full-time job as a salesman but in 1997 agreed to fill in for Hipps when Hipps took occasional days off. Wylie told the court that he did this 15 times, mainly to get his hands on drugs to feed his habit. He claims he didn't make any money dealing drugs and that he used any cash he did earn to buy drugs. When officer John Cordell found Peters' name in Hipps' little black books, he was dumbstruck. Peters was one of Multnomah County's toughest deputy district attorneys. Cordell later found evidence of Peters' drug use, including cocaine residue, in his curbside trash. The names of between 50 and 100 of Hipps' customers were listed in several address books found in his apartment. A federal search warrant affidavit says they include stockbrokers, a doctor, a property manager, two manufacturing representatives, an aerospace subcontractor and a newspaper employee. Many of them have been interviewed by authorities. The Sentence On Monday, Multnomah County Circuit Judge Julie Frantz sentenced Hipps to 16 months in prison, chastizing him for "infus[ing] this society with an unknown but substantial quantity of illegal drugs." Hipps didn't speak at his sentencing, but his attorney, Whitney Boise, says he got into the business because he was addicted to cocaine. Many first-time drug offenders get probation, but Wylie got whacked with 13 months in prison. He mainly has Hipps to blame. Police found just a tiny amount of cocaine in Wylie's house, but authorities hammered Wylie with a "commercial drug offense" charge by calling him and Hipps co-conspirators. Consequently, the drugs found at Hipps' house (more than 7 ounces) were, by extension, Wylie's problem, too. Because Wylie is a British citizen, he will be deported at the end of his sentence. His wife and two children will probably leave the country to join him. Peters was sentenced to probation and ordered to pay $150 in fines and fees. He also resigned from his job and is now working at the criminal defense firm Squires and Lopez. He was the only person named in the black books to be targeted with an investigation for drug use. Was he singled out? As an officer of the court, Peters should be held to a higher standard than the average citizen, according to District Attorney Mike Schrunk. There have been no charges filed against these drug users, although several have reportedly entered treatment programs as a result of the investigation. They've even avoided public embarrassment. WW submitted several public-records requests for access to the names listed in the black books, but authorities have repeatedly denied them. Assistant U.S. Attorney Claire M. Fay, who is prosecuting the [name removed] case, justifies the denials by saying that the matter is still under investigation. "I think it's prudent for me not to disclose who those folks are," she told WW. But that excuse doesn't make much sense. The U.S. Attorney's office does not prosecute people for drug use.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Armored Vehicles, Helicopter Used In Drug Bust ('The Associated Press' Says Federal Prohibition Agents Raided Two Non-Operational Methamphetamine Labs And A Psilocybin Mushroom Operation Tuesday In Grants Pass, Oregon, In Rural Jackson County, Arresting Four Men And A Woman) Associated Press found at: http://www.oregonlive.com/ feedback (letters to the editor): email@example.com The Associated Press 8/19/98 4:37 AM GRANTS PASS, Ore. (AP) -- Federal drug agents in armored vehicles, with a police helicopter for backup, raided two methamphetamine labs and a psilocybin mushroom operation, arresting five people. Details of the arrests early Tuesday were sketchy, but four men and a woman being held in the Jackson County Jail were expected to face federal drug charges. Those arrested were Dennis Allen Smith, 50; Percie Fiske, 40; Timothy Stanley Barnes, 38; Yolanda Barnes, 40; and Benjamin Lynn Watts, 46. DEA spokesman Tom O'Brien said neither of the meth labs was operating, but both were "fully functional, with all the glassware." Chemicals also were found at both sites. DEA agent Mike Bansmer said armored vehicles were used because information gathered prior to the arrests indicated there were assault rifles and "lots of weapons." Bansmer said legal and illegal weapons were found during the search, and federal firearms charges likely will be filed against some or all of those arrested. (c)1998 Oregon Live LLC Copyright 1997 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Seattle Concert To End The Drug War August 25 (A Seattle List Subscriber Publicizes A Benefit Concert Tuesday At The Ballard Firehouse Featuring The Swamp Doggies, Keith Anderson, And Tribute) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Seattle Concert To End the Drug War 8/25 Return-Path: (email@example.com) Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 16:00:57 -0700 (PDT) From: turmoil (firstname.lastname@example.org) Reply-To: turmoil (email@example.com) ANNOUNCEMENT - There will be an End the Drug War Concert in Seattle 9PM Tuesday August 25th at The Ballard Firehouse. The concert is to help raise awareness of drug war issues and our Monthly Monday March series. The following artists will perform. The Swamp Doggies - Keith Anderson - http://seattlemusicweb.com/ka/ Tribute - http://seattlemusicweb.com/tribute/ In addition Beth Rice is going to read some poetry, and there will no doupt be other surpises. Tuesday August 25th Ballard Firehouse 8PM. Thanks Tim Crowley 206/442-9404 firstname.lastname@example.org Seattle Music Web email@example.com http://seattlemusicweb.com
------------------------------------------------------------------- Will Foster Is Getting Released (A List Subscriber Says The Oklahoma Medical Marijuana Patient Sentenced To 93 Years In Prison For Cultivation Will Be Granted Parole, According To A Telephone Call From Foster's Wife) From: "Todd McCormick" (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: Multiple recipients of list email@example.com Subject: WILL FOSTER IS GETTING RELEASED! Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 12:36:39 -0700 Dear Friends, Meg Foster just called and informed us that the parole hearing went Perfect! The parole board voted unanimously to grant Will his freedom. I'll be speaking to Meg tonight and getting the full details. She expects him to be home by the end of the month. More information to follow.... Who is Will Foster? If you've been in a cave goto: http://www.gnv.fdt.net/~jrdawson/willfoster.htm "One has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws." - MLK
------------------------------------------------------------------- Marijuana Case Sentence Slashed By Appeals Court (According To 'The Tulsa World,' The Oklahoma Court Of Criminal Appeals Said Monday That Will Foster's 93-Year Prison Term For Marijuana 'Shocks Our Conscience,' And Modified It To 20 Years) Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 04:04:05 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US OK: Marijuana Case Sentence Slashed By Appeals Court Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Frank S. World and Colo. Hemp Init. Project Source: Tulsa World (OK) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.tulsaworld.com Pubdate: Wednesday, 19 Aug 1998 Author: Bill Braun, World Staff Writer Editors note: We have received word, not yet confirmed, that at a parole hearing Will Foster was recommended for immediate release. Please send any news items about Will to email@example.com Perhaps the efforts to spread the story about Will, which has resulted in worldwide criticism of the Oklahoma justice system has had an impact? Besides the many articles on our website, see the following for more about Will. - Richard Lake, Sr. Editor, DrugSense News Service http://www.gnv.fdt.net/~jrdawson/willfoster.htm MARIJUANA CASE SENTENCE SLASHED BY APPEALS COURT Saying a 93-year prison term for marijuana convictions "shocks our conscience," an appeals court modified a defendant's punishment in a Tulsa County case to a 20-year sentence. In a case that attracted national attention, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals affirmed on Monday the convictions that William Joseph "Will" Foster, 39, received in 1997 for four felonies and one misdemeanor. A jury handed Foster a 70-year term and a $50,000 fine for cultivating marijuana. He was also assessed a two-year sentence and a $10,000 fine for possessing marijuana with intent to distribute, 20 years for possessing marijuana in the presence of a child under age 12, a one-year term and a $1,000 fine for having no drug tax stamp, and a $1,000 fine for possessing drug paraphernalia. Associate District Judge Bill Beasley routinely ordered that all the sentences run consecutively. He noted that before the trial Foster had rejected plea bargains calling for sentences totaling 10 or 12 years. The appeals court said in a 4-1 decision this week that there was no trial error to justify overturning the guilty verdicts. However, the opinion by Judge Charles Chapel said the sentences were excessive and "disproportionate" under the facts. The appellate judges cut the 70- year sentence for cultivation by 50 years and said that all the sentences should run concurrently, meaning Foster must serve the equivalent of a single 20-year term. Foster's 93-year sentence was featured in television, newspaper and magazine reports broadcast and circulated nationally. Assistant District Attorney Paul Wilkening said Tuesday that "it mystifies me how the Court of Criminal Appeals will second-guess our juries and our cases." He said "this wasn't a runaway jury" because the panel imposed 70 years for one offense and two years for another on counts that each allowed the possibility of a life term. The appellate opinion said Foster was a "first-time offender," which is incorrect, according to Tulsa County court records. Foster was found guilty in February 1993 of a 1990 felony offense of obtaining a controlled drug by fraud. He received a two-year probation in that case, records show. No evidence about that conviction was presented to jurors at the 1997 trial, although it is mentioned in court documents filed in the latter case. Wilkening and co-prosecutor Brian Crain said police discovered an elaborate cultivation network of growing marijuana plants during a December 1995 search at Foster's Tulsa home. His wife said Foster smoked marijuana to help alleviate the pain of rheumatoid arthritis, but the defense presented no trial testimony from any physician to support a "medical necessity" defense. Oklahoma law does not accept that defense as a basis for acquittal on a marijuana charge, but it can be offered as mitigation for a defendant. In post-trial proceedings, Foster asserted that he never sold marijuana and raised it only for his own use to "control my own pain." At the trial, defense attorney Stuart Southerland presented expert testimony from a California-based writer-researcher specializing in marijuana and its cultivation, who said the amount recovered by police did not exceed what could be used for personal consumption. Foster is an inmate at the North Fork Correctional Facility in Sayre, a Department of Corrections spokesman said. Beasley previously said that a statute involving drug possession in a child's presence requires Foster to serve at least half of that 20-year term in custody.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Arbitrator Reinstates St. Paul Sergeant Fired For Drug Use ('The Minneapolis Star-Tribune' Says Sergeant Cregg Brackman, Minnesota's Top Sex-Crime Investigator In 1997, Will Return To The St. Paul Police Department Despite His Being Fired In February For Using Marijuana, Because The Department Didn't Have A Zero Tolerance Policy On 'Drug' Use)Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 14:20:33 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (MAPNews) Subject: MN: US MN: Arbitrator Reinstates St. Paul Sergeant Fired For Drug Use Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Frank S. World) Source: Minneapolis Star-Tribune (MN) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.startribune.com/ Pubdate: 19 Aug 1998 Author: David Chanen and Chris Graves / Star Tribune ARBITRATOR REINSTATES ST. PAUL SERGEANT FIRED FOR DRUG USE A highly regarded St. Paul police investigator who was fired in February for using marijuana will reclaim his job. An arbitrator reinstated Sgt. Cregg Brackman, named the state's top sex-crime investigator in 1997, to the Police Department, Chief William Finney said Tuesday. The arbitrator disallowed the firing because the department didn't have a zero-tolerance policy on drug use, he said. The arbitrator ruled that Brackman should serve a 30-day unpaid suspension and will be subject to random drug tests for the remainder of his career, Finney said. Brackman will return to work as soon as possible, but he will be assigned to a different unit, Finney said. "I think it's a fair decision," Finney said. "The arbitrator has sent a strong message." In February, Brackman, considered one of St. Paul's most tenacious investigators, admitted smoking two marijuana cigarettes, one in December and one in January. Acknowledging bad judgment, he said he was under personal stress at the time. But he denied that he used marijuana often. The investigation began in December when an investigator with the Dakota County Sheriff's Department got a call from an informant who allegedly saw Brackman smoking the drug openly on several occasions. Investigators searched the garbage at his St. Paul home and found baggies with marijuana residue. However, the small amounts found weren't enough to obtain a search warrant or support a prosecution. Finney said Brackman was the first department officer who had been fired for testing positive for drug use, but Police Federation president Pat Finnigan has disputed the chief's claim. Finney said the federation had urged that Brackman only be disciplined. A federal court ruling allows random urinalysis for the department's tactical and bomb squad units, Finney said. Testing of a person in another unit would have to be initiated by two supervisors, he said. The department will create a policy that will result in termination for the first time an officer tests positive for any illegal controlled substances, Finney said. He said he also wants to develop language regarding officers who commit alcohol-related offenses. Brackman, 47, gained publicity for helping to apprehend Tony Dejuan Jackson, who has been convicted of raping women in Washington and Ramsey County. He is awaiting a Dakota County trial on charges of raping a woman in Inver Grove Heights. Jackson also remains a suspect in the 1995 disappearance of TV anchorwoman Jodi Huisentruit in Mason City, Iowa. Brackman has served his 30-day suspension because he had been off the job since February, Finney said. He will receive back pay for the rest of the time. Copyright 1998 Star Tribune. All rights reserved.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drug Issues (A Nonsensical Letter To The Editor Of 'The Chicago Tribune' From James R. McDonough, Director Of Strategy For The White House Office Of National Drug Control Policy, Claims The Drug Czar's Insistence On Misrepresenting The Facts Doesn't Justify Calling Him A Liar) Pubdate: 19 Aug 1998 Source: Chicago Tribune (IL) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org web: http://chicago.tribune.com Section: Sec. 1, p. 22 DRUG ISSUES WASHINGTON, D.C. -- I take issue with the attack by Paul Bischke in his letter "Drug-war speak" (Voice, Aug. 10). Mr. Bischke falsely accused Gen. Barry McCaffrey of spreading misinformation in a systematic way to justify America's drug policy. Mr. Bischke is correct in stating Gen. McCaffrey's actions are systematic - the nation's drug czar is diligently formulating and implementing a national drug-control strategy to reduce the social and health consequences of the cancer of illegal drug abuse. One way to accomplish this goal is to have free and open debate in the press. Obviously the administration does not agree with Mr. Bischke. But this disagreement does not justify Mr. Bischke's verbal attack on a decorated veteran of three conflicts. James R. McDonough, Director of strategy, Office of National Drug Control Policy
------------------------------------------------------------------- Crime Chicago Style ('The Chicago Tribune' Interviews A Conservator At The Illinois State Archives Who Thinks The Most Interesting Documents She's Seen Are The Chronicles Of 'Homicides And Important Events' Meticulously Kept By The Chicago Police Department During Alcohol Prohibition From 1920 To 1930 - The Homicides From 1870 To 1910 Fit Into One Book, The Homicides From 1911 To 1920 Fit In Another, But It Took Three Separate Books To Register The Mayhem In Chicago's Roaring '20s - 'Oh My God, The Spousal Abuse - The Women Trying To Kill Themselves And Their Children . . . To Actually See It All In Print, It Just Boggled My Mind,' Said Archivist Dottie Hopkins) Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 10:38:16 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: US IL: Crime Chicago Style Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Steve Young Source: Chicago Tribune (IL) Section: Tempo, P. 1 Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/ Pubdate: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 Author: Charles M. Madigan Note: This story reflects on crime in the past in Chicago. Note the changes in the volume and types of crimes during the era of alcohol prohibition during the 1920s. CRIME CHICAGO STYLE SPRINGFIELD -- In her 18 years as an archival conservator in the lab at the Illinois State Archives, Dottie Hopkins has saved a bundle of very important documents. But she says she has never handled anything as interesting as the three fat books that sit in front of her on this bright weekday morning. They are "Homicides and Important Events" of the Chicago Police Department from 1920 to 1930. The era gave Chicago its image as gangster capital and machine-gun mecca for an unbelievable collection of thugs and victims ranging from Al Capone all the way down to this unfortunate man: unidentified male age 25, Mexican, Found in River slip at 23rd and Sangamon Sts., with gunshot and stab wounds in body. Committed by unknown persons at unknown place. Motive unknown. That was one case on one day: Nov. 11, 1922. The bureaucratic reason for the books is obvious. They list victims alphabetically and provide a good synopsis of what happened to each of them, along with the disposition of the cases, where that was available. It's all here, everything from the St. Valentine's Day Massacre (1929. Feb. 14. Schwimmer, Reinhardt -- Age 29 -- One of the seven Moran gangsters who were lined up facing a brick wall and mowed down with machine guns and shotguns) to strong evidence that murdering newborns was disturbingly common, judging from the dozens of reports of bodies of infants found in the trash or in public outhouses. The books, and two from 1870 to 1920 that have already been repaired and returned to the department, read like movie scripts. They contain thousands of stories, a chronicle of the way we actually were during one of the most tumultuous periods in Chicago history. Fresh from the streets, summarized by some clerk with perfect handwriting and an educational background that obviously emphasized sentence structure, punctuation and complete thoughts, however dark they might have been, the books amount to unfiltered news. A sergeant in police records said she didn't know whether the books continued beyond 1930, but suspected the department shifted to filing regular homicide reports instead of keeping big running logs. "In all honesty," says Hopkins, "some records I have restored were more valuable, but nothing has been more interesting. You can't put these books down." Read on. *** 1930. Sept. 14. Spano, Angelo, alias Jack Costa. Age 29. Alleged bodyguard of Joe Aiello, north side gang leader, fatally shot at 11:55 p.m., 9/13/30, in the courtway of the Fernwood Apartments, 4056 Sheridan Rd., just as he stepped out of the doorway, by a fusilade of shots from an automatic rifle and a shotgun fired from a second floor apartment from where a vigil had evidentally been kept by several men who were seen to escape from the rear of the building. Accompanying Costa was an unknown man, "Fred," who escaped and a woman, Margaret Reardon, with whom he lived there. It is believed she `put him on the spot.' On 9/18/30 she was held by the coroner as accessory and two men who rented the ambush apartment and gave the names of Wm Moore and Wm Evans are wanted. 38th Dist. Sept, 1930. No Bill on Reardon. *** The Archives got the books from the Chicago Police Department at 11th and State Streets, where it found them sometime in the 1980s when it was making a routine visit as part of its unending search for interesting things to save forever. The department asked whether the books might be salvaged. The state said sure. They were in terrible shape. The paper crumbled in your hands, Hopkins said, and certainly would not have been able to withstand much more handling. As she removed each of the old pages, cleaned them, de-acidified them, sealed them and prepared them for remounting, she found herself reading more and more about bloody murder in Chicago and wondered what it must have been like. She saw reports of many botched abortions that led to homicide charges, along with little stories about crazy people who heard voices that told them to do a great deal of harm. All the homicides from 1870 to 1910 fit into the first book. All the homicides from 1911 to 1920 fit in the second. But it took three separate books to register the mayhem that was taking place in Chicago's roaring '20s. "I'm trying to clean these things, but I find myself putting the eraser down. I'm thinking, `Oh my God, the spousal abuse. The women trying to kill themselves and their children . . . to actually see it all in print, it just boggled my mind," said Hopkins. *** 1928. Dec. 31. McGovern, Hugh `Stubby' -- age 32, deceased and Wm "Gunner" McPadden were shot to death at 2 a.m., 12/31/28, in the Grenada Cafe, 6800 Cottage Grove Ave., by George Maloney, who came in, spoke a few words to them, whipped out a gun and killed them both. Maloney was arrested immediately after the shooting, without resistance, and on 12/31/28 was held by the coroner. 7th Dist. 1/22/30-Nolle prossed. McGoorty." (Nolle prossed means there is no prosecution.) *** The organized crime entries in the books are obvious because of the many references to gangs and the kinds of issues and weapons that were involved. What is so overwhelming about them is their abundance, a sign that there was a lot of activity on Chicago's streets way down beneath the crime-boss level. There were drive-by shootings, elaborate ambushes that would involve multiple "machine gun" nests and many players. Apparently, a lot of criminals owned soft-drink parlors during the 1920s, and sometimes they were dangerous places to be in the middle of the night. *** 1930. April 20. Special, Joseph -- Age 28 -- Deceased, Walter Wakefield and Frank Delre, partners in a soft-drink parlor at 2900 So. Wells St., all alleged members of the Capone gang, where shot to death at 4 a.m., 4/20/30, at that address by a lone gunman who escaped. The next day, a squad from the State's Attorney's Office lay 8 hours in wait for one Frank Delbano, alias Dale, whom they captured, in a flat at 3011 N. Halsted St. His gun was identified through ballistics as the weapon used in these killings. On 4/24/30 he was held by the coroner. 3 Dist. 1930. Oct. 23. Aiello, Joseph -- age 39, Ital., married, gang leader and partner of `Bugs Moran' was riddled with machine gun bullets in front of 205 N. Kolmar Ave., when he left the home of Pasquale Prestigiocomo, alias Presto, to enter a cab. The fire was opened up on him from a `machine gun nest' in a flat across the street, 202 Kolmar Ave., and when he attempted to escape to the rear of the Presto home was felled from fire from a second nest from a window at 4518 West End Ave. Presto, who was his business partner and in whose home he had been rooming (it is believed in hiding) was booked 10-28-30 as accessory, but on 1-29-31 the case was nolle prossed by Padden before the inques. closed. 1929. Apr. 24. Brady, Frank -- age 32 -- Shot to death at 8:55 p.m., 4/24/29, in his dentist office at 2059 W. Madison St., in full view of his patients, by two unknown men who escaped. Deceased had had connections with gangsters and `dope' may be the cause of the shooting. 27 Dist. *** These gangland slayings seem to pop up every few pages. Between them, the police department kept a meticulous file of the kind of murders most people probably never even heard about, slayings sparked by everything from mundane love trouble to insanity to vendettas or a brush with the police. *** 1930. Sept. 12. Sobieraj, Alex -- Age 15 -- Burglar: Fatally shot at 2:40 p.m. 9/12/30, while running away, east on Ogden Ave., near the Juvenile Home, attempting to escape from Patrolman Michael J. Mullens of the 8th Dist. Deceased was being taken to the home and while going up the stairs in Mullins' custody, tripped him, causing him to fall, and then ran. Mullins fired at him but not with the intention of inflicting a fatal wound. On 9/13/30 Mullins was exonerated by the coroner who pronounced it accidental. 23 dist. 1928. April 8. Overton, John C. -- Age 35 -- Colored. Shot to death at 4:45 p.m. 4/8/28, at the Onward Christian Soldiers' Colored Lodge. 3rd Fl. 6 W. 44th St., while blindfolded and being initiated by Albert Clark. Clark's part was to snap an empty gun at the neophite. This time the gun was loaded. Leonidas McDonald, J.F. McCray, Shedrick Branch and Washington Branch appear to have had a grudge against Overton and had connived on him, substituting a bullet for the customary blank. On 4/5/28 the last four named were held by the coroner for murder and Clark was exonerated and on 4/26/28 discharged by Judge Helander. 5th Dist. May 1928. No bills on McCray, Shedrick and Washington Branch. 8/21/28 -- McDonald acquitted -- Klarkowski. 1928. Sept. 13. Bradley, Constance -- age 70 -- Murdered at 9:30 p.m. 9/6/28, in her home, 845 Grace St., by her apparently insane spinster daughter, Adelaide Bradley, age 43, who struck her on the head with some chinaware and strangled her with a cord from the table lamp `because voices at the window told her to do so.' On 9/7/28 Adelaide was held by the coroner, 38 Dist. 9/20/28 -- To Dunning Asylum--J. Sullivan. 1929. Mar. 18. Grabski, Klemens -- Age 18 -- Accidentally fatally shot at 9:20 a.m. 3/18/29, on the rear porch of his home, 2027 Charleston St., by his mother, Helen Grabski, who was examining a gun which the boy said he had found. On 3/19/29, Mrs. Grabski was exonerated by the coroner. 32 Dist. 1930. May 8. Sciortino, Dominick -- age 55 -- Shot to death at 7:30 p.m. 5/8/30, in the living room of his home at 1233 Carmen Ave., by two unknown men who looked like Italians. He was not robbed. Deceased had received `blackhand' letters and at this time was living alone, having sent his family to live with a married daughter, refusing to explain his act. 40 Dist. *** Among the most troubling of the pages in the book are those that come last, where the police department recorded long lists of dead infants, many of them found in public restrooms or trash bins. Almost all of the conditions are the same. Newborns are found with their throats slashed or with their umbilical cords cut and untied. *** 1922. Aug. 7. Unknown. Female Baby -- New Born. Found in wastebasket in ladies lavatory at the La Salle St. Depot. Coroner's verdict: `Criminal neglect at time of birth.' 1A Dist. 1923. Feb. 28. Unknown. Baby Boy. Age 1 Day. Found dead in rear of 1603 Fullerton Ave. Criminal neglect at time of birth. 1923. Mar. 20. Unknown. Baby Girl. Found dead in alley west of 73rd St. and Hoyne Ave. wrapped in a blanket. Neglect at time of birth. 11th Dist. 1924. May 9. Unknown. Baby Boy. 1 or 2 days. Found dead on railroad tracks 150 Ft. south of Madison St. (19th Dist) wrapped in newspaper, throat cut. Infanticide. 1924. Mar. 27. Unknown. Male infant. 2 days. Found dead in ashcan in rear of 5476 Woodlawn Ave. by Mrs. Herman Weaver. Infanticide by some unknown person. 4 Dist. 1924. July 18. Unknown. White Infant. Found dead wrapped in newspaper in women's toilet room of the I.C.R.R. Station at 63rd St. and Dorchester Ave. Death caused by stabbing with a hat pin or needle by some unknown person.5 Dist. *** All of this was so absorbing for Hopkins that by the time a reporter arrived to talk to her about the books, she had already inserted dozens of little pieces of paper between the pages that carried the cases that interested her the most. "What I think about all of this now is that nothing has really changed," she said. " . . . I didn't think there would have been so many abortions then, but then you think about why. I guess women just didn't have much of an alternative." The records section at the police department is eager to get its books back. They are the only source of information available on very old murders. The people in records won't let you look at them, but they will use them to find specific information about killings. Archives Director John Daly said he wants to try to make arrangements with the Chicago Police Department to have some kind of ceremony when the books are eventually returned because of their historical value.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Giuliani's Methadone Proposal Is Backed By Little Evidence ('The New York Times' Responds To Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's Crusade Against Methadone Maintenance Programs With A News Account Explaining Why Such Programs Are Needed In New York - Although No Studies Have Been Done, Clinicians Say More Than Four Out Of Five Patients Return To Using Heroin Within Months Of Giving Up Methadone, With Deleterious Physical, Psychological And Social Effects) Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 14:51:32 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US NY: Giuliani's Methadone Proposal Is Backed by Little Evidence Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Ty Trippet (TTrippet@sorosny.org) Source: New York Times (NY) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.nytimes.com/ Pubdate: 19 Aug 1998 Author: David M. Halbfinger Section: Front Page GIULIANI'S METHADONE PROPOSAL IS BACKED BY LITTLE EVIDENCE NEW YORK -- It took Diana, a 34-year-old recovering heroin addict from the Bronx, exactly 95 days to wean herself from methadone at a residential clinic on Manhattan's Lower East Side last year. "I counted every day," she says. "On Dec. 8, they announced I was drug-free. It was the greatest feeling in my life." Diana's success in getting off methadone in a little more than three months would seem to support Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's call to move 2,000 heroin addicts off methadone at city hospitals -- an initiative grounded in a belief that most addicts would need only about 90 days to achieve total abstinence. But Diana, who spoke on the condition that her last name be withheld, is hardly typical of methadone users. She is a college graduate with a long work history and a supportive family. And her heroin use had lasted only six months, compared with a decade or more for most recovering addicts taking methadone. Even so, it has taken her more than a year of intensive counseling, training and therapy to feel ready to return to the outside world. Experience at the few methadone-to-abstinence programs in New York shows that they produce lasting results in only a small number of methadone users and that success comes much more slowly than city officials might like to believe. Critics say that without any research to back it, the administration's plan amounts to a risky experiment in drug treatment on a vulnerable population. "It's not for everybody," said Ruben Medina, chief executive of Promesa, a Bronx multiservice agency that offers methadone-to-abstinence treatment along with open-ended methadone programs. "Some clients are very strong and prepared to move off methadone quickly," he said. "With others, who are marginalized in virtually every definition of the word, you have to, in effect, rebuild a whole human being." The city's policy shift, which could take effect in as little as two months, has drawn vehement criticism from drug treatment experts in government and medicine who say it defies decades of scientific research showing that methadone maintenance offers the best hope for the vast majority of recovering heroin addicts. Of those who stop using methadone, they say, more than four out of five relapse within months, often with deleterious physical, psychological and social effects. The mayor has characterized open-ended methadone treatment as an exchange of one chemical dependency for another, and he has said that the city would be doing addicts a disservice if it did not urge them to free themselves of both heroin and methadone. The Giuliani administration's plan is based on the city's experience with a methadone-to-abstinence program at Kings County Hospital in Brooklyn that treats about 50 patients a year, Dr. Luis Marcos, president of the Health and Hospitals Corp., said. The program, which lasts 6 to 12 months, is offered alongside a larger methadone maintenance program that treats 700 people a year at the same hospital and would be closed under the new plan. Under the city's plan, said Marcos, those weaned from methadone in an average of 90 days would receive counseling afterward, including referrals to so-called drug-free communities and other rehabilitation programs. A spokeswoman for Marcos was unable to provide data on the rate of relapse among patients. "We haven't done any scientific studies, with controlled experiments and so forth," the spokeswoman, Jane Zimmerman, said. "We're a public hospital system. We don't do that." But Dr. Stephen Zukin, director of clinical and services research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health, said he knew of no rigorous studies of such methadone-to-abstinence programs. He cautioned that such research ought be done in small numbers, not "by mayoral decree" affecting hundreds or thousands of patients. Dr. Vincent Dole, a retired professor at Rockefeller University who in the early 1960s first promulgated methadone maintenance as a treatment for heroin addiction, called the Giuliani administration's plan "a radical experiment with no research or background and certainly not with the informed consent of any of the subjects."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Media Alert - 'PrimeTime Live' On ABC Tonight (A List Subscriber Says The Television News Show Will Examine The Mysterious Death Of Jamel Radcliff In The Greenville, South Carolina, County Jail, Only A Few Hours After The African-American Man Was Arrested At His Restaurant Job For A Minor Marijuana Charge) Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 17:22:54 -0700 From: email@example.com (Maptalk-Digest) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Maptalk-Digest V98 No. 339 Reply-To: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/ Subj: Media Alert: PrimeTime Live on ABC tonite: From: "Frank S. World" (email@example.com) Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 17:40:27 -0500 WEDNESDAY AT 9 PM CENTRAL ''PrimeTime Live'' Jamel Radcliff was arrested at his job at a restaurant for a minor marijuana charge. Within a few hours, he died in the custody of the Greenville, S.C., county prison. "PrimeTime Live" examines the mysterious death of the 21-year-old African-American man, and unearths an avalanche of disturbing, conflicting evidence surrounding the case.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Drug Smoking Linked To Lung-Cancer Risk (The Scientifically Illiterate 'Orange County Register' Fails To Say If The US Government Funded The New Propaganda Reported In 'The Journal Of The National Cancer Institute,' Carried Out By Other Government Employees At The University Of California At Los Angeles, Purporting To Show That Marijuana Use 'Might' Cause An Increased Risk Of Lung Cancer, Ignoring The Fact That Not A Single Case Of Lung Cancer Or Other Cancer Has Been Attributed To Cannabis Use - Probably Because Other Studies Have Shown Repeatedly That Marijuana Shrinks Tumors) Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 14:38:50 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US CA: Drug Smoking Linked To Lung-Cancer Risk Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk:John W.Black Source: Orange County Register (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.ocregister.com/ Pubdate: 19 Aug 1998 DRUG SMOKING LINKED TO LUNG-CANCER RISK Long-term marijuana or cocaine smoking might increase the risk of lung cancer,suggests a small study that compared tissue samples from people who smoke tobacco and illegal drugs. Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that smoking marijuana and crack can cause the same precancerous changes in their bronchial cells that tobacco smoking causes well before the smoker gets cancer. The study, reported in this week's Journal of the National Cancer Institute, also found that smoking both tobacco and marijuana or cocaine increased the risk, because those smokers' were more likely to sustain additional precancerous changes.Also,these combination smokers were more likely to have damage to their p53 gene,an important gene in fending off cancer.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Marijuana, Crack Smoking Linked To Lung Cancer ('The Reuters' Version Notes The Subjects Were All Residents Of Los Angeles, Whose Polluted Air May Have Had A Significant Effect) Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 08:19:03 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: US: Wire: Marijuana, Crack Smoking Linked To Lung Cancer Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: isenberd@DynCorp.com (Isenberg, David) Source: Reuters Pubdate: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 MARIJUANA, CRACK SMOKING LINKED TO LUNG CANCER LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Smoking marijuana or crack cocaine may increase a person's chance of developing lung cancer, researchers said Tuesday. ``Our study suggests for the first time that we should think differently about marijuana and crack cocaine,'' said Dr. Sanford Barsky, co-author of a new study. ``We often think of these as mood-altering drugs, but they are taken through the respiratory tract,'' he told Reuters. ``Therefore the finding of pre-cancerous changes leads to the hypothesis that they might raise the possibility the subjects will go on to develop lung cancer,'' said Barsky, a professor of pathology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine. The study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, shows that habitual smoking of more than one substance -- marijuana or crack cocaine -- induces more potentially cancerous molecular alterations. Crack is a highly-addictive form of cocaine cooked into ''rocks'' that can be smoked and is much cheaper than powder cocaine. ``For the first time, our investigation shows tobacco is not the only smoked substance that sets in motion the molecular events which can lead to lung cancer,'' said Barsky. The analysis of respiratory tract tissue from 104 people concluded that smokers and drug users had a markedly higher incidence of six types of genetic markers associated with increased risk of lung cancer. For example, the study found that 10.7 percent of non-smokers had evidence of basal cell hyperplasia, but that increased to 46.2 percent of cocaine smokers, 53.8 percent of tobacco smokers and 66.7 percent of marijuana smokers. Among smokers of both marijuana and tobacco, there was a 100 percent incidence of basal cell hyperplasia, the study found. ``This is the first work to demonstrate that smokers of marijuana and crack cocaine have an increased frequency of molecular abnormalities in bronchial epithelium (tissue) that are similar to those identified in cigarette smokers,'' said an editorial in the NCI Journal. It noted that anti-tobacco campaigns might have the unintended effect of leading teenagers to use marijuana. It said the percentage of high-school students using the drug daily had risen from 1.9 in 1992 to 4.6 in 1995. The test sampled marijuana smokers who admitted smoking 10 joints or more per week for the past five years, crack smokers who smoked one gram or more per week for nine months in the past year and tobacco smokers who smoked 20 or more cigarettes a day for the past five years. Barsky said since most of the volunteers were young adults, it was too early to say whether they would go on to develop lung cancer. But he said subjects would be monitored in the future. He noted that since all the volunteers lived in the Los Angeles area -- ``not exactly the cleanest air'' - it was not clear if environmental factors also played a part. REUTERS
------------------------------------------------------------------- US Launches Covert Program To Aid Colombia (According To 'The Dallas Morning News,' Several Sources Who Spoke On Condition Of Anonymity Said That Tens Of Millions Of Taxpayer Dollars Are Going Into Covert Operations Across Southern Colombia Employing US Special Forces, Former Green Berets, Gulf War Veterans And Even A Few Figures From Covert CIA-Backed Operations In Central America During The 1980s - Some Have Been Involved In Direct Combat With Colombian Guerrillas) Date: Thu, 20 Aug 1998 20:59:37 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: U.S. Launches Covert Program to Aid Colombia Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Paul Wolf (email@example.com) Source: Dallas Morning News Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.dallasnews.com Pubdate: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 Author: Tod Robberson U.S. LAUNCHES COVERT PROGRAM TO AID COLOMBIA Military, mercenaries hired, sources say BOGOTA -- A major offensive by leftist guerrillas this month has dealt a serious blow to U.S. anti-narcotics efforts in the primary cocaineproducing areas of Colombia, according to participants in U.S.-directed jungle operations here. The guerrillas' rapidly expanding military might also is raising difficult policy problems for Washington about how to bolster the Colombian armed forces while avoiding the appearance of becoming enmeshed in a counter-insurgency war. It remains unclear how extensive the damage is to U.S. intelligence gathering, anti-narcotics and other operations in southeastern Colombia, where hundreds of guerrillas overran armed forces bases two weeks ago. But since the rebel offensive began Aug. 3, a U.S. Embassy spokesman said, there has been a "strategic redeployment" of all American personnel working under government contract in the zone of conflict. The spokesman declined to give specifics, but up to 100 Americans reportedly had been deployed in the area, mainly at a large armed forces and police base in San Jose del Guaviare, 180 miles southeast of Bogota. U.S. intelligence and anti-narcotics sources say the Clinton administration has responded to the guerrilla threat by launching a multimillion-dollar covert program --employing mercenaries, private contractors and active-duty military personnel-- to support the Colombian armed forces. They say the program, which involves live-combat training among other activities, goes well beyond the stated U.S. mission of fighting drug traffickers in Colombia. Critics in Washington question whether such a program could be designed to skirt congressional restrictions on aid to Colombia, particularly when U.S. training, equipment and combat support might be going to army units linked to human rights abuses. U.S. Ambassador Curtis Kamman declined an interview request to discuss any such U.S. activities here. Several sources, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said that tens of millions of taxpayer dollars are going into a covert operations across southern Colombia employing, among others, U.S. Special Forces, former Green Berets, Gulf War veterans and even a few figures from covert CIA-backed operations in Central America during the 1980s. Some have been involved in direct combat with Colombian guerrillas, the sources said. Financial support Since 1990, according to a February report by the Government Accounting Office and other official data, the United States earmarked more than $830 million in counternarcotics support to Colombia. Of that, however, only one-third went directly to anti-narcotics assistance, while the remaining two-thirds went for military-related expenditures, the GAO report said. Colombia is slated to receive another $208 million starting next year. By contrast, the U.S. Southern Command estimated that in 1995 alone, the largest guerrilla group here, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, earned $647 million from protecting drug labs, airstrips and illicit-crop plantations. U.S. officials concede that the increased involvement of guerrillas in trafficking activities has made the U.S. mission in Colombia more complicated. "We would be remiss to not underscore the depth of concern we have," said White House drug czar Barry McCaffrey during a visit here Aug. 7. "The facts of the matter are that the FARC is heavily involved in protecting, transporting and, in some cases, operating drug labs. It's given them such an enormous source of wealth that, arguably, their firepower, their pay scales, their intelligence services are more sophisticated than that of the [government] forces that guard this democracy." International human rights groups argue that the linkage between the guerrillas and drug traffickers has allowed Washington to expand covert counterinsurgency operations in Colombia without having to face public or congressional scrutiny, particularly on human rights issues. Since much of the money spent by the U.S. government in Colombia is covert aid, it does not have to be reported publicly, the rights groups say. "The lack of transparency really is the key," said Robin Kirk, who monitors Colombia for Human Rights Watch/Americas. "More or less, the Defense Department can spend its chunk of money as it sees fit, and it's impossible to know where it's going. The amount of CIA money being spent in Colombia is impossible to find out." Carlos Salinas, of Amnesty International in Washington, said he faced similar roadblocks in attempting to get an accounting of U.S. military activities during a recent visit to the U.S. Embassy here. "We were struck by the adamant refusal to provide any details that would lead to a transparent view of U.S. military activities in Colombia," he said. "Of course, the inevitable question that arises is, if indeed nothing wrong is going on there, what is there to hide?" Sources here said that the Clinton administration has technically abided by legal restrictions on the deployment of active-duty military personnel in zones of conflict by hiring retired Green Berets and other private contractors to carry out sensitive jungle operations. "Of course they have to keep it secret," said an intelligence operative here, who asked not to be identified. "They're up to a lot of things that they shouldn't be." He did not elaborate. 'Shady past' Another participant in U.S. operations said he had flown combat missions over Baghdad during the Gulf War and was involved in covert CIA operations to assist Nicaraguan Contra guerrillas in the late 1980s. The participant said he had flown several missions with Eugene Hasenfus, the sole American survivor of a CIA-backed flight over Nicaragua that was shot down by Sandinista troops Oct. 5, 1986. "To get somebody out there to do those operations, you almost have to have that shady past," said Joe Toft, the former chief of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration in Colombia. Others working under U.S. contract here have received not only U.S. Special Forces counterinsurgency training but have attended courses abroad, including in Russia. There, according to one participant, they were taught how to use some Russian-made military hardware found in Colombia as well as counterinsurgency techniques based on Cuban and Russian models of guerrilla warfare. Some personnel participating in U.S. operations here are working under a State Department contract with two private firms based in suburban Washington: Dyncorp and East Inc. Officials of both companies said they were not permitted to discuss their operations in Colombia and referred all questions to the State Department. Officials did not return phone calls. Both companies officially are providing pilot training and technical support for Colombian illicit-crop eradication flights, according to U.S. officials. But one pilot said he had conducted a number of missions that went well beyond the scope of that definition, including assisting in the deployment of Colombian counterinsurgency troops. Shortly before the guerrilla offensive began this month, two East Inc. pilots were killed near the military base at San Jose del Guaviare. A U.S. Embassy spokesman said the circumstances of the pilots' deaths were still under investigation. He could not confirm whether the pilots' bodies or the plane wreckage had been recovered. Dyncorp personnel who were based at San Jose del Guaviare before the U.S. withdrawal said they were under strict orders not to talk to reporters. The U.S. Embassy has attempted to discourage reporters from delving into the activities of government-contracted personnel here. Threats made One U.S. reporter who attempted to talk to Dyncorp pilots at San Jose del Guaviare said he was threatened with banishment from the U.S. Embassy if he ever attempted to approach Dyncorp personnel again. Another reporter said he was banned from embassy-sponsored briefings after the reporter quoted a guerrilla leader as saying that U.S. military advisers would now be targeted for attack. "I can understand why the embassy would be sensitive to anything appearing in the press about the civilian group out there," Mr. Toft said. "It's for the safety of those people. If the guerrillas become aware of them, they [the Americans] could be targeted." Ms. Kirk and Mr. Salinas, the human rights activists, said the use of covert aid and privately contracted personnel is troublesome because it may permit the U.S. Embassy to circumvent restrictions imposed by Congress on aid to Colombian military units linked to human rights abuses. "If we found that the Department of Defense was using private contractors in ways that are contrary to the intent of the law, that would be cause for great concern," said Tim Rieser, an aide to Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt. "If the administration wants to shift its policy to support counter-insurgency activities, then it should come to the Congress, and Congress should debate it." Under congressional foreign-aid restrictions sponsored by Sen. Leahy, military units must be "vetted" of officers with spotty human rights records before those units can receive assistance, such as training and equipment, administered by the State Department. Mr. Rieser said previous Pentagon attempts to avoid applying those restrictions prompted Sen. Leahy earlier this month to draft legislation requiring compliance. Although the Defense Department has said it would agree to the proposed law, he said, the CIA rejects such restrictions. Some U.S. Special Forces troops currently are allowed to participate in training exercises with Colombian soldiers, both from vetted and unvetted units, under a Pentagon exchange program in existence since 1991. U.S. officials said those American troops have not been assigned to combat roles, although they are authorized to fight if fired upon. Copyright 1998 The Dallas Morning News
------------------------------------------------------------------- DrugSense Weekly, Number 60 (A Weekly Summary Of Drug Policy News From The Media Awareness Project, Including The Drug War Fact Of The Week - 85 Percent Of The Increase In The Federal Prison Population From 1985 To 1995 Was Due To Drug Convictions, According To The US Department Of Justice's Bureau Of Statistics' 'Prisoners In 1996') Date: Wed, 19 Aug 1998 12:17:02 -0700 To: email@example.com From: Mark Greer (MGreer@mapinc.org) Subject: DrugSense Weekly, August 19, 1998 No. 60 DRUGSENSE WEEKLY In 10 minutes a week you can stay aware and informed on drug policy developments worldwide. Consider investing another 10 minutes to write a letter to the editor using the email addresses provided in this publication. You CAN make a difference! *** DrugSense Weekly, August 19, 1998, No. 60 A DrugSense publication http://www.drugsense.org/ *** TABLE OF CONTENTS: * Feature Article Regulating Cannabis Symposium - London, September 5, 1998 * Weekly News In Review Drug Policy - 'Drug-War Speak' OPED: Our Efforts Have Failed Miserably Springfield Needle Exchange Foes Move To Force November Referendum Waukegan High School Says No To Drug Tests Giuliani Orders 5 City Hospitals To Wean Addicts Off Methadone Updates- U.S. Agrees To Pay Family In Teen's Border Killing CIA Role In S.F. Coke Case Disclosed Hemp Activist Appeals Charge of Contempt While on A Jury Incarceration- Time may be right for private prisons State Will Need Private Prisons, Official Says When Prisons Bulge, It's Good News Medical Marijuana- Prop. 215 Disallowed In Chavez Case PUB LTE: Feds Target Medical Pot Marijuana Club Given Official Role in Oakland International News- Colombia on the Brink DEA Chief, Colombian President Patch Up Ties Anti-Drug Base Destroyed By Colombia Rebels Colombian Army's Third in Command Allegedly Led Two Lives Ex-Colombian Minister Seeks Asylum In Costa Rica Colombia- So Legalise Them? U.S. Will Help Colombia Coca Growers Switch To Other Crops * Hot Off The 'Net Seattle HempFest site and Common Sense Tabloid * DrugSense Tip Of The Week Drug War Facts - a multi-faceted resource * Quote of the Week Thomas Jefferson * Fact of the Week Drug Prisoners *** FEATURE ARTICLE Editor's Note: We felt that announcing this important symposium would be a good trade off to our usual weekly feature article. *** REGULATING CANNABIS Options for control in the 21st Century An International Symposium London, September 5, 1998 Regent's College Academics, lawyers, policy makers, scientists, public health officials, drug professionals, criminologists, politicians, policy institutes, law enforcement agencies, journalists, social scientists, researchers. The Lindesmith Center and Release invite individuals and organisations, with a policy or professional interest, to attend a symposium on options for the regulation and decriminalisation of cannabis. This symposium will bring together leading experts from Europe, Australia and North America in the fields of science, jurisprudence, sociology and government to examine the legal and social implications of regulating the world's most popular illicit drug. This interactive conference aims to shed light on optimal cannabis controls and bring a new maturity and clarity to public debate. Particular attention will also be devoted to exploring pragmatic opportunities for reform within the context of prohibition and examining recent constitutional and judicial developments in the regulation of cannabis. THE ORGANISERS RELEASE and THE LINDESMITH CENTER This is a collaborative event organised by The Lindesmith Center and Release. The Lindesmith Center is a drug policy research institute founded in 1994 as a project of the Open Society Institute, a private foundation that encourages public debate and policy alternatives in complex and often controversial fields. With offices in New York and San Francisco, The Center undertakes and supports innovative projects relevant to drugs, drug users, and drug policies overlooked or ignored in public discussion and government-funded research. Release is the UK based drugs and legal advice charity which was founded in 1967 when it established the world's first ever 24-hour drugs and legal advice helpline. The organisation's range of innovative services, pioneering work with young people as well as its commitment to the civil rights of drug users, has contributed to its unique credibility in the drugs and legal advice field. COST The cost of attendance, including refreshments, lunch and conference pack, is £75 (sterling). A discount rate of £37 for research students is available upon request. Delegates are responsible for their own accommodations but the symposium office at Release is pleased to assist with details of hotels available at a range of prices. VENUE The symposium will be held at The Regent's College Conference Centre, situated within the formal gardens of London's Regent's Park. The venue offers a quiet and idyllic setting for the symposium and is only a half mile away from the arts, entertainment and heritage of London's West End. PROGRAM Regulating Cannabis will explore various models of cannabis control, both actual and proposed, address legal developments concerning production, possession and sale and examine UN international conventions. The meeting is intended not as a platform for advocating any one solution but rather a forum for considering a range of effective cannabis control schemes. Speakers and contributors include * Robert Ali, Chair of the Australian National Illicit Drugs Expert Committee. Martin Barriuso, President of Kalamudia Association. Professor Lorenz Bollinger, University of Bremen. Professor Peter Cohen, University of Amsterdam. Dr. Patricia Erickson, Senior Scientist, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto. Benedikt Fischer, Scientist and Coordinator, Drug Policy Studies, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto. Mike Goodman, Director of Release. Steve James, Manager, Victoria Police Cannabis Cautioning Program. Professor Adriaan Jansen, University of Amsterdam. Professor Krysztof Krajewski, University of Crakow. Professor Harry Levine, Queens College. Mr. David MacDonald, The Australian National University. Ueli Minder, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Dr. John P. Morgan, City College of New York. Ethan Nadelmann, Director of The Lindesmith Center. Professor Craig Reinerman, University of California. Professor Christian Nils Robert, Université de Geneve. Susanne Schardt, Director Coordination Bureau - European Cities on Drug Policy. Professor Eric Single, University of Toronto. Professor Lynn Zimmer, Queens College. * The majority of these speakers have confirmed attendance and will be joined by others not mentioned. For more information regarding the agenda or supporting literature for the symposium, please contact Mireille Jacobson at the Lindesmith Center at (212) 548-0603, ext. 1469 or send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. On these matters as well as for registration information, please contact Vicki Charles at Release at (44/171) 729-5255, fax (44/171) 729-2599 or send an e-mail to email@example.com. Background information can also be found on The Lindesmith Center website, www.lindesmith.org. Registration will be available on Release's website, www.release.org.uk, as of August 12, 1998. *** WEEKLY NEWS IN REVIEW *** Drug Policy - *** COMMENT: As the rhetorical war between prohibition and reform heats up, it's probable that the prohibitionist tactic of vilification of "legalizers" might stimulate reformers to point out the inherent dishonesty of their tactics. Paul Bischke's letter is a good model for the best tone to use: logical, tough, and above all, not strident. In the same vein, outspoken editorial criticism of both the results and motives of present policy like this one by James Dickey in the Denver Post, once unthinkable, are no longer even rare. Even so, a number of local stories attest to continuing grass roots support for policy; backlash against needle exchange has produced an important ballot initiative in Mass.; in Waukegan, reason prevailed over zealotry, but the rhetoric still favors the "drug free" mentality. In a supreme display of arrogance, "Doctor" Giuliani overruled the opinions of qualified professionals and prescribed morality instead of methadone for New York city's addicts on maintenance therapy. *** `DRUG-WAR SPEAK' ST. PAUL - Stephen Chapman rightly chastises Gen. Barry McCaffrey for formulating public policy on an unfactual basis ("In the drug war, fantasy beats facts," Commentary, July 23), but he withheld the most important punch. McCaffrey's misinformation is not random; it is systematic. Whether it's his disingenuous characterizations of needle exchange, medical marijuana or drug legalization, McCaffrey does not misspeak in ways that make America's current drug policy look bad, only in ways that justify it. Politeness aside, Gen. McCaffrey is a liar. [snip] Source: Chicago Tribune (IL) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 10 Aug 1998 Author: Paul M. Bischke, Co-director, Drug Policy Reform Group of Minnesota Section: Sec. 1, p. 12 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n670.a03.html *** OUR EFFORTS HAVE FAILED MISERABLY Aug. 9 - We have spent almost $1 trillion since 1971 fighting the "war on drugs.'' We have killed innocent people, raided unsuspecting families, built dozens of prisons, confiscated billions of dollars of property, violated the constitution, sacrificed our civil liberties and, through it all, accepted the lies of those with a vested interest in perpetuating this nonsense. [snip] Source: Denver Post (CO) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.denverpost.com/ Pubdate: Sun, 9 August 1998 Author: Robert F. Hickey URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n670.a04.html *** SPRINGFIELD NEEDLE EXCHANGE FOES MOVE TO FORCE NOVEMBER REFERENDUM SPRINGFIELD -- Opponents of the city's recently approved needle exchange program have submitted more than 10,000 signatures to force a November referendum on the issue. [snip] Source: Standard-Times (MA) Contact: YourView@S-T.com Website: http://www.s-t.com/ Pubdate: Wednesday, 12 August, 1998 Author: Associated Press URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n679.a06.html *** WAUKEGAN HIGH SCHOOL SAYS NO TO DRUG TESTS In the wake of their decision not to pursue random drug testing of all Waukegan High School students, Waukegan School District 60 officials said Wednesday that they are satisfied to continue supporting drug-awareness programs already in place. [snip] Pubdate: 13 Aug 1998 Source: Chicago Tribune (IL) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/ Author: Sheryl Kennedy URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n692.a02.html *** GIULIANI ORDERS 5 CITY HOSPITALS TO WEAN ADDICTS OFF METHADONE NEW YORK - Following through on his promise to overhaul drug treatment in New York City, Mayor Rudolph Giuliani has decided that heroin addicts treated at city hospitals will generally be allowed to get methadone for no more than three months, city health officials Friday. The policy change, which will take place in about 60 days, will affect 2,000 addicts who take methadone, a synthetic drug that has been widely prescribed to blunt heroin cravings for the last 30 years. Under the new plan, addicts enrolled in programs at five city hospitals will be weaned from methadone within three months, instead of taking it indefinitely as they do now. The programs will continue to offer intensive counseling and other services after that time. The mayor has argued that methadone maintenance programs simply substitute one dependency for another, and that abstinence from drugs is a more moral and decent approach to curing addiction. [snip] Source: New York Times (NY) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.nytimes.com/ Pubdate: Sat, 15 Aug 1998 author: Rachel L. Swarns URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n691.a05.html *** Updates *** COMMENT: Three old stories were updated during the week; the Hernandez family will receive money for their son's life- hardly a satisfactory exchange; nor has the government renounced use of the military for police duty or admitted guilt. Each new round of official denials of a CIA-Contra-coke connection seems to be followed by new evidence casting doubt on those denials; this time it's DOJ's own internal report reported on in embarrassing detail by the SF Examiner. Was Gary Webb on to something, after all? Finally, Laura Kriho's case quietly began its long journey to the Supreme Court. While our legal profession has found it impossible to set aside professional hubris long enough to recognize the central position of juror immunity must occupy in British and American law, one can hope they and the general public will finally be educated by the discussion which is sure to be stimulated by this case. *** SETTLEMENT TOPS $1 MILLION IN SHOOTING BY MARINE Federal officials agreed to pay more than $1 million to settle the claims of a Redford, Texas, family whose son was killed last year by a U.S. Marine on a counter-drug patrol, the family's attorney said Tuesday. A second state grand jury, meanwhile, finished deliberations this week without returning criminal indictments in the death, said Jack Zimmerman, an attorney for the Marine. [snip] Source: Dallas Morning News Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.dallasnews.com Pubdate: 12 Aug 1998 Authors: David LaGesse and Nancy San Martin (DMN) URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n679.a03.html *** CIA ROLE IN S.F. COKE CASE DISCLOSED Cables show U.S. attorney helped shield contras in '84 On a hot August day in 1984, a lawyer from CIA headquarters walked into the office of a federal prosecutor in San Francisco to ask for a favor. The CIA man was reluctant to give his name or his government affiliation, the assistant U.S. attorney recalled, and embarked on an "opaque conversation" about what he called an "uncomfortable situation" [snip] The 407-page report by Inspector General Michael R. Bromwich sheds new light on the controversial refund, saying it resulted partly from the CIA's "desire to protect the public image of the contras or the CIA" and thus raised a question of "propriety." The study confirms that the Justice Department and the CIA withheld information about the case from a late 1980s U.S. Senate inquiry, a former Senate investigator said. [snip] Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.examiner.com/ Pubdate: Aug. 10, 1998 Author: Seth Rosenfeld of the Examiner Staff Section: Page A1 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n680.a05.html *** HEMP ACTIVIST APPEALS CHARGE OF CONTEMPT WHILE ON A JURY DENVER - The first juror convicted of contempt of court in over 300 years took her case to the Colorado Court of Appeals yesterday in a campaign to win legitimacy for the jury-nullification movement. [snip] Pubdate: Tues, 11 Aug 1998 Source: Washington Times Contact1: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact2: 3600 New York Ave. NE Washington, D.C. 20002 Website: http://www.washtimes.com/ Author: Valerie Richardson The Washington Times URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n676.a01.html *** Incarceration *** COMMENT: Hard on the heels of news that we have set a record number of Americans under lock and key, comes fresh evidence that prison construction still lags the demand, providing opportunity for fast-growing private prison industry. The number of inmates in American prisons is not distressing to everyone; some are even gratified. *** TIME MAY BE RIGHT FOR PRIVATE PRISONS State's public prison system under scrutiny Bans on private prison stall FLORENCE, Ariz. - Just as Highway 79 greets this prison town sweltering in the desert, the barbed wire and drab concrete walls of the Central Arizona Detention Center emerge from a seemingly endless stretch of cactus and rock. [snip] For California, this emblem of the private prison industry is no mirage. In fact, the Arizona lockup may turn out to offer a glimpse into what the future holds for the state's already overburdened prison system. [snip] Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 10 Aug 1998 Author: Howard Mintz, Mercury News Staff Writer URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n670.a08.html *** STATE WILL NEED PRIVATE PRISONS, OFFICIAL SAYS EAU CLAIRE, Wis. (AP) - The state needs a private prison under construction in northern Wisconsin even as it expands its own penitentiary system, a corrections spokesman says. "It just keeps increasing," Department of Corrections spokesman William Clausius said of the inmate population. "In terms of the need for beds, we would need to build a new prison every year just to keep up." [snip] Pubdate: Mon, 10 Aug 1998 Source: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: (414) 224-8280 Website: http://www.jsonline.com/ URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n673.a07.html *** WHEN PRISONS BULGE, IT'S GOOD NEWS EVERY year, the Justice Department releases figures on the nation's prison population, and they invariably set off a gnashing of teeth by liberals about the injustice of it all. [snip] I tend to rejoice when I see that prisons are bulging. It is evidence, I think, that government is finally performing one of its fundamental functions: protecting and safeguarding the population. [snip] Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 10 Aug 1998 Author: Joseph Spear URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n670.a07.html *** Medical Marijuana *** COMMENT: Medical use of Marijuana remained in the news, with California manifesting polar extremes in acceptance of 215. In the South, unrestrained repression of activists continued; Marvin Chavez seemed to get a break when the judge who ruled against mention of 215 handed the case off; however his judicial crony adopted the same unbelievable logic. A particularly outrageous aspect of Peter McWilliams' incarceration without proper medical treatment is that it's being ignored by the local media. This LTE by Gary Storck to a Madison, WI paper the only mention I found in ANY Daily newspaper. For shame. In the North, the Oakland City Council took innovative and courageous action by implementing a suggestion first voiced several months ago by a participant on DRCTalk. The legislation, which makes use of a provision of the Controlled Substances Act, attracted nationwide press attention, in marked contrast to McWilliams' plight in federal detention. *** PROP. 215 DISALLOWED IN CHAVEZ CASE Medicinal pot: Activist to stand trial Aug. 24 on drug-sale charges. SANTA ANA - A second judge has banned the use of Prop. 215, the medicinal marijuana initiative, from being argued before a jury in the defense of activist Marvin Chavez. Judge Frank F. Fasel said Prop. 215, known as the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, is flawed, but said the state Legislature - and not the jury - should make the measure workable. [snip] Source: Long Beach Press-Telegram Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.ptconnect.com/ Pubdate: Sat, 15 August 1998 Author: Joe Segura, Staff Writer URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n695.a05.html *** FEDS TARGET MEDICAL POT The recent indictment and arrest in Los Angeles of medical marijuana patient-activists Peter McWilliams, Todd McCormick and others is nothing but a cynical attempt by federal officials to silence these outspoken defenders of medical rights. [snip] Not only is the federal government trying to silence these defenders of liberty, but in the case of Peter McWilliams, they are apparently trying to murder him by denying him his AIDS medications. [snip] This cruel and immoral war on medical marijuana patients must stop now. Gary Storck Madison Pubdate: Tue, 11 Aug 1998 Source: The Capital Times (WI) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.madison.com/ URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n676.a03.html *** MARIJUANA CLUB GIVEN OFFICIAL ROLE IN OAKLAND LOS ANGELES - Opening a new front in the legal battle over medicinal marijuana, Oakland leaders Thursday designated the outlawed Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative an official arm of the city, thereby becoming the first municipal government to dispense the drug to seriously ill patients. In its new partnership, Oakland is attempting to find its own solution to the unresolved issue of medicinal marijuana use in California. Though voters in November 1996 approved a statewide ballot measure allowing patients to grow and smoke marijuana under certain conditions, the law has faced repeated challenges from the California attorney general and the U.S. Justice Department. [snip] Source: Chicago Tribune (IL) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/ Pubdate: Fri, 14 Aug 1998 Author: V. Dion Haynes Section: Sec. 1, p. 1 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n696.a08.html *** International News *** COMMENT: Global drug prohibition policy combines with geography to create both "producer" and "transit" nations. All are governed by corrupt governments in one of two molds: weak and controlled by successful drug criminals, or repressive and indistinguishable from successful drug criminals. Civil wars are the norm, with the rebels either financed by drugs or by "taxes" on drugs. Colombia, a case in point, is obviously sliding deeper into crisis; a weak Government allied with the United States is increasingly overmatched by both the cartels and FARC rebels. The following articles point to a looming catastrophe, one which doctrinaire and unrealistic American policy is incapable of even acknowledging, let alone correcting. *** COLOMBIA ON THE BRINK BOGOTA-A new president; big guerrilla attacks, yet fresh hopes of peace; an economy to be revitalised; a new politics to be born; renewed links with the United States; new tactics in an old drug war: Colombia faces momentous change [snip] Source: Economist, The Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.economist.com/ Pubdate: August 1998 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n675.a04.html *** U.S. DEA CHIEF, COLOMBIAN PRESIDENT PATCH UP TIES BOGOTA, (Reuters) - Top U.S. anti-drugs official Thomas Constantine met Colombian President Andres Pastrana Thursday in the latest sign that Washington was recovering its dented confidence in Bogota's commitment to the drug war. Constantine, chief of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), was making his second visit this year to Colombia, the world's leading supplier of cocaine and a major player in the high-grade heroin trade. [snip] Source: Reuters Pubdate: 13 Aug 1998 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n688.a07.html *** ANTI-DRUG BASE DESTROYED BY COLOMBIA REBELS Offensive: A strong push by guerrillas leaves nothing left of the nation's largest facility fighting the cocaine trade. Bogota, Colombia - The faint voice crackled over the two-way radio: The base has been destroyed. There is nothing left. The police have been taken away as hostages, and the soldiers,too." [snip] Source: Reuters Pubdate: 6 Aug 1998 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n688.a06.html *** COLOMBIAN ARMY'S THIRD IN COMMAND ALLEGEDLY LED TWO LIVES General Reportedly Served as a Key CIA Informant While Maintaining Ties to Death Squads Financed by Drug Traffickers For years Colombian Gen. Ivan Ramirez Quintero was a key intelligence source for the United States. After training in Washington he was the first head of a military intelligence organization designed by U.S. experts to fight Marxist guerrillas and drug traffickers, [snip] http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/edit/letters/letterform.htm Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/ Pubdate: Tue, 11 Aug 1998 Author: Douglas Farah and Laura Brooks URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n686.a07.html *** EX-COLOMBIAN MINISTER SEEKS ASYLUM IN COSTA RICA SAN JOSE, Costa Rica (Reuters) - Colombia's former Energy and Mines Minister, who fled his country after being charged with taking money from drug traffickers, has sought political asylum in Costa Rica, officials said on Thursday. [snip] Source: Reuters Pubdate: 13 Aug 1998 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n688.a08.html *** SO LEGALISE THEM? No one country on its own can sensibly decriminalise illegal drugs. The world could collectively, but won't. Yet suppose it did: would Colombia be better off? Yes, says Ernesto Samper. It is a qualified yes. He points to the huge harm that drug money has done to Colombia. To would-be legalisers, that strengthens the case for change. [snip] Source: Economist, The Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.economist.com/ Pubdate: 8 Aug 1998 Section: Page 32 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n687.a02.html *** U.S. WILL HELP COLOMBIA COCA GROWERS SWITCH TO OTHER CROPS BOGOTA, Colombia, Aug. 13, 1998 - After long refusing to pay for programs to help Colombia's coca growers switch to legal crops, the United States is now agreeing to finance alternative development under this country's new administration. [snip] Source: Economist, The Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.economist.com/ Pubdate: 8 Aug 1998 Section: Page 32 URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n687.a02.html *** HOT OFF THE 'NET SEATTLE HEMP FEST AND COMMON SENSE DRUG NEWS TABLOID Check out the line up of guests and bands for this weeks exciting Seattle Hemp Fest at: http://www.seattlehempfest.com and http://www.seattlehempfest.com/lineup.html Seattle is one of the first major events in a series of annual events that help promote education of the public on drug policy issues. Besides that it is just plain fun! This prestigious event will be the first distribution point for the newly completed Drug Information Tabloid "Common Sense for Drug Policy." It will be handed out at festivals, college campuses, concerts and elsewhere nationwide to over 500,000 people between now and October. This excellent publication is a single point information resource for getting aware, informed, and involved in drug policy issues. It includes most important reform organizations and URLs as well as a wealth of information. Be sure to attend the Seattle Hempfest if you can and don't miss your copy of the Common Sense for Drug Policy tabloid. *** TIP OF THE WEEK The Drug War Facts collection at: http://www.drugsense.org/factbook/ is proving to be a very valuable resource indeed. In a recent interview on Salt Lake City radio station KTKK Mark Greer used the collection to augment the discussion and to provide facts and cites on a moments notice by having the web page loaded on his computer screen during the interview. It may be coincidence but 100% of those calling in to the show expressed agreement that reform was an idea whose time has come. This collection of valuable facts can be used in any number of creative ways. Try logging onto this page the next time you write a letter or article or just prior to a debate. The convenient index by subject will provide facts and cites in seconds. Your letters, interviews, discussions or debates can benefit from regular use and familiarization of this worthwhile resource. *** QUOTE OF THE WEEK `A society that will trade a little liberty for a little order will lose both, and deserve neither' - Thomas Jefferson *** FACT OF THE WEEK Eighty five percent (85%) of the increase in the federal prison population from 1985 to 1995 was due to drug convictions. Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics. Prisoners in 1996. (Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.) *** DrugSense Weekly is one of the many free educational services DrugSense offers our members. Watch this feature to learn more about what DrugSense can do for you. 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