Portland NORML News - Wednesday, September 23, 1998
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Affidavit Describes Drug Use At Fair (According To 'The Register-Guard'
In Eugene, Oregon, Undercover Linn County Prohibition Agents
Filed An Affidavit In Support Of A Warrant To Search The Property
Of Bill Conde, Describing 'Rampant Drug Use And Brazen Drug Sales'
At Conde's 'Cannabis Carnival' Earlier This Month, Even By Security Guards -
Conde Said Detectives Were Motivated By Politics And Their Search Last Week
Effectively Shut Down His Redwood Lumber Business By Confiscating Computers
And Business Records)

Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 19:01:34 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US OR: Affidavit Describes Drug Use At Fair
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Olafur Brentmar
Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998
Source: Register-Guard, The (OR)
Contact: rgletters@guardnet.com
Website: http://www.registerguard.com/
Author JANELLE HARTMAN

AFFIDAVIT DESCRIBES DRUG USE AT FAIR

HARRISBURG - Undercover Linn County sheriff's deputies described rampant
drug use and brazen drug sales - even by security guards - at Bill Conde's
"Cannabis Carnival" earlier this month, according to an affidavit filed in
support of a warrant to search his property last week.

"People were walking around calling out `shrooms, nuggets,' like peanut
vendors at a ball game," a detective wrote, referring to street terms for
hallucinogenic mushrooms and marijuana bud.

Detectives said they bought drugs 26 times during the three-day event and
were approached by sellers numerous other times. Drugs described in the
affidavit were marijuana, mushrooms and blotter acid.

Conde, an outspoken marijuana activist who has hosted numerous
marijuana-themed events, said Tuesday that he didn't see any of the alleged
drug sales. Furthermore, he said, he tried to prevail on fairgoers not to
buy or sell drugs on his property.

According to the affidavit, Conde told undercover detectives who approached
him before the event that they could smoke marijuana there "as long as you
don't try to peddle it or are blatant about using it."

On stage at the event, however, he allegedly asked the crowd to avoid
"blatant transactions."

While on stage, detectives said, Conde took a rolled joint from his pocket
and showed it to his 4-year-old daughter, asking her if she knew what it
was. She didn't answer, but Conde allegedly said she'd picked up a bud of
it when she was 2 years old and told him, "Daddy, this smells good."

Detectives said he then urged everyone to "light it up."

"Conde lit his joint and the majority of spectators did the same,"
according to the affidavit.

Conde hasn't denied smoking pot or allowing others to smoke it on his
property, saying using or possessing less than an ounce isn't a crime.
Under Oregon law, it is considered a violation and can result in a citation
similar to a traffic ticket.

Conde said detectives were making too much of his daughter's exposure to
marijuana.

"I could compare it to maybe a guy drinking a beer and his daughter knowing
what a beer looks like," he said. "My children have never smoked any pot."

Conde said detectives effectively shut down his redwood lumber business
when they searched his property last week, taking computers and business
records, among other items.

He was charged with a felony count of possessing marijuana after detectives
allegedly found just more than an ounce of marijuana during the search. He
also is facing about $45,000 in fines for alleged violations of county
building, sanitation and mass gathering codes.

Conde continued to call the search politically motivated, saying the
affidavit didn't justify why detectives had the right to search his house
and business. The carnival site, just north of Conde's lumberyard and home,
wasn't searched, he said.

"There's nothing in that affidavit that determines that they could go into
my house or Conde's Redwood Lumber," he said. "Yet that's where they
struck. Their investigation was trying to do something to me, rather than
trying to find out what's going on."

Sheriff Dave Burright said Conde "has been squealing a lot about
computers." But he said the affidavit makes it clear that authorities saw
pertinent records, such as names of carnival vendors, being stored in
computers.

Detectives are using the records to try to identify vendors and security
guards who sold drugs, according to the affidavit.

The affidavit said one security guard "openly talked about mushrooms and
acid he'd been taking" and arranged for detectives to buy marijuana from a
young man wearing a red wrist band - the color used to identify event
employees.

Later, another security guard introduced a pair of undercover detectives to
a guard at the front gate to arrange another drug sale. While his co-worker
relieved him, the guard took the detectives - a man and a woman - to his
car. There, he allegedly took out a set of scales, weighed an eighth of an
ounce of marijuana and sold it for $40.

Conde said he doesn't believe the detectives were dealing with members of
his security force. "They've got some surprises in store for them, in terms
of who was working here and who wasn't," he said.

However, he said, if he finds that any guard was selling drugs, he'll never
hire him again.

"If I find any security guards doing that, shame on them," he said. "They
were specifically instructed not to tolerate that."

Conde said he and his lawyers have filed motions to compel sheriff's
officials to answer questions about the raid, and are seeking a restraining
order to prevent authorities from reviewing his personal computer records,
or using what information has already been accessed.

He said the computer files include information about political action
committees, as well as about people they've registered as voters.

"There's nothing in there they had a right to take," Conde said. "They went
way beyond the scope of the warrant."
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Challenge To Suicide Law Is Dismissed ('The Oregonian'
Says US District Judge Michael Hogan Tuesday Reluctantly Refused To Revive
A Lawsuit Against Oregon's Physician-Assisted Suicide Law,
Apparently Ending Nearly Four Years Of Legal Challenges)

The Oregonian
letters to editor:
letters@news.oregonian.com
1320 SW Broadway
Portland, OR 97201
Web: http://www.oregonlive.com/

Challenge to suicide law is dismissed

* U.S. District Judge Michael Hogan says his hands are tied
by a higher court ruling, forcing the law's critics to look to
Congress for help

Wednesday, September 23 1998

By Ashbel S. Green
and Erin Hoover Barnett
of The Oregonian staff

A federal judge Tuesday reluctantly refused to revive a
lawsuit against Oregons physician-assisted suicide law.
The decision ends a nearly four-year legal battle and
apparently extinguishes opponents last hope of
overturning the law in court.

"Although I am bound by (a higher court) decision in this
case, I find it troubling because it may well render (the
law) incapable of judicial review, U.S. District Judge
Michael Hogan wrote.

This court questions a decision which effectively places
a statute of such consequence outside the parameter of
consitutional review.

In 1995, Hogan ruled that Oregons assisted-suicide law
lacked constitutional safeguards and overturned it. But
the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Hogan
in 1997, ruling that those who challenged the law had no
standing to sue.

Assisted-suicide opponents asked Hogan, who is based in
Eugene, to revive the case, but he concluded Tuesday in
his 10-page opinion that the 9th Circuit decision
prevented him.

Hogans decision came two days before a rescheduled
vote in Congress on a bill that would, in effect, invalidate
Oregons law. The bill, introduced by Rep. Henry Hyde,
R-Ill., would prevent doctors from prescribing lethal
doses of drugs for terminally ill people who wish to end
their lives.

Oregon voters approved the nations first assisted-suicide
law in 1994, allowing doctors to prescribe a lethal dose
of medication to competent, terminally ill adults who
request it.

Assisted-suicide opponents went to court to block the
law. They argued that it lacked safeguards to prevent
terminally ill people who oppose assisted suicide from
killing themselves in a state of depression.

Hogan agreed and declared the law unconstitutional.

But in 1997, the 9th Circuit said Hogan never should
have addressed the merits of the law because the plaintiff
had no standing to sue.

Janice Elsner, who has muscular dystrophy, argued that
she might use the law if she were depressed, even
though she opposes suicide. The 9th Circuit said that
argument was too speculative. In order to challenge a
law in federal court, a person must be actually, not
hypothetically, injured by it.

The Supreme Court declined to take an appeal.

Meanwhile, in November 1997, Oregon voters
overwhelmingly refused to repeal the law.
Assisted-suicide opponents went back to court, asking
Hogan to consider another argument on standing.

On Tuesday, Hogan said the 9th Circuit left him no room
to consider such an argument. He made it clear that he
did not agree with the higher court.

"Had the voters enacted a measure that permitted
members of a certain race, gender, religion or age group
to avail themselves of physician-assisted suicide, would
outraged members of such classes lack standing to
challenge the legislation on the ground they had no
intention of committing suicide?" he wrote.

James Bopp, the Indiana attorney who represented
Elsner, could not be reached for comment.

Valerie Vollmar, a law professor at Willamette University
who has watched the case closely, said Hogan's
dismissal made clear legal sense.

"Personally, I'm relieved to hear that the judge felt bound
by the case law because I thought the case law was
pretty clear," Vollmar said.

Vollmar credited opponents of assisted suicide for their
tenacity at fighting the law in court. She said she does
not expect them to give up, even if they fail to get an
anti-assisted suicide law through this session of
Congress.

Both sides react

Gayle Atteberry, executive director of Oregon Right to
Life, said she was saddened by the decision.

"I will say in absolutely certain terms that the evil
assisted suicide poses to Oregonians has not changed
and will not change," she said. "We will pursue every
avenue to protect those who are threatened by assisted
suicide in this state. We will never waiver from our
commitment."

Barbara Coombs Lee, executive director of the
Compassion in Dying Federation and co-author of the
Oregon law, said she was glad that Hogan heeded the 9th
Circuit.

"It's one more little victory, one more barrier put in front
of it that it has overcome," said Lee, calling the law "the
little engine that could."

Lee said she thinks the movement to give the terminally
ill control of the timing of their deaths has gained a
permanent foothold.

"At this point, I just think the forces of change and the
consciousness of the nation have been transformed and .
. . can't be reversed," she said.

Cancer victim comforted
Charyl Failor, 52, of Newport agrees. She had a radical
mastectomy in June after doctors diagnosed an
aggressive form of breast cancer. She said she feels
comforted in knowing the assisted-suicide option exists
and has nervously watched challenges to the law. She
called Tuesday's development "incredible."

"I thought (Hogan) was going to dog that forever," she
said.

Failor said she is optimistic that Hogan's ruling signals
that the powerful forces against assisted suicide might
not be strong enough to keep it from becoming a right
for all Americans.

That's just what Ellie Jenny fears.

Jenny, who is disabled and a member of the anti-assisted
suicide group Not Dead Yet, was disappointed by
Tuesday's news. She had hoped that assisted-suicide
advocates would be called to testify in Hogan's court.

Jenny wants to expose what she views as a movement to
expand assisted suicide to include the disabled. Such a
move, she said, would create a climate in which disabled
people would feel compelled to kill themselves.

"It's a culture of death," Jenny said. "Instead of learning
to help people live with their pain, we're finding ways to
help them terminate it and themselves. And the bottom
line is the buck."

Her hopes, she said, turn to Congress to stop Oregon's
law.

In August, the Oregon Health Division reported that eight
terminally ill people had used the assisted-suicide law to
end their lives.

Lee, of Compassion in Dying, said she knew of
additional patients who have died using lethal
prescriptions since the report. She would not say how
many.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Coalition Opposes Hyde-Nickles Lethal Drug Abuse Prevention Act
('The St. Louis Post-Dispatch' Relays Commentary On The Bill
That Would Nullify Oregon's Assisted-Suicide Law, From Some Of
The More Than 50 Associations And Organizations Who Have Joined Together
To Oppose The Legislation)

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-News" (when@hemp.net)
Subject: Coalition Opposes Hyde/Nickles Lethal Drug Abuse Prevention Act
Date: Thu, 24 Sep 1998 20:34:27 -0700
Sender: owner-when@hemp.net
Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Online: http://web3.stlnet.com/postnet/
Pubdate: 09/23/98
Contact: Scott Swenson, 202-326-8712
Writer: U.S. Newswire No byline
Newsjunkie: ccross@november.org

Coalition Opposes Hyde/Nickles Lethal Drug Abuse Prevention Act

WASHINGTON -- The following was released today by a coalition of groups
on behalf of patients and families:

In the rush of politics and policy, the real lives that are affected by
legislation are sometimes forgotten. Here are two case studies of people
that would be affected by this Thursday's (Sept. 24th) expected vote in
the U.S. House of Representatives on H.R. 4006, The Lethal Drug Abuse
Prevention Act.

More than 50 associations and organizations representing millions of
Americans concerned about health care, pain management and states rights
have joined together to oppose this legislation. A companion bill (S.
2151) introduced by Sen. Don Nickles (R-Okla.), is scheduled for mark-up
by the Senate Judiciary Committee, also on Thursday.

The coalition of health and patient care groups opposing H.R. 4006/S.
2151 has steadily gained momentum and members as more people have grown
to understand the consequences of this legislation. The bill would give
the Drug Enforcement Administration the authority to investigate a
physicians ``intent创 in prescribing controlled substances to
patients, thus putting the federal agency in the position of
second-guessing any physician who writes prescriptions for high doses of
medication for pain and suffering.

Many medical studies, including one from the Institute of Medicine,
already indicate that pain is severely under-treated in this country due
to existing laws and regulations.

Many states are working to improve palliative care and reduce regulatory
impediments to adequate symptom management, efforts that would be
thwarted by this shift of authority from state medical and licensing
boards to the federal government and the DEA.

A coalition of more than 50 associations and organizations is opposing
H.R. 4006/S. 2151, representing millions of Americans concerned for
either personal or professional reasons about the delivery of high
quality health care. The coalition includes: Academy of Managed Care
Pharmacy, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of
Clinical Pharmacy, American College of Physicians-American Society of
Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Nurses
Association, American Pain Foundation, American Pharmaceutical
Association, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Society of
Health-System Pharmacists, Americans for Better Care of the Dying,
Choice in Dying, National Hospice Organization, Oregon Hospice
Association. A complete list can be found in an advertisement placed by
the coalition in the Wednesday, September 23, 1998 issue of The Hill
Newspaper.

CASE STUDY

(Provided by Americans for Better Care of the Dying, 202-467-2222)

Mr. Smith, a 72-year-old man with prostate cancer, was dying rather
miserably. He could not walk and had to have a catheter. His bones were
riddled with cancer and he had a great deal of pain. He was already
taking 120mg of morphine in a sustained release form every six hours and
still said that the pain is ``11 on a scale of 0 to 10.创 He could
not move in bed. Baths were excruciating.

Enemas caused so much pain that he became nauseous and dizzy. He had
lost 40 pounds. His home care nurse called his doctor seeking more pain
medication. The doctor had not seen him at home ever and had not seen
him at all since he was last in the hospital for radiation, three months
ago. The doctor had never had a patient on this much morphine. No one
had suggested hospice care. The doctor said to try hot water bottles and
to move him less.

The nurse was distraught and convinced his wife to call another doctor
who might come see him at home. The second doctor was uncomfortable with
the situation and tried to just offer to talk to Doctor No. 1 about
options in pain management -- but Dr. No. 1 was not interested. All this
had taken four days before Doctor No. 2 came to see him. The patient was
immobile and withdrawn. Any movement caused unbearable tension in
muscles and resulted in expletives, along with ``Get away from me. You
are no good.创 Mrs. Smith was in tears. Doctor No. 2 agreed to take
over care from this time to death but decided not to suggest hospice
support because it would mean losing the trusted home care nurse. He set
up a schedule that gradually doubled the morphine dose. Once on this
dose, with periodic increases, Mr. Smith actually had some good time to
share with his wife. He reassured her that he loved her and they shared
some time in reminiscences. He promised her that he would be waiting
``on the other side.创

The pharmacy resisted delivering this much of an opioid drug, but
finally agreed.

However, the sudden jump in opioid use through this pharmacy occasioned
a call from the DEA. In error, the agent ended up calling Doctor No. 1
who said that Doctor No. 2 was using narcotics irresponsibly. Mr. Smith
had died before the agent called Doctor No. 2, who contended that
everything was done correctly. The agent called the wife and nurse. They
readily admitted that they wanted Mr. Smith to die and would have been
grateful if Doctor No. 2 had just given him enough morphine to see that
he died: ``He was suffering so much.创 However, they are not sure
whether Doctor No. 2 really did that or not. Doctor No. 2 claimed that
he had no such intent, but he acknowledged that he increased the doses
in the last few days on the basis of reports from the wife and nurse,
since he did not see the patient alive again after that first visit. The
agent was quite perplexed as to what the ``intent创 was here, and
whether there is anything to be troubled by. Doctor No. 2, on the other
hand, was much less perplexed. He has lost reputation and income for
trying to help out in a tough situation. It will be a long time before
he does that again.

CASE STUDY

(Provided by Skip Baker, American Society for Action on Pain,
757-229-1840)

I suffer from Ankylosing Spondylitis of the sacrum, which is like having
the base of your spine in a steel vice at all times. It produces truly
``suicidal pain levels创 if not treated with adequate narcotic pain
medicine, which is nearly impossible for victims to get. It took me 13
years of battle to have my medication approved at 500mg per day, and
even now each month when it comes time for my next month磗 supply I
have to ask myself: ``Is THIS the month they come after my doctor and I
look into the abyss? Is this the month I die? Will he be able to write
my prescription?创

Ankylosing Spondylitis causes the joints and vertebra to try to fuse
together. This puts pressure on the nerves and causes excruciating
vice-like pain. It won't show up on film for 14 years, on average, after
the pain starts and many doctors are afraid to treat the pain because of
this lack of proof on film -- but the HLA-B27 antigen blood test should
be proof enough. However some patients don't get diagnosed because
doctors don't want to be ``stuck with创 another Chronic Pain
Patient. The devastation is total: loss of job, loss of car, loss of
wife and home, and finally the patient faces the unending pain unless he
or she can get diagnosed and treated.

Mornings are the worst time for a victim of Ankylosing Spondylitis. The
vice-like burning pain affects the entire body. It takes me two hours
each morning to get enough pain medicine into my blood to control the
pain. Many doctors have turned me down for pain medication. Since my
very life depended on getting the medicine, I had to spend a great deal
of my time ``doctor shopping创 to get enough medicine to function.
That cost jobs and income. At times I had to go for more than a year
without adequate pain medicine, trying to function on other types of
medication that didn磘 work to control the pain, because of doctors
fears of the regulators.

Many times when I was able to get prescriptions, I'd have problems
getting pharmacists to fill the prescriptions. I now get messages almost
daily from other pain patients who also have problems with their
pharmacists, unwilling to fill their prescriptions over their fear of
the DEA. So the patient is caught between the doctors, the pharmacists
and the DEA in a life and death struggle. Pure panic soon sets in and
the patient faces that for years. It's like bending a coat hanger back
and forth until it snaps.

What happens if a severe pain sufferer can't get the medication they
need? They commit suicide, or die of heart attacks and strokes, or
suffer inhuman, unbearable pain. One woman couldn't get a doctor to
prescribe pain medicine for her and a week later she took her own life.
Suicide rates have shot upwards, according to the Centers for Disease
Control, for the first decade since the 1940s, in part due to the
problems in getting pain medication since the mid-1980s. That's when it
started to get very hard to get pain medication because of the DEA's war
on drugs which, for pain sufferers, has become a war on patients. Before
that, doctors treated pain more compassionately. But with an overly
zealous DEA looking over their doctor's shoulder, many patients are
given only one or two four-hour pain pills per day. Some can only get 30
pills per month. That would be just fours hours of pain relief per day,
if the pill is strong enough to control the pain, which it often is not.

By expanding the DEA's powers, increasing its control over the practice
of medicine, and further scaring physicians and pharmacists from
prescribing and supplying adequate amounts of pain medication, the
proposed ``Lethal Drug Abuse Prevention Act创 would twist this bad
situation even more out of shape. It will be a disaster for those who
suffer from chronic, intractable pain and will drive many pain sufferers
to suicide.

***

For more information about H.R. 4006/S. 2151 contact Scott Swenson at
202-326-8712 or any of the groups mentioned.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

NewsBuzz - Follow Up - If You Got 'Em, Smoke 'Em ('Willamette Week'
In Portland Notes The Local Impact On Cigar Sales Following Allegations
That President Clinton Used A Cigar To Diddle Monica Lewinsky)

Willamette Week
822 SW 10th Ave.
Portland, OR 97205
Tel. (503) 243-2122
Fax (503) 243-1115
Letters to the Editor:
Mark Zusman - mzusman@wweek.com
Web: http://www.wweek.com/
Note: Willamette Week welcomes letters to the editor via mail, e-mail or
fax. Letters must be signed by the author and include the author's street
address and phone number for verification. Preference will be given to
letters of 250 words or less.

NewsBuzz - Follow Up - If You Got 'Em, Smoke 'Em

On the day porn writer Kenneth Starr's report swept the Internet, Rich's
Cigar Store got a phone call from a woman who wanted to know if the shop
carried presidential cigars.

She wasn't kidding, and the answer wasn't a joke.

There are two kinds of presidential cigars, according to Shannon Pattison,
assistant manager at the downtown store.

One is a category of cigar-- a size designation, really. "Presidentes" are
larger than most.

The other is the brand that Clinton actually smokes - or, uh, uses. As far as
Pattison knows, it is Hoyo de Monterrey Excalibur No. 1, from Honduras, the
largest cigar in that product line.

As for the scandal's effect on sales, Pattison says there have been more
lame jokes than presidential cigars crossing the counter at Rich's.

A quick search on the Internet for "presidential cigars" pulled up several
Web sites for cigar aficionados and one unfortunate site where one can
purchase a "Monica Smoothinsky." (Not surprisingly, this one has a link to
Rush Limbaugh's home page.) Also online is www.Bluehavana.com, which is
selling special-edition "Lewinsky Presidential Cigars" that can be dipped in
either amaretto or rum for $10 each. Bluehavana has been designated one of
the top 100 Monica sites by Gomonica.com, a site dedicated solely to
promoting the Lewinsky in all of us. --Patty Wentz
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The Crime That Changed Punishment ('Willamette Week' Presents A History
Of Ballot Measure 11 In Oregon - An Initiative Requiring Mandatory Minimum
Sentences For Supposedly Violent Crimes - Showing How The Law-Making Process
Works In Oregon Through The Example Of Steve Doell, Whose Daughter Was Killed
By A Hit-And-Run Driver)

Willamette Week
822 SW 10th Ave.
Portland, OR 97205
Tel. (503) 243-2122
Fax (503) 243-1115
Letters to the Editor:
Mark Zusman - mzusman@wweek.com
Web: http://www.wweek.com/
Note: Willamette Week welcomes letters to the editor via mail, e-mail or
fax. Letters must be signed by the author and include the author's street
address and phone number for verification. Preference will be given to
letters of 250 words or less.
Pubdate: Sept. 23, 1998

The Crime that Changed Punishment

* In 1992, Steve Doell's daughter was killed. Since then his rage has helped
transform Oregon.

BY MAUREEN O'HAGAN
mohagan@wweek.com

Her name was Lisa Doell.

Just 12 years old, she was a star pupil at Waluga Junior High who dreamed of
becoming an actress. She had just gotten off the school bus that October
afternoon in 1992 and was walking along Lake Oswego's North Shore Drive.

The car struck her from behind. Within two blocks of her grandmother's
house, she was killed instantly by the impact. The teenager behind the wheel
sped away.

When police caught up with 16-year-old Andrew Whitaker, he explained how it
happened. He just "homed in," stepped on the accelerator and ran her down.
"It wasn't an accident," Whitaker told police. "I did it on purpose." He had
even bragged to a friend about the dent in his father's silver Oldsmobile.

The crime was bad enough. The punishment only added to the horror. Instead
of intentional murder, a jury found Whitaker guilty of manslaughter, which
under state law carried a maximum sentence of three years.

Thirty-six months didn't seem like much when weighed against a girl's life.
Especially at a time when fear of violence was sweeping the country, when
politicians were duking it out to win the tough-on-crime crown, and when
Oregon's criminal justice system was already under fire.

"In that kind of atmosphere, sometimes a very small spark can cause a large
explosion," says Dick Springer, who at the time served on the state Senate
Judiciary Committee. "That's kind of how I would see Lisa Doell's death."

Her father's grief and rage have been part of the fuel. For five years,
Steve Doell has played a central role in a kind of people's revolution. Last
year, he became head of Crime Victims United, an advocacy group that--since
his daughter's death--has had remarkable success in shaping crime policy in
this state by taking power away from elected officials and putting it in the
hands of voters.

In the last four years, five silver-bullet ballot measures--two of which
were crafted specifically with Lisa Doell in mind--have steamrolled years of
legislation and precedent.

Love it or hate it, the influence that crime victims like Steve Doell have
had in changing this state's priorities is undeniable.

Need proof? Since 1993, the combined budget for the Department of
Corrections and the Oregon Youth Authority has almost doubled--from $440
million to $836 million.

This November, Doell, 48, will take an even more public role as a co-sponsor
of Measure 61, which will take the revolution one step further by
lengthening sentences for 35 different crimes (see "Tougher on Crime," page
25). Most observers expect Measure 61 to pass if it reaches the ballot,
although the state Supreme Court is now considering a signature-count
challenge by opponents.

With Oregon's justice system now determined the same way as its tax policy
is--through the initiative process--it's time to take a look at the clout of
one grief-stricken dad.

Just over ten years ago, Oregon's system of crime and punishment was a joke.
We hadn't added a prison bed in years. Because of overcrowding, virtually
all prisoners were released at least six months before their scheduled
parole dates, and some inmates were given temporary leave to make room for
the endless supply of new convicts. "There was a gigantic gap between what
was being said in the courtroom and what was actually happening," Multnomah
County District Attorney Mike Schrunk recalled. "[In some cases], 10-year
sentences were really 60 days. It was ridiculous."

There was also a problem with equity. While there were maximum sentences on
state law books, judges had tremendous leeway in doling out punishment. For
example, a thief from Coos Bay might be sentenced to five years behind bars
while one in Portland would get a short stint in jail.

In 1987, the Criminal Justice Council, a committee of prosecutors, defense
lawyers, judges, probation officers, legislators and citizens, embarked on
what would become a two-year project to transform that broken system.

They came up with a system called Sentencing Guidelines. It was essentially
a new scale of justice that weighed the need to punish offenders,
particularly violent ones, against the desire to keep prison spending at a
reasonable level.

Under the guidelines, sentences were standardized across the state, although
judges still had the power to tailor those sentences to individual offenders
using specific criteria.

Most important, in 1988 then Gov. Neil Goldschmidt reluctantly agreed to
build hundreds of new prison beds (a promise that was later followed through
by his successors) so that offenders would serve their full sentences.
Parole, the bane of crime victims, was eliminated.

"Oregon's sentencing guidelines were considered about the best in the
country," says Multnomah County Presiding Judge James Ellis, who worked on
the committee.

There was just one problem: Even with the new prison cells, there wasn't
room for everybody at the inn, so some sentences still seemed too lenient.
For example, the standard sentence for a car thieves was generally
probation, possibly including some jail time--even for two-time offenders.
Some violent offenders could receive probation if they had no prior offenses.

But without building even more prison beds--something few in the Legislature
had the stomach for--the sentences couldn't change.

The story of a disturbed teenager and the girl he killed helped convince
voters to take matters into their own hands.

In the summer of 1992, Steve Doell was floundering. After working in sales
and marketing at Tenneco for 15 years, he was without a job. The company
offered him a promotion, but it would have required moving to Los Angeles.
"It was either up or out," he recalls. He chose the latter because he wanted
to stay in Lake Oswego near his two children, Lisa and her older brother,
Scott, who were living with their mother. The couple had divorced three
years earlier (see "Irreconcilable Differences," page 29).

At the time, Doell figured he would find a new career in a related field.
Then, on Oct. 21, he got the awful news: Lisa had been killed by a
hit-and-run driver.

The next 12 months were torture for the Doells. They endured a seven-day
remand hearing to determine whether Whitaker should be tried in juvenile
court. "It was very long and very painful," Steve Doell says. "You have to
listen to clinical psychologists and psychiatrists saying why [defendants]
are just real good people who were having a bad day. That's very painful to
a family." In the end, the judge sided with the prosecution. Whitaker would
face trial as an adult.

Then, the Doells sat through a eight-day trial and three days of jury
deliberation. In the end, Whitaker was found innocent of intentional murder,
despite the fact that he told police he had run the girl over on purpose. He
was found guilty of second-degree manslaughter, a crime which under
Sentencing Guidelines carried a maximum sentence of 36 months.

Steve Doell decided to fight. He joined Crime Victims United, an advocacy
and support group headed at the time by Bob and Dee Dee Kouns. The couple,
now retired, began working on crime issues in 1980, after their daughter
Valerie disappeared in California. (Her body has never been found, and no
one has been prosecuted for the crime.) Today, the group has about 800
members statewide, only about 25 to 50 of whom are active. "It's run on a
very thin dime," Doell says. He says he relies on a settlement from his
daughter's death to pay his bills.

CVU worked to change the justice system on two fronts: through the
Legislature and through the initiative process. Legislative successes were
few; CVU was often blocked by Democrats who were in control of both chambers
until 1991. The group did get several initiatives approved by voters--for
example, a victims' rights measure in 1986--but these were isolated
victories in a climate otherwise unreceptive to getting tough on crime.

From the early 90s, that all changed.

In 1994, the country underwent the Republican revolution, as Democrats were
tossed from office nationwide. In 1995, Republicans gained control of both
chambers of the Oregon Legislature, giving CVU a more receptive audience.

In addition, inmates who were convicted before the Sentencing Guidelines
took effect were still being released early. Publicity over these
releases--and the growing fear of crime--played into CVU's hands. And, of
course, there was the story of Lisa Doell.

By 1994, the political climate was ripe for crimefighters. Then state Rep.
Kevin Mannix, an ambitious Democrat from Salem (who is now running for
office as a Republican), jumped on the opportunity. He proposed a
triumvirate of ballot measures--10, 11 and 17--that would dramatically alter
the way justice was meted out in this state.

Measure 11 was the most sweeping of the three. It required long minimum
sentences for certain crimes, including robbery, rape and murder, and it
applied to first-time offenses. It also required offenders as young as 15 to
be treated as adults--a provision Mannix says he added with Whitaker's
grueling remand hearing in mind.

Doell's daughter was a key player in the campaign.

Lisa's death was mentioned in radio ads, in the Voters' Pamphlet and in
editorial boardrooms. "We heard a lot about Lisa Doell and her
circumstances," recalls Ingrid Swenson, a Portland defense lawyer who fought
the measure.

For example, Lisa's paternal grandfather, Edward Doell, penned this Voters'
Pamphlet statement: "My beautiful 12-year-old granddaughter, Lisa Marie
Doell, was murdered October 21 1992 in a violent and random act...If your
family were victimized by violent crime, which sentence would you want
imposed on the criminal?"

Opponents of the measure were unable to counter such volatile emotional
fuel. It passed overwhelmingly, with 65 percent of the votes in favor,
thereby tossing out a large portion of the Sentencing Guidelines. Judges
could no longer tailor the sentence to the crime. Without this discretion,
they were, as one prosecutor said, "like potted plants in the courtroom."

"Measure 11 is the gorilla that ate the whole system," Swenson says. "It
runs the whole show here."

That same year, 65 percent of voters approved Measure 10, which prevents the
Legislature from overturning any part of Measure 11 without a two-thirds
majority. And 70 percent of voters passed Measure 17, which required all
state inmates to work full time to earn their keep.

If the justice system was knocked upside down in 1994, it was given another
stiff kick two years later.

In 1996, CVU pushed for Measures 26 and 40. Once again, Lisa Doell was a key
figure in the campaigns. Steve Doell even helped to write one of the
measures with his daughter in mind.

A Voters' Pamphlet statement in favor of Measure 26, which eliminates the
Constitution's prohibition against "vindictive justice," read: "Remember the
horrific story of a teenage boy who purposely ran over a young girl simply
for the thrill of doing it?" The statement was signed by Sen. Gordon Smith,
Rep. Chuck Carpenter and Rep. Beverly Clarno.

Doell took particular interest in the crafting and passage of Measure 40,
called a crime victims' "bill of rights." Among other things, the measure
allows 11-1 jury verdicts in murder cases (instead of only unanimous
verdicts) and changes the rules of evidence--provisions that stemmed
directly from his daughter's case.

Both initiatives passed with overwhelming margins, although portions of
Measure 40 have since been thrown out by the state Supreme Court.

Taken in combination, says Emily Simon, a Portland defense lawyer, the
measures have amounted to "virtually a revolution in the way in which the
criminal justice system works."

Like the Kounses before him, Doell has also worked another angle--the
Legislature.

"He's a pretty tireless guy," says Mark Gardner, special counsel to the
attorney general. "He's [at the Capitol] all the time. He's lobbying and
lobbying and lobbying."

Observers in Salem have mixed opinions about his skills. Some, like former
Rep. John Minnis, say he's a "very articulate man" who knows how the
political game is played. Rep. Peter Courtney calls him "a CEO type" and a
"force to be reckoned with."

Others call him awkward and criticize his stiff demeanor and his sometimes
unyielding disposition. One lawyer describes him as an "ice man with a
volcano underneath."

"It's a mystery to me where this guy gets his power," says Portland defense
lawyer Paul Levy, who has testified on criminal-justice issues in Salem.
"I'm not sure it is him. I think it's what he represents: the fear of crime."

That's not a concept many politicians want to be seen as knocking. "I know
how politicians and candidates fear [Doell] and worry about him," Courtney says.

In addition to lobbying, Doell dabbles in electoral politics. For example,
Eugene legislator Karsten Rasmussen lost a reelection bid in 1994 after he
was blitzed with eight straight days of radio ads branding him as soft on
crime. Doell read the script, which mentioned his daughter's death.

"That is the kind of thing that sends ripples through [the Capitol]," said
one Legislature-watcher.

Doell has also had influence in judicial appointments. Henry H. Lazenby Jr.,
the governor's legal counsel, says that "we weigh [CVU's viewpoint] along
with other opinions" when choosing judges. Dick Springer, who was seeking
appointment as a referee in late 1997, thinks Doell's influence may be more
significant.

"He appeared twice before the Supreme Court to testify and present written
testimony that really blistered me as an enemy of the people because I had
chosen to disagree with him," Springer says. The court chose not to approve
Springer as a pro tem judge. (Some say that he wouldn't have gotten the job
with or without Doell, and in fact a bar committee did not recommend him.)

This year, Doell and former Rep. Bob Tiernan decided to take their concerns
over individual judges to a broader level by sponsoring a ballot initiative
that would have drastically changed the way they were elected. Lawyers were
so worried about this measure that they formed a PAC and quickly raised
almost $60,000 to try to block it. At the last minute, Doell and Tiernan
withdrew the measure but threatened judges with bringing it back in 2000.
The District Attorneys Association, which has benefited from crime victims'
initiatives, was the only major group of lawyers not to oppose the measure.

Steve Doell and his supporters acknowledge that they have revolutionized the
way justice is doled out in Oregon. And they argue their efforts have been
effective in reducing crime.

In fact, the violent crime rate has declined since 1994. "There were 12,000
Oregonians who weren't raped, murdered assaulted or robbed because Measure
11 passed," Mannix says.

The best criminal justice experts in the country can't agree on exactly what
causes the rise and fall of crime, although they all say that incarceration
rates are but one piece of a puzzle that includes demographics, economics
and various other factors.

"It's complicated," says defense lawyer Levy, "and the desire of folks like
Mannix and Doell is to make it seem simple."

Even Mannix concedes that Measure 11 was drafted without the benefit of any
real analysis of the correlation between sentences and crime rates. "It's my
own personal scale of justice," he says. "Even if it didn't make a dent in
the crime rate, it was the right thing to do."

While opinions differ on the effect of ballot measures on the crime rate,
there is no debate about the extent to which Doell's efforts have tied the
hands of judges.

Judge Ellis tells a story of his first Measure 11 case, a shoplifter who
struggled when she was caught. According to Ellis, she said, "Let me go.
I've got a gun"--even though she did not have a weapon. Because she
physically resisted and claimed she was armed, the charge was second-degree
robbery, a Measure 11 crime that carries a mandatory 70-month sentence.
Eventually, she accepted a plea bargain--pleading guilty to a lesser
offense--and went to prison for 14 months.

"She was a single parent with two preschool children and no prior record,"
Ellis said. "I suppose you could say it's a good lesson to a shoplifter, but
it's so wildly disproportionate to the level of the crime. I'm not sure what
social end was achieved by that."

As justice in Oregon has been transformed by Doell, so has the amount we pay
for it.

"Voters made a decision for us in '94 that we would spend money on
construction and operation of new prisons," says Bob Applegate, Kitzhaber's
spokesman. "That vote was a budget decision." As tax revenues grew to
unprecedented levels from a booming economy, they were quickly eaten up
because elected officials were forced to allocate more money for prisons.

The shift has been dramatic. While overall the state budget has risen 39
percent since 1993, the corrections portion has increased by 90 percent,
mainly to pay for the building of new prison cells. Since 1994, the
Department of Corrections has added 2,350 beds. It has started construction
on one new prison and sited five more. During that same time, the
higher-education budget has risen by 0.5 percent, and human resources has
increased by 16 percent.

This biennium, Oregon will reach a dubious milestone. For the first time
ever, the state will spend more on corrections ($836 million) than it will
on higher education ($704 million).

Measure 61, the tough-on-crime initiative on this November's ballot, could
cost an additional $850 million to $1.4 billion over the next 10 years and
will require the construction of between 2,800 and 4,300 prison beds.

The problem, of course, is what isn't getting funded. "Only about 50 percent
of the people who seek drug and alcohol treatment and counseling can find it
in this state," Applegate says. "If you take the money we've put into
expanding our prison system in the last four years and put a tenth of it in
those kinds of services, might we be a safer place? That's how we feel about
it, but it's too late. Measure 11 is law."

If you believe, as Doell does, that protecting citizens is the most
important mission of government, then this isn't a problem. Clearly, Doell
has no regrets.

"There's certainly more noble things we could spend our money on," he says,
"but once we can get a real handle on the crime problem, which I think we're
starting to see, then we can go more into the prevention mode. Hopefully, we
can shift money the other way some day."

Sidebars:

Tougher on Crime - Property criminals get kicked with mandatory sentencing.

Irreconcilable Differences - Domestic violence in the Doell household led to
a 1989 divorce.

[note: The next few paragraphs appeared along the left column margin of the
lead story above.]

Steve Doell helped Bob Tiernan in his bid for the state Supreme Court. The
campaign was financed by Mark Hemstreet, Loren Parks and developer Robert
Randall. This month, Tiernan dropped out of the race.

Andrew Whitaker was acquitted of murder because of one hold-out juror, whose
son accidentally killed someone in his car two decades earlier. The jury
finally compromised on second-degree manslaughter.

So far, $56 million has been budgeted for Measure 17, the 1994 inmate work
initiative.

The district attorney contributed to the problems with the Whitaker
prosecution. For example, he didn't charge Whitaker with first-degree
manslaughter, which could have earned him a tougher sentence.

Whitaker was released from prison in March 1995. He was initially to live
with relatives in Michigan but was drummed out of town with bad publicity.

Gov. Kitzhaber has written a statement in opposition to Measure 61.

Gov. Kitzhaber's spokesman Bob Applegate says, "you could probably fully
fund Head Start with the money spent building one medium-security prison."

The Oregon Youth Authority has built five juvenile jails and one juvenile
boot camp since 1994. Today, the agency holds 1,018 young people; in 1994,
that number was just 633.

Oregon has had fluctuations in the crime rate without any changes in
sentencing laws, according to Phil
Lemman, who heads the state Criminal Justice Commission.

In 1996, the Rand Corporation found that giving students incentives to
graduate from high school was far more cost-effective in preventing crime
than locking them up was.

LEAD STORY SIDEBAR

Tougher on Crime

Measure 61 addresses a very real problem with state sentencing laws:
Property criminals, even repeat offenders, escape any serious consequence
for their crimes.

The measure calls for 12-month sentences for 35 different crimes, many of
which are property offenses. It also tacks on an additional one-year
sentence if the offender has one prior conviction, two years for two
convictions and three years for three. The "kicker" sentences are mandatory,
while the initial 12-month sentence is discretionary; in other words, the
judge could give a first-time offender probation.

According to Multnomah County District Attorney Mike Schrunk, "There is a
helluva problem with property crimes. We need to do something."

But Schrunk is not supporting 61. One problem, he says, is the cost,
estimated by state fiscal officers at $1.4 billion over 10 years for
additional prison beds. Steve Doell, a co-sponsor of the measure, says that
because many cases end in plea bargains, the price tag will be more like
$850 million.

Schrunk also believes these offenders can be better served with programs
like drug treatment. "If there's one group we can manage in the community,
it's property offenders," he says.

Critics of the measure also argue that the state Legislature has addressed
some of the problems with property crimes in a 1997 law that increases
sentences for some offenses. --MO

***

LEAD STORY SIDEBAR

Irreconcilable Differences

Steve Doell and his ex-wife, Colleen, divorced in the summer of 1989 because
of "irreconcilable differences." According to court documents, the split was
difficult.

In November 1989, Colleen Doell took out a restraining order against her
ex-husband. In it, she claimed that Doell pulled their son, Scott, by his
hair and hit him on the head and back: "At about 3:30 am [one day in
October], Steve threatened Scott by telling him to keep the physical abuse a
secret or he would have to walk home, as well as other unspecific
retaliation." Colleen Doell further claimed that her ex-husband "grabbed my
neck, threw me against the wall of the house and choked me with sufficient
force to cut off my ability to breathe or speak. Steve then struck my son
several times in the head and grabbed my 9-year-old daughter [Lisa] and
tried to force her into his car as she screamed for help."

Doell does not deny the incidents. "What I did was wrong," he said. "There's
no excuse for that type of behavior."

Doell and his ex-wife also fought over child support.

According to court filings, Doell suddenly stopped making child support and
alimony payments about 12 months after the divorce. The lapse lasted 21
months, and the district attorney's and the attorney general's offices were
called in to enforce the court-ordered support payments. At one point Steve
Doell was nearly $21,000 in arrears. He has since paid what he owed.

"Financial difficulties were part of it," he says, noting that he "did pay
for other items that would never be listed there, like private school and
that type of thing." --MO

***

LEAD STORY SIDEBAR

Tougher on Crime

Measure 61 addresses a very real problem with state sentencing laws:
Property criminals, even repeat offenders, escape any serious consequence
for their crimes.

The measure calls for 12-month sentences for 35 different crimes, many of
which are property offenses. It also tacks on an additional one-year
sentence if the offender has one prior conviction, two years for two
convictions and three years for three. The "kicker" sentences are mandatory,
while the initial 12-month sentence is discretionary; in other words, the
judge could give a first-time offender probation.

According to Multnomah County District Attorney Mike Schrunk, "There is a
helluva problem with property crimes. We need to do something."

But Schrunk is not supporting 61. One problem, he says, is the cost,
estimated by state fiscal officers at $1.4 billion over 10 years for
additional prison beds. Steve Doell, a co-sponsor of the measure, says that
because many cases end in plea bargains, the price tag will be more like
$850 million.

Schrunk also believes these offenders can be better served with programs
like drug treatment. "If there's one group we can manage in the community,
it's property offenders," he says.

Critics of the measure also argue that the state Legislature has addressed
some of the problems with property crimes in a 1997 law that increases
sentences for some offenses. --MO

originally published September 23 , 1998
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Patient Rally Sunday, September 27 (The Puget Sound-Area Green Cross
Patient Co-Op Invites Medical Marijuana Patients To Gather 11 AM
At Myrtle Edwards Park In Seattle During The Annual Walk
Sponsored By The Northwest AIDS Foundation, Which Has Endorsed
Initiative 692, The Washington State Medical Marijuana Ballot Measure)

Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 16:45:58 -0700 (PDT)
From: Green+Cross Patient Co-op (greencross@hemp.net)
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net
Subject: HT: Patient Rally Sun. 27th
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net

SUNDAY the 27th at 11:00 am in Myrtle Edwards Park. Meet at the big rocks.
We have a great opportunity to get the message out and to be visable in
support of I-692.

The Northwest AIDS Foundation annual walk goes through the park.

Let's educate the walking public and all the political candidates
that medicinal marijuana is an important treatment option in people
with HIV/AIDS and other debilitating conditions.

NWAF has officially endorsed I-692. Let's thank the walkers and ask them
to vote yes.

thanks,
Dale Rogers
(206) 762-0630
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Synthetic Marijuana-Like Drug Eases Pain - Study ('Reuters'
Says Dr Ian Meng And Researchers From The University Of California
In San Francisco Published A Letter In The Science Journal 'Nature' Wednesday
In Which They Explained How Cannabinoids Affect Brain Cells
That Control Pain)
Link to 1997 article about research by Ian Meng, Ph.D.
Date: Thu, 24 Sep 1998 01:39:02 GMT To: drctalk@drcnet.org From: Dave Fratello (amr@lainet.com) Subject: WIRE: Marijuana-like drug eases pain Wednesday, September 23, 1998 Synthetic marijuana-like drug eases pain - study By Patricia Reaney LONDON, Sept 23 (Reuters) - American researchers have shown that a synthetic drug that mimics the main active ingredient in marijuana works like morphine to reduce pain, they said on Wednesday. In a letter to the science journal Nature, Dr Ian Meng and researchers from the University of California in San Francisco explained how compounds in marijuana, known as cannabinoids, affect cells in an area of the brain that controls pain. Marijuana has been touted as a pain killer for a variety of medical conditions but studies of humans have produced inconsistent results and its use for medicinal purposes is still controversial. Meng's finding from his research on rats raises the possibility that marijuana-like drugs could be used to treat pain. "These results indicate that the marijuana-like drug can reduce pain by affecting the same pain modulating neurons (brain cells) as morphine, but through separate mechanisms," Meng said. Unlike morphine and other opiates which can cause nausea and respiratory depression, marijuana increases appetite without uncomfortable or serious side effects. The addiction potential of marijuana is also much lower. "The implications for future development or treatment would be looking at different combinations of therapies, a lower dose of morphine combined with a low dose of cannabinoid," Meng said in a telephone interview. "Perhaps you could eliminate the nausea or at least reduce it and increase the pain-killing effects," he added. The research is the latest study into the medicinal properties of marijuana. It follows a report by the National Institute of Mental Health in the United States in July that showed cannabinoids could protect the brain from the damage caused by injuries and stroke. Meng and his colleagues tested the effects of the synthetic drug on a region of the brain called the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). By measuring the time it took for rats to move their tails away from a heat source they showed the pain-relieving effects of cannabinoids. Rats given the drug kept their tails on the heat much longer than rats which didn't receive it. In a second experiment the researchers tested the effect of the drug on the neurons in the RVM of anesthetized rats and found it produced the same changes as morphine, but in a different way. Some sufferers of arthritis have used marijuana to relieve their symptoms. Cancer patients also claim it alleviates the nausea from chemotherapy treatments and medical evidence has shown it increases the appetite of AIDS sufferers with wasting diseases.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

UCSF Study Backs Claim Pot Kills Pain ('The San Francisco Examiner' Version)

Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 18:39:03 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: Ucsf Study Backs Claim Pot Kills Pain
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Pubdate: September 23, 1998
Author: Ulysses Torassa, Examiner Medical Writer

UCSF STUDY BACKS CLAIM POT KILLS PAIN

Research adds to evidence drug is medically useful

A circuit in the brain stem that is switched on and off by the active
ingredient in marijuana is the latest in a mounting pile of scientific
evidence pointing to the drug's ability to kill pain, a new UC-San
Francisco study said Wednesday.

The substance, a synthetic form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), has an
effect similar to morphine in an area at the base of the skull that is
known to block pain impulses.

Importantly, researchers found that the substance uses a different way to
trigger the blockage, suggesting that marijuana-like drugs might be
developed as effective painkillers without the unwanted side effects of
opiates.

The area of the brain where the substance is active is known to block pain
messages in extremely stressful situations like war, in which people have
reported not feeling pain despite catastrophic injuries.

The study, to be published in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature, comes
in the midst of continuing debate over the therapeutic use of marijuana.

Five states and the District of Columbia have initiatives on the November
ballot similar to California's Proposition 215, which allows seriously ill
patients to grow and use marijuana for pain relief, with a doctor's
recommendation, without being prosecuted under state law.

To cannabis advocates like Chuck Thomas of the Marijuana Policy Project,
the study is further proof that the thousands of people with cancer, AIDS
and other diseases who are using the drug to feel better are on the right
track.

"These patients are not stupid and should not be going to jail," Thomas said.

The drug is also receiving more attention from scientists. The UCSF study
is one of several that have demonstrated painkilling properties of
cannabinoids, the substances that are the major active ingredient in
marijuana.

"A hot field'

"It's definitely a hot field right now," said UCSF's Ian Meng, author of
the study reported in Nature. "There is a breakthrough every month, it
seems. Scientists have really been taking a serious look at what cannabis
can do."

In Meng's experiments, a synthetic cannabinoid was given to two sets of
laboratory rats - one in which the region of the brain stem involved in
pain blockage was normal, and one group in which it was deactivated.

The rats with the deactivated region showed no difference in their response
to pain from rats without the drug. But those who had normal brain stems
took longer to respond to a painful stimulus after receiving the cannabinoid.

The results show that the cannabinoids are working directly at that site,
which is also where morphine works. The experiments also worked when Meng
gave the rats a drug that blocks the action of morphine, indicating the
pathways used by the two drugs are different.

"I think in the future you'll see different kinds of drug combination
therapies, where you can use cannabis-like drugs with a lower dose of a
morphine compound and possibly reduce side effects," Meng said.

Morphine, which is highly addictive, can be fatal in high doses by
depressing a patient's breathing and inducing nausea. Cannabis, on the
other hand, has been shown to stimulate appetite and is much less addictive.

UC-Irvine study

Scientists at UC-Irvine reported this summer that cannabinoids cut down on
pain when applied directly at the site of a wound. University of Texas
researchers have also found the chemicals relieve arthritis-like
inflammation, and scientists at the University of Minnesota recently showed
the chemicals can be used to block a form of extreme sensitivity to pain
called hyperalgesia.

The National Academy of Sciences is also expected to report late this year
on scientific evidence for the use of marijuana in medical treatments and
recommendations for policy.

"It's time for society and public policy to really look at the science
that's out there," Meng said.

J. Michael Walker, a neuroscientist at Brown University, also observed in
1995 and 1996 the painkilling effects of cannabinoids in the brain stem. He
said the field has taken off since 1990, when scientists finally learned
that many brain cells in areas that control pain contain receptors for
cannabinoids.

"There's a lot of this receptor in the brain, it's loaded up with this
stuff," Walker said. "It's very exciting, from the neurobiology point of
view."

1998 San Francisco Examiner Page A 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------

UCSF Study Backs Claim Pot Kills Pain ('The Nation' Version)

Date: Sat, 26 Sep 1998 10:10:57 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: UCSF Study Backs Claim Pot Kills Pain
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: bparry@qualcomm.com (Bruce Parry)
Source: Nation, The (US)
Contact: letters@thenation.com
Website: http://www.thenation.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998
Author: Ulysses Torassa - Examiner Medical Writer

UCSF STUDY BACKS CLAIM POT KILLS PAIN

Research adds to evidence drug is medically useful

A circuit in the brain stem that is switched on and off by the active
ingredient in marijuana is the latest in a mounting pile of scientific
evidence pointing to the drug's ability to kill pain, a new UC-San
Francisco study said Wednesday.

The substance, a synthetic form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), has an
effect similar to morphine in an area at the base of the skull that is
known to block pain impulses.

Importantly, researchers found that the substance uses a different way to
trigger the blockage, suggesting that marijuana-like drugs might be
developed as effective painkillers without the unwanted side effects of
opiates.

The area of the brain where the substance is active is known to block pain
messages in extremely stressful situations like war, in which people have
reported not feeling pain despite catastrophic injuries.

The study, to be published in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature, comes
in the midst of continuing debate over the therapeutic use of marijuana.

Five states and the District of Columbia have initiatives on the November
ballot similar to California's Proposition 215, which allows seriously ill
patients to grow and use marijuana for pain relief, with a doctor's
recommendation, without being prosecuted under state law.

To cannabis advocates like Chuck Thomas of the Marijuana Policy Project,
the study is further proof that the thousands of people with cancer, AIDS
and other diseases who are using the drug to feel better are on the right
track.

"These patients are not stupid and should not be going to jail," Thomas said.

The drug is also receiving more attention from scientists. The UCSF study
is one of several that have demonstrated painkilling properties of
cannabinoids, the substances that are the major active ingredient in
marijuana.

"A hot field'

"It's definitely a hot field right now," said UCSF's Ian Meng, author of
the study reported in Nature. "There is a breakthrough every month, it
seems. Scientists have really been taking a serious look at what cannabis
can do."

In Meng's experiments, a synthetic cannabinoid was given to two sets of
laboratory rats - one in which the region of the brain stem involved in
pain blockage was normal, and one group in which it was deactivated.

The rats with the deactivated region showed no difference in their response
to pain from rats without the drug. But those who had normal brain stems
took longer to respond to a painful stimulus after receiving the
cannabinoid.

The results show that the cannabinoids are working directly at that site,
which is also where morphine works. The experiments also worked when Meng
gave the rats a drug that blocks the action of morphine, indicating the
pathways used by the two drugs are different.

"I think in the future you'll see different kinds of drug combination
therapies, where you can use cannabis-like drugs with a lower dose of a
morphine compound and possibly reduce side effects," Meng said.

Morphine, which is highly addictive, can be fatal in high doses by
depressing a patient's breathing and inducing nausea. Cannabis, on the
other hand, has been shown to stimulate appetite and is much less
addictive.

UC-Irvine study

Scientists at UC-Irvine reported this summer that cannabinoids cut down on
pain when applied directly at the site of a wound. University of Texas
researchers have also found the chemicals relieve arthritis-like
inflammation, and scientists at the University of Minnesota recently showed
the chemicals can be used to block a form of extreme sensitivity to pain
called hyperalgesia.

The National Academy of Sciences is also expected to report late this year
on scientific evidence for the use of marijuana in medical treatments and
recommendations for policy.

"It's time for society and public policy to really look at the science
that's out there," Meng said.

J. Michael Walker, a neuroscientist at Brown University, also observed in
1995 and 1996 the painkilling effects of cannabinoids in the brain stem. He
said the field has taken off since 1990, when scientists finally learned
that many brain cells in areas that control pain contain receptors for
cannabinoids.

"There's a lot of this receptor in the brain, it's loaded up with this
stuff," Walker said. "It's very exciting, from the neurobiology point of
view."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Synthetic Marijuana-Like Drug Eases Pain - Study (The Fox News Version)

Date: Sat, 26 Sep 1998 13:03:38 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: Synthetic Marijuana-Like Drug Eases Pain - Study
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Pubdate: 23 Sep 1998
Source: Fox News
Contact: comments@foxnews.com
Website: http://www.foxnews.com/

SYNTHETIC MARIJUANA-LIKE DRUG EASES PAIN - STUDY

LONDON, Sept 23 -- American researchers have shown that a synthetic drug
that mimics the main active ingredient in marijuana works like morphine to
reduce pain, they said on Wednesday.

In a letter to the science journal Nature, Dr Ian Meng and researchers from
the University of California in San Francisco explained how compounds in
marijuana, known as cannabinoids, affect cells in an area of the brain that
controls pain.

Marijuana has been touted as a pain killer for a variety of medical
conditions but studies of humans have produced inconsistent results and its
use for medicinal purposes is still controversial.

Meng's finding from his research on rats raises the possibility that
marijuana-like drugs could be used to treat pain.

"These results indicate that the marijuana-like drug can reduce pain by
affecting the same pain modulating neurons (brain cells) as morphine, but
through separate mechanisms,'' Meng said.

Unlike morphine and other opiates which can cause nausea and respiratory
depression, marijuana increases appetite without uncomfortable or serious
side effects. The addiction potential of marijuana is also much lower.

"The implications for future development or treatment would be looking at
different combinations of therapies, a lower dose of morphine combined with
a low dose of cannabinoid,'' Meng said in a telephone interview.

"Perhaps you could eliminate the nausea or at least reduce it and increase
the pain-killing effects,'' he added.

The research is the latest study into the medicinal properties of
marijuana. It follows a report by the National Institute of Mental Health
in the United States in July that showed cannabinoids could protect the
brain from the damage caused by injuries and stroke.

Meng and his colleagues tested the effects of the synthetic drug on a
region of the brain called the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). By
measuring the time it took for rats to move their tails away from a heat
source they showed the pain-relieving effects of cannabinoids.

Rats given the drug kept their tails on the heat much longer than rats
which didn't receive it.

In a second experiment the researchers tested the effect of the drug on the
neurons in the RVM of anesthetized rats and found it produced the same
changes as morphine, but in a different way.

Some sufferers of arthritis have used marijuana to relieve their symptoms.
Cancer patients also claim it alleviates the nausea from chemotherapy
treatments and medical evidence has shown it increases the appetite of AIDS
sufferers with wasting diseases.

Copyright 1998, News America Digital Publishing, Inc. d/b/a Fox News
Online.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Clinton Will Be Third Man At Davis-Lungren Debate
('The San Francisco Chronicle' Says The Latest Polls Indicate
California Attorney General Dan Lungren, Nemesis Of Proposition 215,
Has Come From Behind And Now Is Tied With Democrat Gray Davis
In The Race For Governor - A List Subscriber Forwards A Collection
Of California Media Addresses And Urges You To Write Letters
Opposing Lungren For Governor)

Date: Thu, 24 Sep 1998 00:39:47 -0700
To: dpfca@drugsense.org
From: R Givens (rgivens@sirius.com)
Subject: DPFCA: Lungren Gaining In Polls
Sender: owner-dpfca@drugsense.org
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org
Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/dpfca/

According to today's San Francisco Chronicle Dan Lungren is even in the race
for governor. (See article below)

Anyone in the state hoping for any improvement in California drug policy
knows that Lungren must be defeated in November.

How many LTEs have you written damning Lungren to hell and gone?

How many of your friends have you persuaded to vote for Davis??? How many
anti-Lungren voters have you registered? (Oct 5 deadline). Are YOU
registered???

If Lungren wins the Governor's office we can kiss the hope of reform for
medical marijuana goodbye for the next eight years.

If Davis wins we can expect a big decrease in Reefer Madness activity in
Sacramento. For sure, Davis won't veto cannabis legislation passed by a
Democratic legislature.

Do your part to keep this rat dog from sneaking into the governorship with a
phony campaign about "character." Because of the Clinton scandal Lungren
might get away with playing piety game unless we do our part.

Write a few letters to every paper in California. Send them via individual
e-mails since editors are wise to the Bcc tactic now.

Make sure every anti-Lungren voter you know gets to the polls on election
day. This is a critical election. Let's kick narco ass.

R Givens

***

Bay Area Reporter, ebar@logx.com

Modesto Bee, letters@modbee.com

UCLA Daily Bruin, viewpoint@asucla.ucla.edu

Bakersfield Californian, local@bakersfield.com

Bakersfield Californian, opinion@bakersfield.com

San Diego Mission Times Courier, editor@cyber-ace.com

Santa Rosa Press Democrat, letters@pressdemo.com

Editor, ajournal@foothill.net

Union Editor, webmaster@TheUnion.com

Davis Enterprise, editor@davis.com

San Francisco Examiner, letters@examiner.com

Ridgecrest Daily Independent, sfarwell@ridgecrestca.com

San Jose Metro, dp@livewire.com

San Jose Mercury News, letters@sjmercury.com

Feather River Canyon News, frcn@cncnet.com

Saratoga News, sn@livewire.com

City News, citynews@local.net

Newsroom, newsroom@blk.com

Antelope Valley Press, editor@avpress.com

Stockton Record, editor@recordnet.com

Orange County Register, letters@link.freedom.com

Half Moon Bay Review, hmbreview@hmbreview.com

Los Angeles Times, letters@latimes.com

LA Times, letters@news.latimes.com

Tahoe Daily Tribune, kirk@tahoe.com

Union Tribune, nancy.crisci@uniontrib.com

San Diego Union Tribune, letters@uniontrib.com

San Luis Obispo Telegram Tribune, slott@scripps.com

Pacifica Tribune, pactrib@hax.com

USC Daily Trojan, dtrojan@scf.usc.edu

Pasadena Weekly, weekly@pasadenaweekly.com

Los Gatos Weekly-Times, lgwt@livewire.com

San Francisco Bay Guardian, letters@sfbayguardian.com

Los Angeles Downtown News, ladtn@village.ios.com

Ponc City News, ponca_city_news@okpress.tfnet.org

San Francisco Chronicle, chronletters@sfgate.com

Los Altos Town Crier, towncrier@losaltosonline.com

Ojai Valley News, dewartim@ojaivalleynews.com

Vacaville Reporter, letters@thereporter.com

Santa Rosa Press Democrat, pdletters@aol.com

Ventura County Star, vcstar@aol.com

Contra Costa County Times, cctletrs@netcom.com

Palo Alto Weekly, paweekly@netcom.com

Press-Telegram, speakout@ptconnect.infi.net

***

Clinton Will Be Third Man At Davis-Lungren Debate

Robert B. Gunnison, Carla Marinucci, Chronicle Political Writers
Wednesday, September 23, 1998 A 15

The two major candidates for governor meet for their third debate tonight,
with Republican Dan Lungren eager to discuss President Clinton and Democrat
Gray Davis anxious to talk about anything else.

With public opinion polls flashing mixed signals about Davis' lead, if any,
over Lungren, the televised encounter will take place as both candidates are
stepping up the intensity of their campaigns and television advertising.

Lungren's chances have been bolstered by a Los Angeles Times poll last
weekend that showed him dead even with Davis, with each getting 46 percent
of likely voters.

The attorney general's strategists are working overtime to tie Davis to the
political woes of Clinton, who arrives in California this weekend for
fund-raising events.

Asked why Clinton's troubles matter in a California governor's race, Dave
Puglia, Lungren's campaign director, said, ``People in this state are
looking to these candidates for some leadership. There are issues of trust
here.''

Even though Clinton's scandal appears to be on the front burner in this
debate, Democrats say it isn't what matters most to California voters.

``We still want to talk about education, health care, choice, the assault
weapons ban,'' said Michael Bustamante, spokesman for the Davis campaign.
``We will continue to talk about them.''

Lungren and Davis have fired up a television advertising war, based not on
Clinton's character but on controversial issues in the race, including
crime, abortion and health care.

Last week, the Davis campaign began broadcasting an ad in which, looking
directly at the camera, the candidate tells voters that Lungren's 10-year
record in Congress shows repeated votes against abortion rights, even in
cases of rape and incest. His ads emphasize the idea that Davis has
``experience that will move us forward.''

Lungren immediately fought back with his own ad, saying, ``I'm disappointed
my opponent has chosen to get personal and misrepresent my beliefs on
abortion.'' Lungren, noting that he is ``a lifelong Catholic,'' argued that
he understands ``the need to make exceptions in cases such as rape, incest
and when the mother's life is in danger.''

He then notes his positions on parental consent (which he supports) and
public funding of abortion (which he opposes). His tag line: ``A governor
you can trust.''

In his new crime ad, Lungren suggests that he deserves credit because crime
rates are at their ``lowest level since 1966'' and that there are 1.2
million fewer crime victims in California than there were then -- ``enough
to fill the Rose Bowl 12 times over.''

Davis, for his part, is campaigning on medical care reform in new ads,
saying he wants to ``rein in these HMOs'' by making sure Californians can
choose their own doctors and have the right to ``a very rapid appeal'' if
patients are denied care.

Like the previous gubernatorial debates, the face-off in Sacramento will not
include questions or participation from state voters -- because both
candidates want it that way.

The Lungren and Davis campaigns, while not agreeing much on policy or
politics, have agreed on a lengthy list of requirements for potential
sponsors for such debates, records show. Those include a say in who will
serve as debate panelists and in ticket distribution and technical setup for
the events. Sponsors have been asked, for example, to pay not only for
broadcast and satellite time, but also for fully equipped media facilities
and for the $14,000 fee of the debate coordinator, Vic Biondi.

Both sides have also been firm on the format; they agreed to candidate
questioning from journalists and from each other, but there are no
provisions for members of the debate audience or voters to ask questions.

And although both Lungren and Davis have made good on their promise to
participate in lengthier face-to-face debates, they have quietly scotched an
agreement in principle to hold ``minidebates'' on weekly newscasts around
the state.

The idea of free television air time during prime-time newscasts was
promoted as a first and as an innovative way for candidates -- who often
grouse about the cost of paid commercial time -- to reach more voters in
California, where the costs of TV advertising is astronomical.

But representatives of both sides now say the five-minute ``Crossfire''
style debates, which were praised by journalists and political insiders as a
refreshing way to provide voters with unfiltered views of candidates, will
not happen.

The minidebates were ``a good idea, yes,'' said Bustamante of Davis'
campaign. ``Was it workable? I think (both sides) had serious questions
about whether it was workable,'' due to schedule demands.

``And we're debating more (in this race) than in the last four gubernatorial
races combined.''

Dan Schnur, who worked with the Alliance for Better Campaigns to help push
the minidebate idea in California, said that ``neither gubernatorial
campaign responded by the deadline, so we've moved on.'' But Schnur, who now
works with the California Republican Party, said he still has hope that
minidebates will take place in other statewide races and in the governor's
race in the future.

(c)1998 San Francisco Chronicle Page A15
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Agents Wage War On Pot In California (An 'Associated Press' Article
In 'The Las Vegas Sun' Portrays The Annual Campaign To Eradicate Marijuana
Planting - CAMP - And Concludes The Program 'Barely Makes A Dent')

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-News" (when@hemp.net)
Subject: Agents Wage War on Pot in Calif
Date: Thu, 24 Sep 1998 20:44:43 -0700
Sender: owner-when@hemp.net
Source: Las Vegas Sun
Pubdate: September 23, 1998
Online: http://www.lasvegassun.com
Writer: No byline, AP
Newsjunkie: ccross@november.org

Agents Wage War on Pot in Calif

UKIAH, Calif. (AP) -- Dressed in camouflage fatigues and combat boots
and dangling from a cable 150 feet below a hovering helicopter, the two
agents dropped into a clearing near the bottom of a wooded slope

One pulled out a satellite locating device for guidance as the other
slashed at brush with a machete. They had to watch for traps - shotguns
mounted on trees or mousetraps armed with shotgun shells which go off if
the trap is triggered. As they trudged up the hill, someone spotted a
"hooch," a makeshift, wooden shelter high in a tree

In less than a mile, they arrived at "the garden," surrounded by fine,
black netting to protect it from wildlife. It's a big bust, but no one
is arrested -- not unusual in the day-to-day war on drugs in
California's forests

The officers and two similar teams came from across the state to spend
eight weeks with a multi-agency task force known as the Campaign Against
Marijuana Planting

CAMP was formed in 1977 to reduce the amount of marijuana grown in
California. It hires local sheriff's deputies, Justice Department agents
and state Highway Patrol officers

The agents -- many of whom served in military intelligence or other
undercover operations -- take their jobs seriously. They carry survival
kits. They're all armed with semi-automatic pistols

"I get the satisfaction that I'm depriving them of something illegal,"
said Randy Rimmey as he yanked a 4-foot pot plant out of the ground and
shook dirt from the roots. "I'm not here to decide if a law is morally
correct. A law is a law."

Rimmey and 10 officers spent 12 hours on the job Tuesday about 20 miles
southwest of Ukiah. This is prime pot-growing land: mountainous terrain
fed by natural springs. They raided six gardens and collected 1,160
plants they estimated to be worth about $4.6 million

Each area is named, photographed and assigned a case number. Evidence is
gathered, plants are ripped from the ground, measured and counted

Rimmey points out bugs on one plant's leaves and white spots of mold on
its roots. "Root rot," he said. "This garden is overwatered. What a
mess."
The agents have become experts at marijuana growing techniques. They
know one grower's handiwork from another

A running tally of their "kills" is painted on the side of a truck used
to haul the plants away for burning or burial -- one red marijuana leaf
for 5,000 plants, one green leaf for 1,000 plants

At this garden -- planted on land owned by a private lumber company --
they made no arrests. They find empty cans and bottles, pieces of
clothing, a fertilizer container, but no one is nearby when they arrive

In 300 raids this season, agents have made only about 60 arrests; CAMP's
helicopter makes enough noise to warn people away

"We know there's people growing marijuana who never get close to the
garden. They're almost untouchable," said retired Madera County Sheriff
Ovonval "Berk" Berkley

Marijuana advocates say CAMP is a waste of money and succeeds only in
pushing up pot prices and boosting foreign imports

"We pay the state to destroy what could be a tax-paying crop," said Dale
Gieringer, coordinator for California's chapter of the National
Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. "They have an
uncontrolled situation created by the laws they support."
Proposition 215, passed in 1996, legalized marijuana use for medical
purposes. People who have AIDS, cancer, glaucoma and other illnesses may
get their doctor's permission to use the drug and grow plants for
personal use

Marijuana remains the third most popular drug used recreationally,
according to 1996 figures from the U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Only alcohol and tobacco are used more frequently. Seventy
million Americans have smoked pot at some point in their lives, 10
million people consider themselves regular smokers and Californians
alone consume $3 billion to $6 billion worth of marijuana annually,
according to NORML

In a hospitable environment where pot literally grows like a weed, the
work by CAMP members barely makes a dent

"There's so much out there it's unbelievable," Mendocino County
Sheriff's deputy Bill Rutler said. "Every time I bury a ton of dope
that's a ton of dope that's not getting smoked."

Officers joke that growers plant extra gardens specifically for CAMP to
find

"If they retain one of five gardens they're happy," Rimmey said. "They
know we're here."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Prison Growth Stealing Funds From Schools, Activists Say
('The Chicago Tribune' Says The Prison-Reform Movement Is Gaining Strength
On College Campuses - Again - Angela Davis, 53, A Professor
At The University Of California At Santa Cruz, As Well As College Students
And Other Former Prisoners, Have Scheduled A Conference This Weekend
At The University Of California At Berkeley Titled 'Critical Resistance -
Beyond The Prison Industrial Complex,' To Draw Attention To The Issue -
A Study To Be Released Wednesday Says In The Last Seven Years,
Appropriations For Higher Education In California Dropped 3 Percent
While Prison Spending Rose 60 Percent)

Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 18:46:03 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: Prison Growth Stealing Funds From Schools, Activists Say
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Steve Young (theyoungfamily@worldnet.att.net)
Source: Chicago Tribune (IL)
Contact: tribletter@aol.com
Website: http://www.chicago.tribune.com/
Pubdate: 23 Sept 1998
Author: V. Dion Haynes
Section: Metro Chicago

PRISON GROWTH STEALING FUNDS FROM SCHOOLS, ACTIVISTS SAY

LOS ANGELES -- During the 1960s and early '70s as college students were
protesting the Vietnam War, another movement began pushing its way to the
fore: prisoner rights.

Inspired in part by Angela Davis, the young black militant who was
imprisoned before being acquitted of kidnapping and murder charges in 1972,
the movement focused on overcrowding, rapes and other inhumane conditions
in the nation's jails and prisons.

By the 1980s, that movement largely succumbed to growing calls for tougher
crime laws to combat the proliferation of gangs and illicit drugs.

Now, nearly 30 years later, Davis and others are attempting to enlist a new
generation of college students to spark a prison movement with a much
different emphasis: pressing policymakers to shift budget priorities and
reverse an apparent trend throughout the country that has seen state
spending for prisons rise substantially while budgets for higher education
increase at a lower rate.

A study to be released Wednesday documents the spending disparity in
California. The study says appropriations for higher education dropped 3
percent while prison spending has risen 60 percent in the last seven years.

California Department of Corrections officials say it is naive to suggest
that funds for higher education are being siphoned off by prisons. There
are other factors in the equation, these officials note, including
Proposition 13, the 1978 law that put a cap on property-tax increases, and
growing demands from education, public assistance and numerous other budget
items.

The higher-education budget in California is $11.3 billion, nearly triple
the funding for corrections. State officials say that despite the prison
growth, university spending will continue to be a top priority.

Davis, 53, a professor at the University of California at Santa Cruz, as
well as college students and other former prisoners, have scheduled a
conference this weekend at UC-Berkeley titled "Critical Resistance: Beyond
the Prison Industrial Complex" to draw attention to the issue.

The conference is expected to call for a moratorium on prison construction
and a focus on preventive measures to keep people out of prison.

Davis "sees this as an ongoing work of what went on in the '60s," said
Robin Templeton, a prison activist who is organizing the conference with
Davis. "California is building (colleges and universities) 20 times slower
than prisons. That creates a very devastating reality."

The state's spending priorities have had a devastating effect on low-income
and minority students who "have a higher likelihood of ending up in prison
than a university," said Khaled Taqi-Eddin, a policy analyst at the
Washington-based Justice Policy Institute and co-author of the study.

According to the study, the number of African-American males enrolled
full-time at University of California and California State University
campuses decreased to 8,767 last year from 8,974 in 1990. During the same
period, the number of black men incarcerated in the California prison
system rose to 44,617 from 32,145.

Nationally, the prison population has grown about eightfold to about 2
million over the last 30 years. California's prison population has risen to
160,000 from 19,000 in 1977, and the number of prisons has nearly tripled,
to 33, during that same period.

"The governor and the legislature are responding to demands of the public
who are saying they want career criminals off the streets and they want to
be safer in their homes," said Tip Kindel, an assistant director in the
Department of Corrections.

"Most of these new prisons have been authorized by voters at the ballot.
The crime rate is significantly lower than it was 20 years ago, and that's
because more career criminals are in prison and prison sentences are much
longer."

California's "three-strikes" law, which requires violent criminals to serve
life sentences upon their third felony conviction, is helping propel the
need for more prisons. But conference organizers also attribute the
population growth to efforts to incarcerate non-violent criminals, who make
up 60 percent of the prison population.

They want state officials to cut prison spending by finding alternatives to
incarcerating drug abusers and petty thieves.

They cite an Oregon program that keeps petty thieves out of prison but
forces them to work at a so-called restitution center until they can pay
back their victims.

"We want to promote (these kinds of programs) among policymakers," said
Vincent Schiraldi, director of the Justice Policy Center. "These programs
are not soft on crime but smart on crime."
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Jails At Expense Of Colleges? ('The San Francisco Examiner' Version)

Date: Thu, 24 Sep 1998 08:52:27 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: Jails At Expense Of Colleges?
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998
Author: Venise Wagner OF THE EXAMINER STAFF

JAILS AT EXPENSE OF COLLEGES?

As state spent more on corrections, education lost out, new report
declares

Spending on the state's correctional system has jumped by more than
half over the last decade at the expense of public higher education,
according to a report released Wednesday by a think tank on criminal
justice issues.

Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the nonprofit, nonpartisan, San
Francisco-based Justice Policy Institute conducted the study comparing
state spending on corrections and higher education from 1988 to 1998.

It found that while general fund appropriations to corrections went up
60 percent, appropriations for higher education dropped 3 percent.

From 1993 to 1995, prison spending hit its peak, taking up 8.7 percent
of the general fund budget, the report states. During the same period,
higher education reached an all-time low, accounting for 12 percent of
the general fund.

Justice Policy Institute analysts said they had discovered a near
dollar-to-dollar correlation to the increase of spending on
corrections and the decrease in higher education.

Current higher education spending is about 13.2 percent of the $57.3
billion general fund budget, or $7.6 billion. About 7.8 percent of the
state's general fund goes toward corrections, about $4.4 billion.

The report will be presented Saturday at a three-day conference at
UC-Berkeley, "Critical Resistance: Beyond the Prison Industrial Complex." It
is being organized by longtime activist Angela Davis, a professor at
UC-Santa Cruz, as well as college students and former prisoners.

"The budget is the ultimate statement of priority," said Dan
Macallair, an institute analyst. "When you decide to increase one
portion of the budget and decrease another, there is a
connection."

Vincent Schiraldi, director of the Justice Policy Institute, said that
since corrections and higher education were both funded with
discretionary money from the general fund, they were constantly
competing for dollars.

Schiraldi said they were also targeting the same age group and
"symbolize the state's plans and hopes for the future. Are we going to
educate, or are we going to incarcerate? It's a hard question that
people have to pose now to the governor, (gubernatorial candidates)
and other officeholders."

But Sean Walsh, Gov. Wilson's press secretary, called the comparison
of spending on corrections and higher education ludicrous.

"It's so nonsensical . . . you don't see a lot of kids going to our
higher Ed institutions dropping out and going to prison," Walsh said.
"That's not where the prison population is coming from. The real issue
that apparently this group doesn't have the courage to address is the
fact that our K-12 system has failed far too many children,
particularly those in economically depressed and crime-ridden areas.

"They drop out in ninth or 10th grade because they have not been
prepared for school. We're investing literally billions of dollars to
change that."

According to the report, between 1990 and 1997 enrollment of black men
in state universities fell slightly while their incarceration numbers
rose dramatically. The result: For every African American male who
enrolled in the University of California or California State
University, 57 went to prison. The ratio of African American men in
prison to those in state universities is 5-1.

For Latino men, for every one who enrolled in state universities,
three went to prison.

"Just think about that from the standpoint of the future of young
black men in California," said Macallair. "If we saw these kind of
numbers with respect to white men, they would call a state of

emergency. We'd be funding education and prevention and (drug) treatment."

While university administrators acknowledge that spending on state
colleges fell in the early 1990s, they contend state funding is on the
upswing, and not just because there was a $4 billion budget surplus
this year.

"I feel optimistic in California that the governor and the Legislature
have gotten a wake-up call," said CSU Chancellor Charles Reed. "I
sense a turnaround where people realize California's future is going
to be tied to its higher education system. There's a lot of work to
do, a lot of make-up."

Larry Hershman, vice president for the budget at UC, conceded that
state universities had experienced budget difficulties in the last
decade, but expressed concern at the report's methodology.

"I'm a little bothered by looking only at corrections and higher
education together," he said. "You have to look at all of (the
budget). You can't just look at two categories, because when the
Legislature is looking at it, they're looking at the whole budget."
For more information about times and locations of seminars at the
Critical Resistance conference, call (510) 643-2094.

1998 San Francisco Examiner
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Report - Gap In Education, Prison Funds - Wilson's Office
Calls Study `Drivel' ('The San Francisco Mercury News' Version)

Date: Sat, 26 Sep 1998 09:06:23 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: Report: Gap In Education, Prison Funds
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Marcus/Mermelstein Family (mmfamily@ix.netcom.com)
Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998
Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Author: Dan Reed

REPORT: GAP IN EDUCATION, PRISON FUNDS

Wilson's Office Calls Study `Drivel'

Under the administration of Gov. Pete Wilson, more state tax dollars
have gone to prisons and corrections than to the state's top two
college systems -- a gap that has never been wider in at least 30
years -- according to a study released Tuesday.

The report, which was quickly denounced by Wilson's office, was issued
by a liberal think tank called the Justice Policy Group, and it cited
a growing trend across the United States to spend on corrections, not
instruction.

``States around the country spent more building prisons than colleges
in 1995 for the first time,'' the report says. It also contends that
the number of blacks in prison compared with the number in the state's
universities has increased from 4-to-1 in 1996 to 5-to-1 this year.

``I think it's an awful sign for the future of California to
consistently invest in prisons at the expense of higher education,''
said Vincent Schiraldi of the policy group. ``I think people need to
ask (gubernatorial candidates), `What are we going to do about it?'
The system needs balance. It's grossly out of balance.''

Report criticized

But the governor's office faulted the report for selective use of
numbers, such as not lumping in state spending for community colleges.

And it said spending for higher education has always outstripped that
for corrections.

``It's not worth the tree that was killed to print the paper which
this drivel was put on,'' Sean Walsh, a Wilson spokesman, said of the
report.

Walsh contends community college spending was excised in a
disingenuous attempt to score political points. But Schiraldi counters
that community college funding should be separate because it's
guaranteed under voter-approved spending levels, unlike funding of the
University of California and California State University systems.

``Because they dominate a state's pot of discretionary funds,'' the
report concludes, ``prisons and universities fight it out for the
non-mandated portion of the state's budget,'' such as prisons and
guard salaries.

The study by the institute, which has offices in San Francisco and
Washington, D.C., also claims that contributions to higher education
have ``steadily decreased as a portion of the general fund, from 15
percent in 1988-89 to 13 percent in 1998-99. In 1980, the report says,
California had 12 prisons, and prison guards made about $21,000 annually.

Prisons up to 33

Now the prison count is 33, and correction officers' salaries average
about $46,200.

And while the funding increases have not kept pace with those for
corrections, the fees for enrolling in the schools have soared 303
percent in the UC system and 485 percent in the CSU system, the study
says.

But Walsh claims that by counting large outlays to fund community
colleges, the governor's budget in the year that expired June 30
allotted $6.6 billion for higher education and $4.2 billion for
corrections.

``This year alone, we've increased spending on higher education at the
UC level by 15.6 percent; 14.1 percent for CSU; and 6.6 percent for
community colleges,'' Walsh said.

As for the number of blacks going to prison compared with
universities, he discounts it as a bogus comparison: ``People are not
being accepted into San Jose State and then going ahead and enrolling
in San Quentin,'' he said.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Search For Justice? (A Staff Editorial In 'The Orange County Register'
Says Monday's Ruling By The California Supreme Court That Police Can Search
People On Parole Or Their Residences At Any Time For No Reason Is Troubling -
Parole Is A French Word Meaning 'On Your Word' - The Ruling Enlarges
Police Powers And, Once Again, That Expansion Of Power Is Tied To The War
On Drugs - Anyone Living With A Parolee Also Has His Or Her Fourth
Amendment Rights Severely Proscribed, So This Ruling Could Encourage People
To Shun The Parolee, Perhaps Forcing Them Back With Those Who Might Have
Enabled A Life Of Crime)

Date: Sat, 26 Sep 1998 10:03:07 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: Editorial: Search for Justice?
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: John W.Black
Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998

SEARCH FOR JUSTICE?

A troubling California Supreme Court ruling on Monday could encroach on
Americans' protection from unreasonable searches and seizures under the
U.S. Constitution's Fourth Amendment.

The case under review involves the rights of parolees from prison and
people they associate with.

When people commit crimes, they give up some rights upon conviction and
imprisonment. Prisoners commonly are searched and their movement limited.

But once a convict is paroled and leaves prison to live on his or her own,
monitored by a parole officer, does the abridgment of rights continue?

In recent years, the answer has been "no" regarding the Fourth Amendment.
The California Supreme Court unanimously ruled in 1986 that parolees have
the same Fourth Amendment rights as other citizens. Monday's decision
overturns that earlier ruling by a narrow 4-3 margin.

"The case involved Rudolfo Ryes of Woodlake in Tulare County, who was in
the last year of a three-year parole term in February 1995 when his parole
officer got an anonymous telephone tip about possible drug use and other
misconduct," according to The Associated Press account.

"Police saw Reyes in his yard that evening, found no sign that he was under
the influence of drugs, but searched his shed and found a small amount of
methamphetamine.

"After unsuccessfully challenging the search, he pleaded guilty to
possession and was sentenced to seven years in prison."

The court ruling means police can search a parolee's person or dwelling at
any time, without notice or a warrant, which requires approval by a judge.
If a parolee lives with others, Deputy Attorney General Joel Carey
announced after the ruling, the parolee's room and common areas can be
searched.

The government itself will determine what is a "common" area and what is a
private area for non-parolees.

The ruling enlarges police powers at the expense of private citizens'
rights and, once again, that expansion of power is tied to waging the war
on drugs.

"There's a famous saying in criminal justice that 'drug cases make bad
laws'," Gilbert Geis, professor emeritus of criminology at the University
of California, Irvine, told us. "It's the old problem. They [the
government] wage this extensive campaign against drugs, and they keep
losing. They make the court make rulings that apply only to drug laws, but
then apply the laws to everybody else. They can't say this [court ruling]
applies only to drug parolees, because that's not equal protection. So it
applies to everybody else, including white collar crime or tax evasion.
They can go in and look at the books."

The California Department of Corrections told us that the state currently
has 109,367 parolees, of whom about 36 percent are drug offenders. The next
highest category is property offenses at 27 percent.

Are parolees criminals who need close watching? Mr. Geis pointed out that
parole is a French word meaning "on your word." These people are let out of
prison because it's assumed they can be trusted to resume normal lives. If
they can't be trusted, then perhaps the parole system needs reform, not the
search laws.

The new court ruling is especially egregious in those instances where the
parolee lives with others. The ruling would allow "searches of private
homes in neighborhoods throughout the state, by day or by night, for any
reason or no reason, if one of the home's residents is a parolee," wrote
Justice Joyce Kennard in her dissent from the majority.

That means anyone living with a parolee - parents, children, a spouse -
also has his or her Fourth Amendment rights severely proscribed.

Consequently, instead of encouraging people to welcome back a wayward
family member, such as a child who experimented with drugs, this ruling
well could encourage families and friends to shun the parolee, perhaps
forcing the parolee back with those who might have enabled a life of crime.

Finally, the Fourth Amendment always has allowed searches with a search
warrant. "It's nasty for the state to be knocking down doors for the
arguable gains they get" from warrantless searches of parolees, Mr. Geis
said. "The police can go to court for a search warrant. It won't kill them.
They can show a judge reasons why a search is needed."

There are two ways Monday's ruling could change. Given the close margin of
decision, should a separate but similar case reach the state Supreme Court
and one new justice hear it, the outcome could go another way. And, Mr.
Reyes's attorney, William Arzbaecher, announced an appeal to the U.S.
Supreme Court.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Officer's Wife Admits To Role In Drug Ring ('The Detroit News'
Says The Wife Of Police Commander Gary Johnson In Detroit, Michigan,
Pleaded Guilty Tuesday To One Count Of Selling Drug Paraphernalia
And Admitted To Playing A Role In A Drug Ring - Her Husband Is Not
Under Investigation)

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-News" (when@hemp.net)
Subject: Officer's wife admits to role in drug ring
Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 18:33:02 -0700
Sender: owner-when@hemp.net
Source: The Detroit News
Pubdate: September 23, 1998
Online: http://www.detnews.com/
Writer: Wayne Woolley
Newsjunkie: ccross@november.org

Officer's wife admits to role in drug ring

DETROIT -- The wife of a Detroit Police commander admitted
Tuesday to playing a role in a drug ring federal officials say operated
in the Cass corridor since 1990

Trina Johnson, the wife of Cmdr. Gary Johnson, pleaded guilty to
one count of sales of drug paraphernalia before U.S. District Judge
Julian Abele Cook Jr

As part of the plea agreement, Johnson may be asked to testify
against other members of the reputed drug organization at trials later
this year, Assistant U.S. Attorney Michael J. Stern said

Gary Johnson, who was formerly the top officer on former Chief
Isaiah McKinnon's staff and is assigned to the department's personnel
section, is not under investigation, authorities said

Gary Johnson declined comment

His wife's attorney, Christopher Andreoff, said that she faces a
possible prison term of six to 12 months as part of the plea agreement

The judge, he said, has the option of allowing Johnson to serve part or
all of the term in a halfway house

The charges against Johnson stem from a sting operation that's
led to federal charges against 20 people who allegedly were involved in
drug trafficking, money laundering and food-stamp fraud in Detroit's
Cass corridor and adjacent Brush Park neighborhoods

Her role in the operation has not been disclosed

The first arrests in the case were made in April 1997. Although
Johnson was questioned early in the investigation, no charges were filed
against her until Tuesday
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Founder Of Wildlife Refuge To Be Sentenced September 30
('The New Haven Register' Says Robert Salvatore, A Founder And Director
Of The Former North American Wildlife Association Inc., Faces Up To 15 Years
In Prison After His Conviction Earlier This Year On Charges
Of Drug Cultivation And Possession - Salvatore Has Maintained His Innocence
Since His Arrest In August 1997, And Claims He Was Set Up By Volunteers
Who Worked At The Wildlife Reserve With Him)

Date: Fri, 2 Oct 1998 18:25:30 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CT: Founder Of Wildlife Refuge
To Be Sentenced Sept. 30
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: General Pulaski
Pubdate: Fri, 23 Sep 1998
Source: New Haven Register (CT)
Contact: editor@ctcentral.com
Website: http://www.ctcentral.com/
Author: Peggy Schenk

FOUNDER OF WILDLIFE REFUGE TO BE SENTENCED SEPT. 30

EAST LYME - Robert Salvatore, a founder and director of the former North
American Wildlife Association Inc., will be sentenced Sept. 30 after his
conviction earlier this year on charges of drug cultivation and possession.

Salvatore, 50, who founded the nonprofit organization with his wife, Gloria,
in 1987, faces up to 15 years in prison.

His attorney, William Koch of Lyme, said Tuesday he is hopeful the judge
will give Salvatore probation rather than prison time. He will be sentenced
in Superior Court, New London.

Sam Libby, a former friend and volunteer who was living at the refuge and
was charged in the case, was granted accelerated rehabilitation, a form of
probation for first-time offenders.

Salvatore has maintained his innocence since his arrest following a police
raid in August 1997 on association headquarters at 11 Mountain View Road. He
claims he was set up by volunteers who worked at the wildlife reserve with
him.

He said marijuana was found in his bedroom, other areas at the house and on
the 24-acre wildlife reserve, but he did not know how it got there.

Over the years, Salvatore and his wife have cared for and rehabilitated more
that 40,000 animals, including an injured sea hawk rescued from the
beachfront property of actress Katharine Hepburn in the Borough of Fenwick
in Old Saybrook.

In appreciation, Hepburn donated an oil painting she did in the 1960s for an
art auction arranged by association members in 1990 to raise money for the
organization. It was the first and only time the actress, who continues to
live in seclusion in the family home in Fenwick, agreed to have any of her
paintings viewed in public or put up for sale.

Things began to fall apart for the Salvatores in 1997, when Gloria
Salvatore, who holds bachelor's and master'ds degrees in wildlife biology
and rehabilitation, was charged with possession of counterfeit bills in
Rhode Island. Wanted by federal agents and Stonington police on forgery
charges, Gloria Salvatore fled to Egypt, where it is believed she remains.

Salvatore has been free after posting $50,000 bail.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Lawyer - DEA Ignored Cop's Mental Problem ('The Miami Herald'
Says Richard Fekete, A Federal Prohibition Agent Who Awoke
In A Drunken Stupor Last Year And Shot To Death A Fellow Agent
With A Wife And Two Children, Now Accuses The Drug Enforcement
Administration Of Withholding Evidence That Superiors Knew He Was
An Alcoholic And Had 'Jekyll/Hyde' Tendencies But Let Him Keep His Job
Anyway - The Widow Of Shaun Curl, Fekete's Victim, Also Plans To Sue
The DEA For Allowing Fekete To Keep His Job)
Link to earlier story
Date: Fri, 25 Sep 1998 09:37:06 -0700 From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) To: mapnews@mapinc.org Subject: MN: US FL: Lawyer: DEA Ignored Cop's Mental Problem Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Ginger Warbis (WebMistress@Fornits.com) Source: Miami Herald (FL) Contact: heralded@herald.com Fax: (305) 376-8950 Website: http://www.herald.com/ Pubdate: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 Author: David Kidwell - Herald Staff Writer LAWYER: DEA IGNORED COP'S MENTAL PROBLEM Medical records sought for agent A federal drug agent who awoke in a drunken stupor last year and shot a fellow agent now accuses the Drug Enforcement Administration of withholding evidence they knew he had ``Jekyll/Hyde'' tendencies and let him keep his job regardless. An attorney for Richard Fekete, who turned 56 in Broward County Jail on Aug. 30, has asked prosecutors for help in obtaining medical records ``which are obviously being withheld by the Drug Enforcement Administration,'' according to a Sept. 16 letter. Those records include psychiatric evaluations, medical reports about brain damage from a 1993 fall, and papers explaining why Fekete was allowed to return to active duty despite a DEA psychiatrist's 1995 diagnosis of a ``mental health condition'' and conclusion that ``an overseas assignment would pose an undue risk.'' A DEA spokesman in Washington declined to comment on the allegations. ``If he was an undue risk to send overseas, why are they putting him back on active duty here?'' said Glenn Kritzer, Fekete's Miami attorney. ``They have all these warning signs that he was unfit for duty and what do they do? Do they put him in Arlington to teach classes? ``No, they hand him a gun and put him in Chicago to do undercover work. And now they're trying to hide what they knew,'' he said. ``I can only assume they're worried about civil liability.'' The widow of Shaun Curl, Fekete's victim, plans to sue the DEA for allowing Fekete to keep his job. Fekete was a known alcoholic who suffered blackouts and was sent home from Panama after holding a gun to his wife's head. Curl, a backup group supervisor, agreed to drive a drunken Fekete home after a Christmas party on Dec. 12. Curl was shot seven times while driving on U.S. 27 in Miramar. Fekete, a 32-year veteran whose undercover work from the jungles of Panama to the Florida Straits is almost legendary, had a blood-alcohol content of .269 percent -- more than three times the legal driving limit. Fekete says he doesn't remember the shooting. He is pleading not guilty to a charge of second-degree murder by reason of ``alcohol-induced psychosis.'' Curl left a wife, Kathy, and two children. ``Mr. Fekete's complete medical history is relevant to Kathy Curl's potential claims against the United States, as well as the issues involved in his criminal trial,'' said Katherine Ezell, Kathy Curl's attorney. In a six-page letter to Broward homicide prosecutor Pete Magrino, Kritzer claims the DEA has not turned over several records about Fekete. Kritzer said he knows the records exist because of references to them in documents disclosed by the U.S. State Department, which had custody of the records while Fekete was overseas but forwarded them to DEA when he was transferred to Washington, Chicago and finally Miami. For instance: A Jan. 4, 1995, memo from State Department employee George Sweeney that summarizes a psychiatric report on Fekete and his wife that ``reveals loss of control, personality change characterized by a propensity to physical abuse on both their parts, both revealing a Jekyll/Hyde consequence of intake.'' Kritzer said he got the memo from the State Department, but has not received the actual report from the DEA. A Sept. 27,1994, memo from DEA medical officer William Wright ordering ``no overseas work, aggressive law enforcement or firearms use until copy of current medical exam and report of assessment and treatment of medical condition is provided'' and a Nov. 24 Medical Clearance giving Fekete ``limited clearance for overseas assignment.'' There is no medical exam or report of assessment or treatment of medical condition, Kritzer says. Several memos and reports referring to Fekete's hospitalization after a 1993 fall in the line of duty, but no actual medical or hospital reports. Magrino said Tuesday that it took a court order from Broward Circuit Judge Paul Backman to get many records regarding Fekete, but ``the federal government has assured me we have everything they have.'' ``I'm doing my best to follow up to see if there are any records missing,'' Magrino said. Copyright 1998 The Miami Herald
-------------------------------------------------------------------

US Catches Wind Of Australian Drug Sniffing Dogs (An 'Australian Associated
Press' Story Relayed By NINEMSN Says The White House Is So Impressed
By Australian Research To Develop A 'Super Sniffer' Dog Breeding Program
That It Has Set Aside $148,000 For The US Customs Service To Import Some
Of The Australian Labradors And Develop A Breeding Program The United States
Can Call Its Own - Four Of The Australian Dogs Will Be Introduced
To Washington Tomorrow At A Press Conference And Are Expected To Be Let Loose
To Romp Around The Ronald Reagan Building On Pennsylvania Avenue)

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-News" (when@hemp.net)
Subject: Australian drug sniffing dogs
Date: Sun, 27 Sep 1998 18:22:07 -0700
Sender: owner-when@hemp.net
Source: NINEMSN
Online: http://news.ninemsn.com.au/
Pubdate: Wed Sep 23 1998
Writer: No byline
Newshawk: ccross@november.org

US catches wind of Australian drug sniffing dogs

The White House is making life in the dog house even better for a dozen
Australian "super sniffer" Labradors helping to fight the war on drugs.

The dogs were sent to the United States after being raised in Australia
under a unique drug detector breeding program hailed by American law
enforcement as a "huge scientific accomplishment".

"It is a wonderful transfer of technology," said the Chief Scientist of
the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, Al Brandenstein.

"One with warm noses and wagging tails and an extraordinarily
predictable capability for detecting smuggled drugs."

The dogs were raised by Australian Customs with the assistance of the
University of Melbourne under a program designed to breed canines with
the temperament and characteristics needed for drug detection.

The US Customs Service screens hundreds of dogs to find a single
candidate for its drug patrols but with the aid of Australian research
almost every dog bred in the program will most likely become a super
sniffer.

The White House was so impressed by the research that it has set aside
US$148,000 to help the US Customs Service take care of the Australian
Labradors and develop a "super sniffer" breeding program based on the
experience down under.

"The line of Australian super sniffers is exceptionally important to the
global fight against drugs because, remember, we can only stop the drugs
that we can detect," said Brandenstein.

"The more dogs that are capable of doing the job that are deployed in
this fight, the more drugs we will be able to stop from doing their
damage."

Four of the Australian dogs will be introduced to Washington tomorrow at
a press conference hosted by Brandenstein, Australian Ambassador Andrew
Peacock and US Customs Commissioner, Raymond Kelly.

The dogs are expected to be let loose to romp around the Ronald Reagan
Building on Pennsylvania Avenue.

Brandenstein said the US had provided Australia with it's first drug
sniffing dogs and now it seemed to be pay back time.

"The national character of Australia has to do with a positive,
innovative, adventurous spirit and these dogs seem to be a reflection of
that along with real good science," he said. -- AAP
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Challenging Report On Pregnancy And Drug Abuse
('The Journal Of The American Medical Association' Says A New Report
Titled 'Ethical And Legal Analyses Of Coercive Policies Aimed At Substance
Abuse By Pregnant Women,' Written As Part Of The Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation's Substance Abuse Policy Research Program, Documents
What Is Currently Known About The Effect On Fetuses Of Substance Abuse
By Pregnant Women And Concludes Imprisoning Pregnant 'Drug' Users
Is Ineffective, Racist And Otherwise Unethical And Could Be Challenged
On Constitutional Grounds - The Substances That Do The Most Harm
Are Tobacco And Alcohol)

Date: Fri, 25 Sep 1998 15:45:53 -0700 (PDT)
From: bc616@scn.org (Darral Good)
To: hemp-talk@hemp.net
Subject: HT: Challenging report on pregnancy and drug abuse
Reply-To: bc616@scn.org
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net
From: tsupport@umi.com (UMI - ProQuest Direct)
To: bc616@scn.org
Date: Fri, 25 Sep

Challenging report on pregnancy and drug abuse

The Journal of the American Medical Association
Chicago
Sep 23-Sep 30, 1998
Authors: Charles Marwick
Volume: 280, Issue: 12
Start Page: 1039

Copyright American Medical Association Sep 23-Sep 30, 1998

Full Text:

IMPRISONING pregnant drug abusers is ineffective and unethical and could
be challenged on constitutional grounds, say the authors of a new report
entitled Ethical and Legal Analyses of Coercive Policies Aimed at Substance
Abuse by Pregnant Women. The report, written as part of the Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation's Substance Abuse Policy Research Program, documents
what is currently known about the effect on fetuses of substance abuse
by pregnant women and examines the ethical and legal issues associated
with criminalizing these women for illicit drug abuse.

"Since 1985, 240 women in 35 states have been criminally prosecuted for
using illegal drugs or alcohol during pregnancy," said Mary Faith Marshall,
PhD, director of the Program in Bioethics at the Medical University of
South Carolina. She spoke at a press conference in Washington, DC, last
month to announce the publication of the report, of which she is an author.

Prosecution has occurred despite the fact that there is "no legislation
in any state expressly criminalizing the use of an illegal drug or legal
substance by a pregnant woman," added Lawrence J. Nelson, PhD, JD, of the
Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University in California.
Nelson, coauthor of the report and a practicing attorney as well as a
bioethicist, said that the use of involuntary civil commitment of pregnant
women for drug abuse, a legal means of intervention, may be increasing. (Such
women are then, presumably, to be detoxified and treated, but whether
treatment facilities exist and are used is a moot point.)

Incarceration Rejected

By rejecting the criminalization of perinatal substance abuse as policy,
the report adds further support to the contention by a growing body of
experts that incarceration for substance abuse is unworkable and ultimately
self-defeating (JAMA.1997;278:378 and 1998;279: 1149-1150).

As Marshall's figures (cited in the report and below) indicate, the number
of women arrested and criminally charged for substance abuse while pregnant
is not large. Nevertheless, she said it is a national problem and noted
that the combined rates of substance abuse during pregnancy, including
abuse of alcohol and use of tobacco, both of which are legal, are
troublesome.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimated (in the 1992 National
Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births)
that about 5.5% of US women (about 221000) have used an illicit drug while
pregnant. Marijuana was used by 2.9% (119000), cocaine by 1.1% (45000),
heroin by 0.1% (3600) and psychotherapeutic drugs without any physician
prescription by 1.5% (61000). In addition, 18.8% (757000) of women used
alcohol sometime during their pregnancy, and 20.4% (820 000) smoked
cigarettes. Marshall noted that while illegal drugs get the attention, "the
drugs that do the most harm and [into combating which] we should put the most
resources are the legal drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco."

Although abusers may use more than one drug, Marshall couldn't give a precise
figure. However, she said, "Most cocaine users are also multiple drug users
and, of course, a widespread combination is alcohol and tobacco." The NIDA
survey says that "women who used an illicit drug during pregnancy were
more likely to also use cigarettes and alcohol than women who did not use
an illicit drug."

One Imprisonment

Only one woman has been imprisoned for substance abuse while pregnant.
Cornelia Whitmer of Charleston, SC, is currently serving an eight-year
sentence for using crack cocaine. She had not been on probation for drug
offenses prior to her conviction, but admitted in court to having used
the drug for which her newborn child-and a subsequently obtained urine
specimen-tested positive. Commenting on the severity of the sentence,
Marshall said, "We [that is, state authorities] are moralistic about drug
abuse. And we want to punish these women."

The case was appealed to the South Carolina Supreme Court, which upheld
the lower court's decision. However, trial courts in most states have refused
to apply existing criminal statutes to women who abuse drugs, Nelson said.
In instances where prison sentences were imposed, they were reversed by
appellate courts. One state, Minnesota, expressly requires what is
euphemistically termed involuntary civil commitment of pregnant women
who have used illicit drugs.

In the South Carolina case, the state Supreme Court held that viable fetuses
are persons and so are subject to protection under child abuse statutes
if their mothers take drugs while pregnant. Nelson maintained at the press
conference that this position is wrong because the US Supreme Court has
ruled that the unborn are not constitutional persons entitled to legal
protection. The decision "is nothing less than legislation by judicial
fiat," he said. If the state wishes to criminalize drug use among all
persons, not just pregnant women, it is free to do so, he said, but noted
that statutes that refer to persons, children, or human beings cannot apply
to prenatal humans.

Nelson also maintained that the Whitner case is open to challenge on
constitutional grounds, saying that "the US Constitution bars enactment of a
statute criminalizing prenatal drug use per se as violative of women's
constitutional rights to reproductive freedom and to be free of sex
discrimination." However, when the Whitner case was appealed to the US
Supreme Court, the court declined to hear it and let the South Carolina
decision stand.

"Rush to Judgment"

Since the 1980s, society has been concerned that prenatal exposure to drugs,
cocaine in particular, causes serious physical and mental damage to unborn
children. There has been a "rush to judgment" that these children were
destined to become wards of society, said Barry M. Lester, PhD, director
of the Infant Development Center at Brown University School of Medicine,
also speaking at the Washington press conference. However, he said, claims
about the "devastating" effects of drugs, including cocaine, have not been
substantiated.

Lester cited a study of more than 11000 infants who had been exposed in
utero to cocaine (Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;846:296-305). No increase in
physical abnormalities at birth was seen in this group. But only five studies
have followed cocaine-exposed infants into school age. Overall, the findings
are inconclusive, he said: "This is a field that is in its infancy."

At the press conference Marshall, summarizing her findings, said that
criminalization neither favorably affects infant health nor deters substance
abuse. Indeed, she added, "It may have a detrimental effect. It has been
shown that substance-abusing women may forgo early prenatal care or drug
abuse treatment for fear of losing their children or being arrested" (Brown
SS, ed. Prenatal Care: Reaching Mothers, Reaching Infants. Washington, DC:
Institute of Medicine; 1988). She described this situation as "tragic"
because "substance abuse treatment during pregnancy has been shown to be
effective in reducing the risk of drug exposure before birth and in improving
parenting after birth."

Marshall also called unethical the requirement that clinicians, social
workers, or anyone else report drug abuse to such authorities as, for
example, South Carolina's Department of Social Services. "This is
inappropriate to the caregivers role," she said. Furthermore, the
criminalizing approach is tainted with discrimination based on race and
socioeconomic status. "Only certain drugs - crack cocaine, heroin,
marijuana - are targeted for screening," she said. "Other drugs - powdered
cocaine, methamphetamines, or non-physician prescribed psychotherapeutics -
are largely ignored."

The result is that it is mostly minorities who get identified by the
authorities. From 1989 to 1993, she said, 41 pregnant women arrested for
abusing drugs in South Carolina; some were repeat offenders. Of these,
Marshall said, 40 were black, and of the 240 women in the 35 states she
reviewed, 70% to 80% were members of minority groups, primarily blacks
and Hispanics. Yet, she added, current studies show that substance abuse
during pregnancy is not a problem only of poor black and Hispanic women,
but also of white women and women in other racial and ethnic groups.

-by Charles Marwick

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.
Further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission.
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Mindless Hypocrisy (A Letter To The Editor Of 'The Edmonton Sun'
Contrasts A Canadian Prosecutor's Zeal To Deport Morteza Borhania
To Certain Death In Iran Because Of An Old Drug Conviction For Which
He's Already Done His Time, With Canada's Past Refusal To Deport Americans
Facing The Same Penalty In The United States For Real Crimes)

Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Pubdate: September 23, 1998
Source: Edmonton Sun (Canada)
Contact: sun.letters@ccinet.ab.ca
Website: http://www.canoe.ca/EdmontonSun/
Author: Thomas J. O'Connell, M.D.

MINDLESS HYPOCRISY

Several years ago Canada refused to extradite an American fugitive
named Charles Ng who was wanted in the San Francisco area as an
accomplice in multiple murders. Canadian officials insisted on trying
and convicting Ng for a shoplifting offence committed while a
fugitive. He served his time in Canada before being returned to the
U.S.

The excuse offered by Canadian officials was that Ng could face
the (gasp!) death penalty if he were returned and that it was against
Canadian law to extradite someone facing that penalty. And so I fail to
understand the prosecutor's zeal to deport Morteza Borhania to certain
death in Iran because of what amounts to an old drug conviction for
which he's already done his time. Am I missing something here? I always
thought that we Americans had a corner on
that type of mindless hypocrisy, but I guess I was wrong.

Tom O'Connell
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Drug Use Looks Set To Be Decriminalised In Switzerland - Even If Referendum
Fails, Penalties Will Be Reduced ('Frankfurter Rundschau' Says Users
Of Cannabis, Cocaine And Heroin May Soon Have No Need To Fear Legal
Punishment In Certain Swiss Cities - The Government Is Now Deciding Where
It Will Carry Out A 'Limited Experiment' Of Complete Drugs Decriminalisation)

To: mattalk@islandnet.com
Subject: Swiss moves toward decrim
Date: Wed, 30 Sep 98 07:48:34 +1000
From: petrew@pcug.org.au (Peter Watney)
Organization: P.I.C.

---- The following is the original message ----

From: "Alex Wodak" (awodak@stvincents.COM.AU)
To: "Peter Watney" (petrew@pcug.org.au),
Subject: Fw: switzerland
Date: Tue, 29 Sep 1998 08:31:02 +1000

Forwarding:

-----Original Message-----
From: jan g. van der tas (jantasvd@xs4all.nl)
To: 101675.2071@compuserve.com (101675.2071@compuserve.com);
awodak@stvincents.com.au (awodak@stvincents.com.au);
Date: Monday, 28 September 1998 23:39
Subject: switzerland

Switzerland-Drugs
DRUG USE LOOKS SET TO BE DECRIMINALISED IN SWITZERLAND
Even if referendum fails, penalties will be reduced

By Beat Leuthardt

Basel, Switzerland - Users of cannabis, but also cocaine and heroin, may
soon have no need to fear legal punishment in certain Swiss cities. The
government is now deciding where it will carry out a "limited experiment"
of complete drugs decriminalisation.

It will not be the first time that this small country has charted a new
course in drugs policy: the decision follows what by almost unanimous
consent was a successful experiment under which doctors dispensed heroin to
hard-core addicts.

The federal government's Working Group on Drugs Policy recommended in a
written report to both houses of parliament that Switzerland conduct the
limited drugs decriminalisation experiment in "some cities" for a fixed
period, after which the results will be assessed.

Broader acceptance of the recommendations has been helped by the broad
political base of the working group, which includes Social and Christian
Democrat representatives, as well as members of the libertarian Radical
Democratic Party and even the right-wing Swiss People's Party.

According to the secretary of the working group, Marie-Louise Baumann, the
experiments will be extensively monitored. Properly run, she told the
newspaper SonntagsZeitung, they should considerably raise support among the
population at large for the decriminalisation of drugs.

The limited experiment should only be a transitional step, since officials
confirmed this week that the Swiss Federal Health Office has already
prepared a legislative proposal for the permanent decriminalisation of
cannabas, cocaine and heroin.

The measure will be included in a broader bill which, if passed, would
liberalise Switzerland's overall narcotics policies. Parliament is expected
to decide on the legislation shortly after the so-called "droleg" issue is
put to Swiss voters in a referendum in November.

"Droleg" - short for Drogenlegislation or drugs legislation - has become a
codeword for the move toward the complete liberalisation of drugs use in
Switzerland. Unfortunately for its backers, a majority of Swiss look set to
reject the idea in the referendum.

If they do, the Federal Health Office has alternative legislation prepared
which would retain criminal penalties for drug use in Switzerland, but even
then there would be incremental steps toward effective decriminalisation -
specifically, a directive to the courts not to penalise individuals caught
with small amounts of drugs.

Meanwhile, drugs experts are not surprised so much by the plan to legalise
drug use as by the rapid tempo of change that is being proposed and the
acknowledgement by the Federal Health Office director, Thomas Zeltner, that
"all substances should be treated the same" for legal purposes.

Supporters of drugs legalisation saw this as a positive signal, since
Zeltner had long been seen as an opponent of a more tolerant policy.

Zeltner does, however, intend to continue resisting any moves toward the
complete legalisation of cannabis if they include measures to decriminalise
its production and sale. In practice, the tremendous hemp boom in
Switzerland and elsewhere stands in stark contrast to his attitude.

Officials estimate that Switzerland has thousands of small-time dealers and
growers involved in the trade and production of all kinds of hemp - most
definitely including the illegal variety.

This leads to the occasional raid. But with the Swiss so ambivalent about
the use of the criminal justice system to tackle drug abuse, police are said
to look decidedly unenthusiastic on these missions.

[ dokument info ]
Copyright (c) Frankfurter Rundschau 1998
Dokument erstellt am 23.09.1998 um 20.45 Uhr
Erscheinungsdatum 23.09.1998

***

Jan G. van der Tas
The Hague Holland
-------------------------------------------------------------------

DrugSense Weekly, Number 65 (The Original Summary Of Drug Policy News
Includes A Feature Article By The Redford Citizens' Committee For Justice;
Drug Czar Wants Interdiction Bill To Lose In Congress; House OKs $3.2-Billion
Measure To Bolster The Fight Against Drugs; Hemp Study Released
By North Dakota; Guarding The Truth About State Prison; Cloud Over Mexican
Anti-Drug Force; US Links Top Mexican Agents To Traffickers; Massacre
In Mexico; Victims' Drug Ties Likely Behind Mexico Massacre; House Rules
Marijuana Dangerous; Editorial - A Nonsense Resolution; DC To Vote On
Medical Marijuana; OPED - Pot Battle Shifts To Ballot Box; IOC - No Jail
For Suspect Athletes; Australia - Troops Get The All-Clear To Dose Up
On Energy Drugs; Canada - Market Forces Cut Heroin Price; Australia -
Campaign Gets Up Close And Personal On Heroin Issue; Colombia's Way To Halt
Drugs And War At Once; Colombia Fears US Anti-Drug Bill May Harm Peace Talks;
Hot Off The 'Net - McCaffrey The Prevaricator Ad In 'The New Republic';
DrugSense Tip Of The Week - Excellent Article On The Hernandez Murder;
Quote Of The Week)

Date: Wed, 23 Sep 1998 14:48:17 -0700
To: mgreer@mapinc.org
From: Mark Greer (MGreer@mapinc.org)
Subject: DrugSense Weekly, Sept 23, 1998 No. 65

***

DRUGSENSE WEEKLY

***

DrugSense Weekly, Sept 23, 1998, No. 65

A DrugSense Publication
http://www.drugsense.org

***

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

* Feature Article

The Redford Citizens' Committee for Justice

* Weekly News In Review

Drug War Policy (Unreal Division)-

Drug Czar Wants Interdiction Bill To Lose In Congress
House OKs $3.2-Billion Measure to Bolster the Fight Against Drugs

Drug War Policy (Mundane Division)-

Hemp Study Released By North Dakota
Guarding The Truth About State Prison

Mexico-

Cloud Over Mexican Anti-Drug Force
US Links Top Mexican Agents to Traffickers
Massacre In Mexico
Victims' Drug Ties Likely Behind Mexico Massacre

Medical Marijuana-

House Rules Marijuana Dangerous
Editorial: A Nonsense Resolution
DC To Vote On Medical Marijuana
OPED: Pot Battle Shifts To Ballot Box

International News-

IOC: No Jail For Suspect Athletes
Australia: Troops Get the All-Clear To Dose Up on Energy Drugs
Canada: Market Forces Cut Heroin Price
Australia: Campaign Gets Up Close and Personal On Heroin Issue
Colombia's Way to Halt Drugs and War at Once
Colombia Fears US Anti-drug Bill May Harm Peace Talks

* Hot Off The 'Net

McCaffrey the Prevaricator Ad in The New Republic

* DrugSense Tip Of The Week

Excellent Article on the Hernandez Murder

* Quote of the Week

Thomas Jefferson

***

FEATURE ARTICLE

***

Editor's Note: We normally do not publish or promote press releases or
unpublished articles but felt that this well written piece deserved an
exception to the rule particularly in view of the article referenced
in the "Tip of the Week" section.

COMMENT:

by Kevin Zeese

The children of Redford are afraid to go out and play after school;
their parents fear going for walks at sunset -- they fear Marines are
hidden in the bushes. Ever since the fatal shooting death of Esequiel
Hernandez, Jr. by US Marines on May 20, 1997 the citizens of Redford
have been denied the opportunity to speak publicly about the event.
They were not asked to testify before the state or federal grand jury.
They were not interviewed by Department of Justice officials who
investigated civil rights violations. So far, Congress has not held
any hearings into the shooting death.

Our lead column this week highlights their first public statement. The
statement was delivered last week as testimony about the environmental
impact of various military projects along the US-Mexican border. For a
detailed report of the shooting see "Tip of the Week" where we provide
links to an article that appeared in the San Antonio Current by Monte
Paulsen.

A Statement from the Redford Citizens' Committee for Justice Regarding
the Activities of JTF6 delivered by Enrique Madrid at environmental
impact hearing

By THE REDFORD CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR JUSTICE Redford, Texas

September 17, 1998

"Since JTF6 has proven ineffective in accomplishing any of its stated
missions the intelligent course, in order to save taxpayer money and to
protect the constitutional rights of citizens and the welfare of the
environment, would be to discontinue JTF6 Support Services to shut it down.

"We have the following objections to those operations of JTF6 which we are
familiar with:

"1. The use by JTF6 of military personnel in construction projects violates
the American spirit of fair play and free enterprise because:

A. They impose grossly unfair competition against civilian contractors who
are denied bidding for this work.

B. They deny civilian workers who would benefit from gainful employment in
such project especially in high-unemployment areas throughout the border.

C. Their building of new roads and other projects imposes an undue burden
on County governments to maintain such facilities with monies not
authorized by taxpayers and voters.

"2. The use of military personnel by JTF6 and INS in enforcement and
construction operations has the potential of adversely affecting the
military preparedness of U.S. Forces. The use of soldiers on the border
exposes them to serious confrontations leading to the deaths of American
citizens. American soldiers are thus placed in jeopardy of being indicted,
tried, convicted, imprisoned, and sentenced to death in State Courts for
crimes committed while on duty. These circumstances will lead to the
demoralization of the Armed Forces, and a demoralized military is an
unprepared one. The "Department of Defense may not provide any support
which will adversely affect military preparedness." (Report of Major
General John T. Coyne, USMC, item 692, page 105)

"3. Massive financial settlements paid out by the Federal Government
for claims by Americans citizens against law enforcement and military
agencies as a result of such crimes will pose an unfair and undue
burden on American taxpayers.

"4. JTF6 and Marine Corps activities in Redford in particular would have
been extremely serious violations of International Law in times of war due
to their impact on civilian noncombatants:

A. Military units must be under the control of a commander. The Coyne
Report points out systemic failures at all levels of command,
inadequate coordination among all agencies involved, and an obfuscation
of the responsibilities of everyone from top to bottom to the point
that, essentially, no one was in charge of the Marines at Redford.

B. Soldiers must wear clothing that identifies them as military and
they must bear their arms openly. The use in covert operations of
Ghillie suits, camouflage face paint, and the lack of any military
insignia violated this rule. No one in Redford suspected they were
there; they were invisible to every one of us.

C. The military must obey the laws and customs of war. The substandard
medical care given to Esequiel Hernandez, Jr., violated the Geneva
Convention requirements that civilian wounded be protected and cared
for.

"All of these were violations of International Law which would have
protected the citizens of Redford had it been an enemy village in
wartime but were denied us by JTF6 as a community of Americans on
American soil in peacetime.

"5. The tiny community of Redford was publicly labelled as a "Drug
Smuggling Capital of the Southwest" by U.S. drug enforcement officials
in 1991. This is the defamation of an entire American community through
military techniques of psychological warfare. This condemnation in the
press contributed to the tragic killing there and echoes of it resound
throughout the Coyne Report to justify military operations. For
example, the Marine patrol was instructed that Redford was a hostile
community that sheltered drug smugglers (Q. E. D.). They were not
informed that they were observing a Class B Customs crossing and they
were not told that their LP/OP was set up within the bounds of a
residential area. (Coyne Report)

"6. The irresponsible development and use of criminal/psychological
profiles by law enforcement agencies and JTF6 and their provision to
military units for use in Redford that depict goat herders, cowboys on
horseback with saddlebags, and backpackers as armed scouts and drug
traffickers reveal a profound ignorance of the cultural life of border
communities. And they endanger the very lives of great numbers of the
citizens of those communities.

"7. In the Redford incident, 20 May 1997, JTF6 demonstrated an obvious
disregard for private property rights. JTF6 violated the environmental
regulations as set forth in their own PEIS of 1994. JTF6 infringed on
the sovereignty of the State of Texas with wholesale violations of
firearms statutes, i.e., firing across public roads, firing towards
inhabited dwellings, and firing too close to a state highway.

"8. And finally, JTF6's military support activities on the border
includes the first killing in the entire history of the United States
Marine Corps of an American citizen by an American Marine on American
soil.

"Therefore, it is urgent to the protection of our democratic form of
government that JTF6 be terminated immediately.

THE REDFORD CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR JUSTICE Redford, Texas

September 17, 1998

***

WEEKLY NEWS IN REVIEW

***

Drug Policy (Unreal Division)-

***

COMMENT:

Despite nearly universal preoccupation with Presidential sex scandals,
Congress contrived to make a fool of itself in a couple of drug policy
areas. In addition to damning cannabis as medicine, the House also
voted to override McCzar and force more money on the drug war for the
purposes of interdiction.

I wonder if any editors noticed that this is a purely political $3.2
billion dollar potshot at the Clinton Administration. No, they're too
busy worrying about the 4.5 million it cost to have the President's
denials thoroughly checked out by Starr. First things first.

***

DRUG CZAR WANTS INTERDICTION BILL TO LOSE IN CONGRESS

As the House voted to add $2.6 billion over three years to the
government's drug-interdiction efforts,the White House's drug-policy
coordinator was urging lawmakers to reject the legislation.

Retired Gen. Barry McCaffrey said he would welcome extra money but
criticized the bill, passed 384-39, as an ill-conceived exercise in
micro management possibly motivated by election-year politics. The
Senate has not yet voted on the measure.

 [snip]

Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: 17 Sep 1998
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n811.a07.html

***

HOUSE OKS $3.2-BILLION MEASURE TO BOLSTER THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUGS

WASHINGTON - The House on Wednesday turned aside Clinton administration
objections and overwhelmingly passed a $3.2-billion bill to bolster the
Coast Guard, the Customs Service and Latin American governments in
their struggle to stop drugs from reaching this country's borders.

The House of Representatives passed the bill, 384 to 39, just hours
after White House drug czar Barry R. McCaffrey testified in the Senate
that a similar measure awaiting action there would be too expensive and
would represent "micro-management of drug tactics based on a shallow
analysis of the problem and our available tools."

 [snip]

In the House, Republican leaders insisted that they were boosting the
budget for drug interdiction because they believe that President Clinton
has failed to stem the flow of drugs into the country.

 [snip]

Source: Los Angeles Times (CA)
Contact: letters@latimes.com
Website: http://www.latimes.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 16 Sept 1998
Author: Stanley Meisler
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n814.a02.html

***

Drug Policy (Mundane Division)-

***

COMMENT:

It's not surprising that the ripple effect from Canada's legalization
of commercial hemp would be felt first just South of the border. An
academic endorsement will be difficult for the DEA to refute, but you
can bet they'll try.

The possibility that 60 Minutes might do a piece on the Corcoran State
Prison scandal must be terribly upsetting to Lungren. If aired before
November, the negative publicity could be decisive in what shapes up
as a very close contest for governor.

***

HEMP'S BENEFITS OUTLINED

A North Dakota State University study says industrial hemp has
potential as an alternative crop in the state and recommends that the
crop be grown for experimental production and processing.

The study, led by David Kraenzel of the NDSU agriculture economics
department, was presented to the Legislative Interim Commerce and
Agriculture Committee Thursday afternoon at the Capitol.

 [snip]

Source: Bismarck Tribune (ND)
Contact: BismarckTribune@ndonline.com
Website: http://www.ndonline.com/
Pubdate: 11 Sep 1998
Author: Mark Hanson, Bismarck Tribune
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n801.a04.html

***

GUARDING THE TRUTH ABOUT STATE PRISON

While everyone's interest is focused on Washington these days, one of
the simmering issues that may soon come to the fore in California's
election is the brutality of the prison guards at Corcoran State
Prison. We're told "60 Minutes" is planning a piece on Corcoran, where
43 inmates were wounded and seven were killed by officers from 1989 to
1995. The political dimensions of this touch on attorney general and
gubernatorial candidate Dan Lungren, whose office did a limited
investigation of Corcoran that produced no criminal charges. Two months
ago, the Los Angeles Times did an exhaustive piece concluding that
probes by Lungren and Gov. Pete Wilson's administration had
"whitewashed" allegations of brutality at the central California prison.

 [snip]

Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Pubdate: Mon, 14 Sep 1998
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n814.a04.html

***

Mexico

***

COMMENT:

Last week's events on the Mexican border couldn't distract us from our
national preoccupation with Presidential sex, but their ultimate
significance could be enormous.

Ever since two political assassinations propelled Zedillo into the
Presidency and exiled ex-President Salinas to Dublin, the terrible
damage done to Mexico by US drug policy has been beyond either
containment or cover-up. The situation in Colombia may actually be a
bit worse, but we don't share a 2000 mile border with the Colombians.
Our frantic efforts to find Mexican law enforcement officers who
aren't already corrupted seemed almost comical; at least until last
week. However there's nothing funny about a mass execution which, at a
stroke, eclipsed Chicago's St. Valentine's Day massacre. Another
remarkable aspect of this story is that its meaning has yet to sink in
North of the border.

***

CLOUD OVER MEXICAN ANTI-DRUG FORCE

Two years ago, U.S. and Mexican officials, frustrated by corruption in
Mexican law-enforcement agencies called on the Mexican Army to take the
lead in fighting the drug war. Forming the backbone of the effort were
new, screened units trained by the U.S. Special Forces and given
helicopters for mobility.

But now the program is facing the same evil it was formed to combat.
About 80 members of the elite units have been under investigation in
recent weeks amid allegations that some of them took hundreds of
thousands of dollars in bribes to sneak cocaine-filled suitcases and
illegal immigrants through the Mexico City airport on their way to the
United States.

 [snip]

Source: International Herald-Tribune
Contact: iht@iht.com
Website: http://www.iht.com/
Pubdate: 11 Sept 1998
Author: Douglas Farah and Molly Moore, Washington Post Service
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n802.a07.html

***

US LINKS TOP MEXICAN AGENTS TO TRAFFICKERS

Washington-most of the top investigators of an elite Mexican police
unit that was trained by Americans may have ties to drug traffickers,
U.S. officials say. The disclosure threatens to undermine an ambitious
effort to overhaul the deeply corrupt law enforcement system of Mexico.

U.S. government experts traveled to Mexico late last month to
administer routine lie-detector tests to dozens of police agents. Now
officials say some investigators who failed had been chosen for their
posts after elaborate U.S. designed screening.

U.S. officials said they were just beginning to assess the damage that
corrupt investigators might have wrought, a task that could take
months. Most senior officials in the unit were implicated by the
lie-detector tests.

But already, officials are saying that much of the sensitive
information that U.S. law-enforcement agents shared with Mexican
counterparts over the past year may have been compromised.

 [snip]

Source: New York Times
Contact: letters@nytimes.com
Website: http://www.nytimes.com/
Pubdate: 16 Sep 1998
Author: Tim Golden, The New York Times
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n810.a02.html

***

MASSACRE IN MEXICO

BY RICARDO SANDOVAL Mercury News Mexico City Bureau

MEXICO CITY - At least 19 men, women and children were gunned to death
Thursday near the resort town of Ensenada, 60 miles south of San Diego,
in what police said could be a drug-related massacre ordered by leaders
of one of Mexico's biggest trafficking cartels.

Police say the families were rousted by gunmen at about 4:30 a.m.
Thursday, dragged outside, lined against concrete walls and shot
repeatedly with assault rifles, handguns and at least one shotgun.

 [snip]

Source: San Jose Mercury News (CA) (Page 1)
Contact: letters@sjmercury.com
Website: http://www.sjmercury.com/
Pubdate: 18 Sep 1998
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n815.a12.html

***

VICTIMS' DRUG TIES LIKELY BEHIND MEXICO MASSACRE

ENSENADA, Mexico -- Still baffled by the brutality of the act, Mexican
officials said Friday they are all but certain that 18 people were
slaughtered near this seaside community because some of the victims
were linked to the drug trade.

"The motive appears to be problems between two or three groups involved
in drug trafficking," said Baja California state Attorney General Marco
Antonio de la Fuente.

[snip]

Having federal police on the case may not assure some people in Baja
California. Critics say that widespread corruption has kept many
federal officials in the pockets of drug smugglers for years.

Noting that witnesses describe the attackers as dressed in black -- the
uniform of the federal anti-drug police -- several Mexican reporters
pointedly asked Chavez on Friday about police involvement with area
traffickers.

[snip]

Source: Houston Chronicle (TX)
Contact: viewpoints@chron.com
Website: http://www.chron.com/
Pubdate: Sat, 19 Sep 1998
Author: DUDLEY ALTHAUS, Houston Chronicle Mexico City Bureau

***

Medical Marijuana

***

COMMENT:

It was another eventful week for this issue, which, more than any
other- arouses prohibitionists to fury. The House, in another
unwitting display of scientific illiteracy and logical incompetence,
voted overwhelmingly against the hated idea that marijuana could be
medicine. Ironically, DC residents will get to vote on the same issue
in November.

Around the country, medical marijuana initiatives are on the ballot in
Alaska, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington state, as well as in
DC. As the article in the San Luis Obispo paper points out, the
California governor and attorney general races amount to a second
go-around on 215 for California voters.

***

HOUSE RULES MARIJUANA DANGEROUS

WASHINGTON (AP) Marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug and should
not be legalized for medical use, the House said in a resolution passed
310-93 Tuesday.

Efforts to legalize marijuana for medical use in several states are
sending the wrong message to teen-agers and the nation as a whole,
supporters of the resolution said during debate on the House floor.

The Marijuana Policy Project, which opposed the measure, denounced the
vote.

[snip]

Pubdate: Tue, 15 Sep 1998
Source: Associated Press
Author: Cassandra Burrell, Associated Press Writer
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n806.a06.html

***

A NONSENSE RESOLUTION

Casually and with virtually no debate, U.S. Representatives rejected
the idea that marijuana might have medicinal application for patients
who seek relief.

It is a position that ignores evidence both anecdotal and factual.

It borders on the inhumane.

[snip]

Even more important, it told thousands of patients and their doctors -
who believe that marijuana can alleviate their conditions, often with
less serious and dangerous side-effects than "standard" prescription
medications - - that Congress is pleased to see them continue to suffer
or to obtain relief only at the price of becoming criminals.

Perhaps it should be called the "Congress has no sense" resolution.

[snip]

Source: Orange County Register (CA)
Contact: letters@link.freedom.com
Website: http://www.ocregister.com/
Pubdate: 17 Sep 1998
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n811.a05.html

***

D.C. TO VOTE ON MEDICAL MARIJUANA

WASHINGTON (AP) - Election officials approved an initiative Thursday to
let voters decide whether to legalize marijuana for medical purposes in
the nation's capital.

The District of Columbia Board of Elections had rejected the initiative
a month ago but reconsidered because of a Sept. 3 ruling by D.C
Superior Court Judge Ellen Segal Huvelle that the board wrongly
dismissed 4,600 signatures that a petitioner collected.

[snip]

Source: New York Times (NY)
Contact: letters@nytimes.com
Website: http://www.nytimes.com/
Pubdate: Thu, 17 Sep 1998
Author: The Associated Press
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n815.a02.html

***

POT BATTLE SHIFTS TO BALLOT BOX

LOS ANGELES - Confusion reigns more than ever in California's medical
marijuana wars this fall as the state's most liberal cities and
counties struggle to find a legal way to distribute the weed to
patients who need it, and federal and state authorities fight to close
the few remaining cannabis buyers clubs.

The battle figures to move both to the ballot box and a jury trial,
this fall, as pot-supplying cooperatives in three Northern California
cities remain open in the face of a four-month-old court order to shut
down. The three face contempt of court charges and pro-marijuana
activists are eager to see whether any jury will convict their leaders.

[snip]

It also means the November election will largely decide the fate of
medical marijuana.

"Electing Lungren and Stirling would mean four more years of chaos,
because they are adamant about not allowing any sort of distribution,"
Imler said. "If they're elected, the only solution would be for the
federal government to declare this a prescription drug - and they
haven't shown any great eagerness to do it."

Meanwhile, Democratic gubernatorial candidate Gray Davis takes a
noncommittal stance on medical pot, saying he's open to legalizing
distribution to patients if academic studies show a true need. And
state Sen. Bill Lockyer, the Democratic nominee for attorney general,
never blocked passage of medical marijuana bills during his years as
the Senate's president.

[snip]

Source: San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune (CA)
Contact: slott@slnt01.sanluisobispo.com
Website: http://sanluisobispo.com/
Pubdate: 16 September 1998
Author: Tom Elias
Tel: 805-781-7800
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n809.a05.html

***

International News

***

COMMENT:

From Seoul, the IOC had a quick answer for the Australian Olympic
Committee's request for criminal penalties for athletes using
performance enhancing drugs. In a bizarre side-bar, it was also
revealed that Australian troops are routinely given the same kind of
drugs. It's comforting to learn that the US isn't the only nation
prone to such irrationality.

The heroin glut described by the Globe and Mail is world-wide, not
just Canadian, confirming what Congress and McCzar refuse to accept:
interdiction doesn't work.

Australia, plagued by the same glut and a surge in heroin-related
deaths, will spend an additional $75 million, mostly because Prime
Minister Howard was stung by politically inspired "soft on drugs"
criticism. What Howard should really be criticized for is scuttling
the heroin maintenance trial approved earlier by Parliament.

Colombia remains another place where the US is stubbornly repeating
past mistakes, hoping for a different outcome. This time it's aerial
spraying of defoliants and becoming more involved in a guerrilla war
in which our proxies are no match for the guerrillas. Does any of that
sound familiar?

***

IOC: NO JAIL FOR SUSPECT ATHLETES

SEOUL, South Korea-The International Olympic Committee declared its
opposition Monday to the possibility of athletes being jailed for
taking banned performance-enhancing drugs. The Australian Olympic
Committee last month said the penalty for possession, manufacturing,
trafficking and use of steroids and other banned substances should be
the same as those for illicit narcotics.

Under the proposal, anyone importing large amounts of
performance-enhancers into Australia could be jailed for life. An
athlete caught using doping substances could also face criminal charges.

[snip]

Source: Los Angeles Times (CA)
Contact: letters@latimes.com
Fax: 213-237-4712
Website: http://www.latimes.com/
Pubdate: September 14, 1998
Author: Stephen Wilson, AP Sports Writer
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n806.a01.html

***

TROOPS GET THE ALL-CLEAR TO DOSE UP ON ENERGY DRUGS

Australian troops have been officially cleared to use
performance-enhancing chemicals, including drugs, and methods banned by
international sports authorities, to improve their physical and mental
strength.

Guidelines on the use of the substances and techniques have been issued
to the commanders of Australia's special forces units - the Special Air
Service Regiment, 1 Commando Regiment and 4th Battalion Royal
Australian Regiment.

The senior nutritionist at the Defence Science and Technology
Organisation, Mr Chris Forbes-Ewan, said that unlike in sport "all's
fair in love and war".

[snip]

Source: Sydney Morning Herald (Australia)
Contact: letters@smh.com.au
Website: http://www.smh.com.au/
Pubdate: Fri, 18 Sep 1998
Author: James Woodford, Defense Correspondent
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n812.a06.html

***

MARKET FORCES CUT HEROIN PRICE

Canadian police forces are unhappy to observe a buyer's market in the
past five or six years for a particularly ugly consumer product: heroin.

Not only has the street cost of the narcotic plummeted, but since
1992-93 the purity of the substance on offer has gone up considerably,
says Detective Ed Roseto of the heroin section in the Toronto Police
special investigations unit.

While a gram of heroin might have sold for about $700 in Toronto a
decade ago, it's now readily available for $200. And Det. Roseto adds:
"We've had grams which we've bought [during undercover operations] for
$100."

Hard numbers for the heroin-addicted population in Canada don't exist,
but Richard Garlick, spokesman for the Canadian Centre on Substance
Abuse in Ottawa, puts the figure at about 25,000 to 30,000, and says
that the number has probably been fairly stable for the past 20 years.

[snip]

Pubdate: Thursday, September 17, 1998
Source: Globe and Mail (Canada)
Contact: letters@globeandmail.ca
Website: http://www.globeandmail.ca/
Author: Salem Alaton
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n811.a04.html

***

CAMPAIGN GETS UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL ON HEROIN ISSUE

The election campaign turned bitter and personal yesterday when the
Prime Minister, Mr John Howard, accused Labor front bencher Senator
Nick Bolkus of making a despicable claim and called on the Opposition
Leader, Mr Kim Beazley, to bring him into line.

Mr Howard in effect accused Mr Beazley of letting others play dirty
while he kept his hands clean.

Senator Bolkus, shadow Attorney-General, issued a statement before Mr
Howard's drugs policy release which said: "Under John Howard, the price
of a cap of heroin has dropped from $40 to as little as $5."

[snip]

Among its initiatives in the drug fight, the Government is promising an
extra $23.4 million to set up four more Australian Federal Police
mobile strike teams; another $10 million for the drug education
strategy; another $10 million to expand community-based treatment
services; and a $31.6 million increase in funding for border protection.

[snip]

Pubdate: Fri, 18 Sep 1998
Source: Australian Financial Review
Contact: edletters@afr.fairfax.com.au
Author: Michelle Grattan
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n812.a09.html

***

COLOMBIA'S WAY TO HALT DRUGS AND WAR AT ONCE

Legal jobs would cut incentives to grow drugs - and profits to finance
guerrillas.

Standing in a pasture of browning grass, Victor Manuel Vanegas coos to
a herd of skinny cows before recounting the day in May when the
narcotics police dropped their calling card: a potent herbicide sprayed
on his fields.

[snip]

Some peasants like Vanegas may stay away from coca, the plant whose
leaves make cocaine, for fear of spraying or trouble with the law. But,
overall, the total area of coca production has climbed sharply every
year since 1992, from 91,000 to about 200,000 acres today.

[snip]

Source: Christian Science Monitor
Contact: oped@csps.com
Website: http://www.csmonitor.com/
Pubdate: Wed, 16 Sept 1998
Author: Howard LaFranchi
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n812.a05.html

***

COLOMBIA FEARS U.S. ANTI-DRUG BILL MAY HARM PEACE TALKS

Measure would halt aid over creation of demilitarized zone

White House drug czar Barry McCaffrey said Wednesday that "this bill is
not the answer. I understand that elections are coming, but they should
not vote for this bill."

BOGOTA, Colombia - President Andres Pastrana's government says it fears
that a proposed $2.6 billion U.S. anti-drug bill threatens to torpedo
upcoming peace talks with the nation's two main guerrilla groups.

[snip]

Pastrana government officials warn, however, that the threat to suspend
aid could scuttle the peace talks, because no anti-drug operations can
occur in the demilitarized zone without risking a direct military
confrontation with the guerrillas.

Foreign Minister Roberto Rojas said he plans to travel to Washington
next week in hopes of dissuading Senate members from passing the
measure.

[snip]

Source: Dallas Morning News (TX)
Contact: letterstoeditor@dallasnews.com
Website: http://www.dallasnews.com/
Pubdate: 19 Sep 1998
Author: Tod Robberson, The Dallas Morning News
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n816.a05.html

***
HOT OFF THE 'NET

Readers who have suspected that the drug czar is not always as careful
with the truth as he might be are urged to have a look at:

http://www.drugsense.org/barry.htm

It is a full page ad that ran in the October 5th edition of The New
Republic. This important magazine has a circulation of 110,000 with a
very good demographic profile.
Published in October 5th edition of The New Republic.
The drawing was made by John Wilson, a medical marijuana patient-activist from Texas.
This ad was prepared with the input of a variety of people and is the beginning of a series of ads we will be running. Please share this post with relevant lists and in particular let people in the media know about the ad.
Kevin B. Zeese Common Sense for Drug Policy
3220 N Street, NW, #141
Washington, DC 20007
703-354-5694 (phone)
703-354-5695 (fax)
zeese@csdp.org

"There is not a shred of scientific evidence that shows that smoked marijuana is useful or needed. This is not science. This is not medical. This is a cruel hoax."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (Drug Czar), Aug. 16, 1996.

"Smoked marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular eye pressure (IOP) in subjects with normal IOP and patients with glaucoma... Clinical studies and survey data in healthy populations have shown a strong relationship between marijuana use and increased eating... Inhaled marijuana has the potential to improve chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting."

National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana, 1997.

"In the view of the nation's scientific and medical community, marijuana has a high potential for abuse and no generally accepted therapeutic value."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, July 22, 1997
"Federal authorities should rescind their prohibition of the medicinal use of marijuana for seriously ill patients and allow physicians to decide which patients to treat."
Editorial, New England Journal of Medicine, January 30, 1997.

"Marijuana is also a gateway drug."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, July 22, 1997
For every 104 people who have used marijuana, there is only one regular user of cocaine and less than one heroin addict.
Department of HHS, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997.

"The murder rate in Holland is double that in the United States... That's drugs."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, July 23, 1998.
The Dutch homicide rate in 1995 was one-fourth that of the United States
(1.8 vs. 8.0).

FBI,Uniform Crime Reports/Dutch Bureau of Statistics

"[Needle Exchange] programs are magnets for all social ills - pulling in crime, violence, addicts, prostitution, dealers, and gangs and driving out hope and opportunity."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, April 24, 1998.
"A meticulous scientific review has now proven that needle exchange programs can reduce the transmission of HIV and save lives without losing ground in the battle against illegal drugs."
Donna Shalala, Secretary of HHS April 20, 1998.

"Methadone is one of the longest-established, most thoroughly evaluated forms of drug treatment. The science is overwhelming in its findings about methadone treatment's effectiveness."
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, July 24, 1998.
TRUE!

One out of Six is Not Good Enough!
Visit Drug War Facts at: http://www.drugsense.org

Paid for by Common Sense for Drug Policy
Kevin B. Zeese President, 703-354-5694, 703-354-5695 (fax), csdp@drugsense.org
*** TIP OF THE WEEK Excellent Article on the Hernandez Murder Those interested in the details of how Esequiel Hernandez came to be killed by US Marines on drug patrol as well background information on the policies and events leading to use of US military personnel for domestic police work are encouraged to read Monte Paulsen's in-depth report,
"Drug War Masquerade" which appeared in the San Antonio Current. This outstanding expose was written with the help and feedback of Kevin Zeese and may be one of the best overviews on the subject to date. It can be downloaded in two parts at: http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n801.a05.html and http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98.n801.a06.html *** QUOTE OF THE WEEK "A strict observance of the written laws is doubtless one of the high virtues of a good citizen, but it is not the highest. The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation." --Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), U.S. president. Letter, 20 Sept. 1810 *** FACT OF THE WEEK The women's prison population increased at an average annual rate of growth of 11.2% from 1985-1996, compared to an annual rate of 7.9% increase for men. As of 1991, 33% of women offenders in state prisons were incarcerated for a drug offense, compared to 21% for men. (1997), p. 5; Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Prisoners in 1996, Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991, Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (1993, March), p. 4. *** DS Weekly is one of the many free educational services DrugSense offers our members. Watch this feature to learn more about what DrugSense can do for you. News/COMMENTS-Editor: Tom O'Connell (tjeffoc@drugsense.org) Senior-Editor: Mark Greer (mgreer@drugsense.org) We wish to thank all our contributors and Newshawks. NOTICE: In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. REMINDER: Please help us help reform. Send any news articles you find on any drug related issue to editor@mapinc.org PLEASE HELP: DrugSense provides this service at no charge BUT IT IS NOT FREE TO PRODUCE. We incur many costs in creating our many and varied services. If you are able to help by contributing a Tax Deductible Contribution to the DrugSense effort please make checks payable to MAP Inc. send your contribution to: The Media Awareness Project (MAP) Inc. d/b/a DrugSense PO Box 651 Porterville, CA 93258 (800) 266 5759 MGreer@mapinc.org http://www.mapinc.org/ http://www.drugsense.org/ -------------------------------------------------------------------

[End]

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