Portland NORML News - Monday, August 24, 1998

Alternative Medicine Isn't Just On Fringes Anymore ('The Oregonian'
Says Practitioners Of Naturopathic Medicine Are Gathering In Portland
For Their Annual Convention This Week - Portland And The Rest
Of The Northwest Have Been In The Forefront Of The Movement,
And A Study Released This Year By Landmark Healthcare In Sacramento,
California, Found That 42 Percent Of American Adults Use Some Form
Of Alternative Medicine, Spending $13.7 Billion A Year)

The Oregonian
letters to editor:
1320 SW Broadway
Portland, OR 97201
Web: http://www.oregonlive.com/

Alternative medicine isn't just on fringes anymore

* A convention in Portland underscores the rising profile of acupuncture,
herbs and other such therapies -- even among insurers

Monday, August 24 1998

By Erin Hoover Barnett
of The Oregonian staff

Hundreds of naturopathic physicians converge on Portland this week for a
national convention. They arrive as alternative and mainstream medicine,
pushed by consumer interest, take bolder steps toward each other:

* The Oregon Cancer Center at Oregon Health Sciences University is starting
research into alternative therapies for cancer.

* Kaiser Permanente plans to offer limited coverage for acupuncture and
naturopathic medicine beginning in January. Kaiser already covers
chiropractic care, as do most other big health insurers.

* Nature's Northwest , a grocery chain with organic produce and health
foods, opened a Lake Oswego store this month with a pharmacy for
prescription drugs combined with an herbal supplement dispensary. Customers
can consult with a pharmacist and/or a naturopath and look up herbs and
medications on an online computer network or read about them in a library
and bookstore above the pharmacy.

* OHSU's medical school will inaugurate an annual lecture on alternative
medicine next spring, adding to coursework already offered.

The conventional medical world began waking up to the alternative medicine
movement in 1993, when Dr. David Eisenberg published a study indicating that
one-third of all Americans use alternative therapies, spend $13.7 billion a
year on them and generally do not tell their doctors.

Consumers, recognizing the limits of conventional medicine, particularly in
treating chronic illnesses, are looking for options. In an era of 20-minute
doctor appointments at mega-medical office buildings, consumers are drawn to
the more personal touch of alternative medicine practitioners. Aging baby
boomers, taking charge of their health in ways their parents did not, are
fueling the movement.

Consumer pressure continues to build. A study released this year by Landmark
HealthCare in Sacramento, Calif., found that 42 percent of American adults
use some form of alternative medicine, particularly chiropractic and herbal

Portland and the rest of the Northwest have been in the forefront of the

"The Northwest is a melting pot of health care modalities," said Clyde
Jensen , president of Portland's National College of Naturopathic Medicine.
"The Northwestern mentality is a very independent, pioneering mentality that
has created a fertile ground for alternative health care measures as well as
alternative activities in other areas of life."

Jensen, a pharmacologist and past president of three osteopathic medicine
colleges, moved to Portland from Tulsa, Okla., in 1996.

National College and Bastyr University outside Seattle are the nation's only
fully accredited natural medicine schools. Bastyr offers undergraduate and
graduate programs in natural health sciences.

In addition to National College, Portland is home to chiropractic and Asian
medicine colleges and two massage schools.

The colleges have fostered the growth of alternative therapies and their
integration with conventional medicine.

In 1996, for example, Bastyr University and King County, which includes
Seattle, opened the nation's first fully integrated, publicly financed
conventional and natural medicine clinic. The King County Natural Medicine
Clinic offers primary medical care as well as naturopathic medicine,
acupuncture, chiropractic and massage.

"The rest of the country is now catching up to where Portland and Seattle
have long been," said Peter Barry Chowka , public affairs consultant for the
American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, based in Seattle.

Chowka expects 700 to 1,000 naturopaths and other health care practitioners
at the association's five-day professional conference beginning Wednesday.
The conference will include seminars on alternative medicine for mental
illness and naturopathic treatment for cancer.

Cancer is among hot topics

Cancer treatment is one of the areas of alternative medicine that is
beginning to capture the attention of the medical research community.

OHSU's Oregon Cancer Center has begun soliciting research proposals in four
areas: diet; exercise; mind/body medicine approaches to cancer, including
acupuncture and guided imagery; and preventive approaches for people at high
risk for cancer.

"Our charge at the cancer center is to try to validate some of the
alternative strategies that have been employed in the past and maybe even to
develop some for the future," said Dr. Grover Bagby , center director.

"My bet is that we're going to be able to do some good validations here. And
we may also find that some of the old tried-and-true holistic remedies don't
do much except make you feel good, which is also important."

Researchers at Bastyr are studying natural treatments for breast cancer as
well as for AIDS and respiratory tract infections.

Anna MacIntosh , dean of research at National College of Naturopathic
Medicine, and Dr. Bruce Goldberg, associate professor of family medicine at
OHSU, also are studying upper respiratory illness. They are testing the
effectiveness of herbal remedies in preventing colds.

Joanne Nyiendo and Mitchell Haas , research professors at Western States
Chiropractic College, are collaborating with Goldberg to compare standard
medical and chiropractic approaches to low-back pain. In 1994, Western
States became the first chiropractic institution to receive federal research
financing, a total of $1.8 million so far. Initial results of the study are
due in the fall.

"People outside the chiropractic profession are looking at us with new
vision," Nyiendo said. "It's like this stamp of approval because if the
federal government is going to put up your money as a taxpayer to do this,
then there must be something to it."

The more research, the more comfortable the medical establishment becomes
looking at possible uses of alternative therapies.

The National Institutes of Health issued a consensus statement in November
about which ailments acupuncture can treat effectively. Its findings helped
persuade Kaiser Permanente to begin covering acupuncture for certain health
problems, such as chronic pain.

Starting next year, Kaiser members who work for Fred Meyer and other large
regional employers may be referred by their primary doctors to a network of
acupuncturists or a network of naturopathic physicians, managed by
Complementary HealthCare Plans.

Kaiser's challenge has been to respond to members' desire for alternative
medicine while ensuring high-quality health care, said Dr. Tom Janisse ,
associate medical director for Northwest Permanente.

"This is all new for everyone," Janisse said. "This isn't like deciding to
work with a network of specialists who will deliver cardiology services.
Cardiology is a discipline that we know well, that we can evaluate well."

In April, Providence Health Plans began offering coverage through the same
acupuncture and naturopathic networks as Kaiser. Providence and Kaiser
already offer chiropractic care, using the network ChiroNet, also run by
Complementary HealthCare.

Research led Providence Health Plan to get involved in the Community
Selfcare Center of Nature's Northwest, which includes the pharmacy/herbal
supplement dispensary.

Providence doctors reviewed research presented by a Nature's consultant
showing the effect of mind/body medicine -- focusing on stress reduction,
diet changes, exercise and lifestyle adjustments -- in preventing and
treating heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Providence is considering
paying for classes at Nature's in mind/body medicine for health plan members.

"The next revolution"

"This really could be the next revolution in health care," said Kurt Ziehlke
, a registered nurse who does product development for Providence Health
Plans. "Research is coming out that (mind/body medicine) is certainly a
treatment option that shouldn't be ignored. It potentially can improve
patients' quality of life. It's certainly less invasive."

Stan Amy, Nature's president, said the Community Selfcare Center is based on
the idea that to help people lead healthier lives, health care needs to be
"in the path of everyday living."

"The nation's ready," Amy said. "The entire environment around alternative
medicine has changed radically. There's just been an explosion in interest,
both among the public and the medical community, and we really need both."

OHSU's medical school also has begun delving into alternative medicine.
Besides starting its annual lecture on the topic, the school gives
second-year students a half-day seminar on creating integrative health care
by incorporating some types of alternative therapies. An alternative
medicine student interest group also is active on campus.

"It's very important from my perspective that our medical students are fully
aware of what their patients' interests are," said Dr. Edward Keenan ,
associate dean for medical education at OHSU. "And it's clear that many
patients have an interest in alternative medicine."

Peter Baez Defense Fund (A List Subscriber Forwards A Plea
For Legal Donations For The Co-Founder And Volunteer Director
Of The Santa Clara Medical Cannabis Center - Plus Links To A Few Articles
About The Case)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:46:44 -0800
To: dpfca@drugsense.org
From: canorml@igc.apc.org (Dale Gieringer)
Sender: owner-dpfca@drugsense.org
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org
Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/dpfca/

>Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 13:28:55 -0700
>From: "Baez,Peter" (sccmcc@garlic.com)
>To: Dale Gieringer (canorml@igc.apc.org)
>Peter Baez is the co-founder and volunteer director of
>the Santa Clara Medical Cannabis Center, which served
>as the primary caregiver to provide medical marijuana
>to 265 fellow sufferers from AIDS,Cancer, and other
>debilitating diseases in the San Jose area. The center
>sought to implement Proposition 215, a California
>Initiative which declared the right of medical
>patients to use marijuana for medical purposes with
>the written or oral approval of a physician. On March
>23rd, 1998, San Jose Police officers unlawfully seized
>all patient files, all computers, and the centers bank
>account, forcing it out of business. Peter Baez was
>indicted on seven felony counts, and faces a maximum
>of twenty-six years imprisonment. These charges are
>based upon an accusation that he did not fully comply
>with San Jose Police Department Regulations requiring
>that the physician's approval be verified in writing,
>and that funds paid to him to reimburse his expenses
>rendered him ineligible for federal housing benefits,
>as a vet of the Air Force, he received for his own
>disability. Peter maintains his innocence of all
>charges, and has requested a jury trial. The Peter
>Baez Defense Fund has been established to assist in
>defraying the expenses of Peter's legal defense. Peter
>is being represented by Thomas Nolan of Palo Alto and
>Professor Gerald F. Uelmen of Santa Clara University
>School of Law. Tax-deductible contributions may be
>sent to Daniel Abrahamson, C/O The Lindesmith Center,
>1095 Market St., Suite 505, San Francisco, Ca 94103.
>Checks should be made payable to The Lindesmith Center
>(a non-profit organization engaged in the promotion of
>rational drug policy in America), with a notation they
>are for the Peter Baez Defense Fund. Any money raised
>above what Peter needs, will be used to help others
>who are facing similar charges in implementing Prop.
>Thank You.


Dale Gieringer (415) 563-5858 // canorml@igc.apc.org
2215-R Market St. #278, San Francisco CA 94114


[Some articles about the Peter Baez case:]

Simpson Lawyer To Defend Pot Club Chief (July 10)
Ex-Pot Club Director Gathers Top Lawyers (July 9)
Crusader's Image Takes Hit (June 8)
Judge Approves Medical Marijuana Use (May 28)
The Fall Of St. Peter - Why Public Officials Abandoned
Medical Marijuana Advocate Peter Baez.(May 28)
Baez Facing New Charges (May 19)
Santa Clara County Medical Cannabis Center Update (May 11)
San Jose Pot Club Shuts Its Doors After A Year (May 9)
Cannabis Center's Closing Is A Sad Day For San Jose (May 8)

Update - Chavez/Herrick (A List Subscriber Forwards Coverage
Of Today's Court Hearing In Orange County, California - Medical Marijuana
Defendant Marvin Chavez Has Fired His Expensive, Pro Bono Attorney
In Favor Of A Public Defender - And Convicted Orange County Medical Marijuana
Defendant David Herrick Has A New Prison Address)

From: Remembers@webtv.net (Genie Brittingham)
Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 07:33:47 -0700 (PDT)
To: dpfca@drugsense.org
Subject: DPFCA: Fwd: UPDATE:Chavez/Herrick
Sender: owner-dpfca@drugsense.org
Reply-To: dpfca@drugsense.org
Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/dpfca/
She Who Remembers

Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 04:20:08 EDT
To: remembers@webtv.net
Subject: UPDATE:Chavez/Herrick

Subject: Marvin Chavez hearing.
Date: 8-24-98
From: William Britt

Unhappy with pro bono Atty's Kennedy and Alexander because of lack of
communication their failure to file wrts of appeals on the judge's decision to
release patient records and deny a prop. 215 defense, Chavez was able to
convince judge Frank Fasel to appoint a public defender.

Criminal Lawyer Thomas Thornberg offered to assist Chavez, but after speaking
with Kennedy advised Chavez to dismiss Alexander, but retain Kennedy because
the judge would not give him the time he needed to research the case so they
could work together.

Chavez had made up his mind to go with the public defender and Thornberg
stated that he would offer support. The judge will probably grant a
continuance to give the PD time to review the case on friday.


Subject: Dave Herrick - New Mailing Address

Dave's new address is:

David Herrick P-06857
Wasco State Prison-Reception Center
P.O. Box 5500
Wasco, Ca 93280-5500

Dave has been moved to a reception facility with tough restrictions on types of
mail. He is not allowed newspapers so he is desperate for information. He is
allowed computer print-outs. He can receive a book of stamps or 5 stamped

He will stay where he's at for anywhere from 51/2 weeks to 5 months. He has
been classified as restricted to light duty and will not have to perform hard
labor, fire camps etc.. He can purchase 600 mg. Motrin. He is allowed out of
his cell for an hour and a half 3 days a week in the dayroom and twice a week
in the outdoor yard.

When Marvin refused the plea bargin, Atty. Kennedy wondered in an newspaper
interview what Dave would do if he had a chance to keep from spending 3 years
in jail. It was a retorical question, but I asked him if he would have cut a
deal, he sent me his reply:

"Even though I was never offered a plea bargin, to take one would have
admitted guilt, to a crime or criminal activity. At no time were Marvin
Chavez or I ever engaged in criminal activities. It was our desire to provide
a safe and affordable means for people with bona fide recommendations from
their physicians, the opportunity to obtain their "medicine" without the fear
of having to deal through the "Black Market". There was never any criminal
intent, we were only acting out of compassion for these fellow patients who
were denied access to their medicine because of the state governments
inability to establish a bona fide distribution system. I would not have
taken a plea bargin then, and I sure won't settle for anything less than total
vindication." - Dave Herrick.

Please contact me if you have any questions or wish to donate time or money to
Marvin and Dave's legal funds.

William Britt
Patient Advocate

If A Guest Uses Drugs, Out You Go ('The San Francisco Examiner'
Recounts The Case Of A Public Housing Tenant Who Almost Became Homeless
Because, Unknown To Her, A Guest Possessed Heroin - With Help
From San Francisco's Volunteer Legal Services Program, Which Took Her Case
For Free, She Was Able To Put Her Case To A Jury, Which Rescued Her
From The Federal 'One Strike You're Out' Housing Policy)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 17:05:31 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US CA: If A Guest Uses Drugs, Out You Go
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA)
Contact: letters@examiner.com
Website: http://www.examiner.com/
Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998
Author: Emelyn Cruz Lat OF THE EXAMINER STAFF


It took a jury's verdict to save the apartment of Christina Mabanag

Christina Mabanag, a single mother of three, was working a second job as an
in-home caretaker last year when she received a frantic call.

An excited neighbor told her there was a large crowd outside her home.
Police were inside interrogating people, outside on her balcony, and
walking around the complex's narrow corridors.

Wild thoughts ran through her mind. Was one of her daughters hurt? Did
someone burglarize her home? Unable to leave her wheelchair-bound patient
behind, Mabanag drove home, bringing the 82-year-old woman.

As she made her way past the throng, it became clear that police were there
for a very different reason. She recalled a uniformed security guard
pointing at her and saying, "I have no sympathy for you. You're going to
lose your apartment."

The message hit her like a ton of bricks.

"I was so bothered and confused," said Mabanag, who lives in newly
renovated public housing but asked that her address not be disclosed
because she fears for her safety.

She recounted how she was detained and questioned that day in March, 1997,
as if she were under arrest.

Authorities told Mabanag that her guest, a family friend staying for the
weekend, had been arrested for drug possession. It didn't matter that she
wasn't home, that she said she didn't know her friend used drugs - she
would be evicted.

The Housing Authority invoked the federal government's "one strike, you're
out" policy, which allows evictions for offenses inside or outside tenants'
apartments, with or without their knowledge. One of the most controversial
uses of the policy nationwide has been against tenants who didn't know
visitors had drugs.

"I was really having a hard time," said Mabanag, her voice faltering. "I
was going crazy. I didn't know what to do. I was calling my social worker
all the time."

Soon the eviction notices came, one on her doorstep, another wedged in her
screen door, a third hung on a gate.

Mabanag, who has no criminal record and never had problems at the
development, tried to talk to her building manager, but "he said there was
nothing he could do. I was evicted."

He ordered her to turn in her keys and vacate the one-bedroom unit she
shared with her children: Clara Jean Dixon, 12; Jasmine May, 8; and Marina
Mabanag, 7. After the initial shock and disbelief dissipated, indignation
set in. She refused to leave.

Juggling her schedule as a part-time security guard, weekend caretaker and
full-time mother, she went searching for legal help. The City's volunteer
legal services program took her case for free.

One of Mabanag's attorneys, Carolyn Burton, tried to negotiate with the
city attorney's office, which represented the Housing Authority.

Burton asked whether Mabanag could stay if she signed an agreement never
again to let the guest in her home. Mabanag consented to warrantless
searches to assure that no drug activity was going on.

"After all, she had nothing to fear," Burton said. "She was innocent."

But the city attorney's office rejected the offer.

Matt Davis, the deputy city attorney who oversaw the prosecution, said he
reviewed the case and determined that Mabanag should have known that her
guest had a drug habit. The guest was found wandering the complex under the
influence of heroin, he said.

"Public housing is a privilege, not a right," he said. "Do people have to
live with crime just because they're poor?"

Police seized balloons filled with heroin and cocaine, hypodermic needles
and other paraphernalia associated with drug use that "showed she shouldn't
have allowed that woman to stay there," Davis said.

During a three-day trial, two weeks before Christmas 1997, lawyers on both
sides agreed on virtually all the facts. They concurred that drugs were
found in the apartment, that Mabanag's friend possessed them and that she
and her children were not in the apartment at the time.

But they disagreed over who was responsible.

Mabanag's lawyers said the jury must find she had direct knowledge of her
friend's drug use to sustain an eviction.

"How are they making public housing safer by getting rid of tenants who did
nothing wrong?" said Burton. "You can't be the keeper of everything you
don't know about. (The one-strike policy) is zero tolerance, not zero
common sense."

The Housing Authority not only argued Mabanag knew of her friend's drug
use, but also said they had the right to oust her regardless of what she
knew. "Good cause requires that the grounds for eviction are fa wrote
Deputy City Attorney Scott Rennie in court papers. He contended that
Mabanag knew of her friend's drug problem and chose to ignore it.

Jurors disagreed.

In its unanimous verdict, the jury found that although the guest had
possessed illegal drugs, Mabanag had no actual knowledge of the drugs and
should not be evicted.

Hearing the decision, Mabanag wept.

"There were a few tears shed by all of us," said Kathy Pugh, one of her

Mabanag says that despite the verdict, her life will never be the same.

"I'm scared now," she said. "Someone knocks on my door and I get nervous. I
don't let anyone come into my house anymore."

1998 San Francisco Examiner

New Drug Use Statistics Versus McCaffrey Assumptions (Dave Fratello
Of Americans For Medical Rights Quotes The US Drug Czar In November 1996
Pledging To 'Inform All States' Of The 'Consequences Of The Referenda'
Over Medical Marijuana In California And Arizona - So What Will Happen
Now That The New National Household Survey On Drug Abuse
Shows California Kids Use Less Pot?)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 23:20:34 GMT
To: "DRCTalk Reformers' Forum" (drctalk@drcnet.org)
From: Dave Fratello (amr@lainet.com)
Subject: New drug use stats vs. McCaffrey assumptions
Reply-To: drctalk@drcnet.org
Sender: owner-drctalk@drcnet.org

When the data from last week's new Household Survey on Drug Abuse did not
actually show vast increases in California kids' marijuana use, I wondered
what those who ordered the special over-samples had actually predicted.
Here are two references...

NOV. 15, 1996 -- statement from Office of National Drug Control Policy --
headline: "Drug Czar McCaffrey Emphasizes Federal Law Remains in Effect
Following CA/AZ Referenda Legalizing Marijuana and Other Drugs as
'Medicine'" -- all in McCaffrey's voice:

"... We will actively collect data -- i.e., drug related accident rates,
teen pregnancy, work absences, hospital emergency cases, and the like --
which will indicate the consequences of the referenda." By our judgment,
increased drug abuse in every category will be the inevitable result of the
referenda. "We will inform all states."

DECEMBER 30, 1996 -- from the 7-page 'action plan' on ONDCP letterhead
spelling out all federal agencies' responses to the propositions --

"Objective 4 - Protect children from increased marijuana availability and
use.... HHS will analyze all available data on marijuana use, expand
ongoing surveys to determine current levels of marijuana use in California
and Arizona, and track changes in marijuana use in those states."


Now the 1997 numbers are in:

Among youth age 12-17, teens in California report less frequent marijuana
use than the national average -- a full 1/3 lower.

9.9% for U.S. excluding AZ and CA,

6.6% for California

Meanwhile, HHS punted on doing any comparisons. Apparently the
statisticians wouldn't let them lie this time. 1997 will now be a baseline
for future comparisons.

Hemp Gets Its Day In The Summer Fun (The Seattle 'Post-Intelligencer'
Says 35,000 People Attended The Annual Seattle Hempfest Sunday
At Myrtle Edwards Park On The Waterfront)

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-News" (when@hemp.net)
Subject: Hemp gets its day in the summer fun
Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:23:38 -0700
Sender: owner-when@hemp.net

Author: Larry Lange, P-I Reporter

Hemp gets its day in the summer fun

Smoke and political fire in the park

Hempfest '98, the annual marijuana political festival, filled a Seattle
waterfront park with the plant's advocates yesterday.

But it will be an initiative on the November ballot that will tell how much
power lies behind the show.

An estimated 35,000 people, according to the Seattle Police Department, came
to Myrtle Edwards Park to display their affection for the weed and their
support for the initiative that would legalize the drug for medical use.

They danced to music, perused clothing made from hemp, a plant used for
textile and other industrial purposes, and listened to speeches condemning
the national war on drugs and laws that make marijuana illegal.

"I'm one of many people that support the medical use of marijuana," said Eva
Harrow, a Tacoma woman who strolled with her husband and 2-year-old daughter
near the edge of Elliott Bay. "It's a matter of right."

Initiative 692, which, if passed, would leave the use of medical marijuana
up to patients and their doctors will be on the November ballot. Washington
voters last year strongly rejected a similar measure that permitted medical
use of marijuana by prescription but contained other controversial
provisions, including the release of some prisoners serving time for drug
violations and prescribed medical use of LSD and heroin.

Medical-use initiatives have been approved in California and Arizona, and
another one will also be on the ballot this year in Oregon.

Yesterday's festival, like others before it, used merchandising - as well as
rhetoric - to promote the legal use of marijuana. T-shirts sold at the
festival organizers' booth displayed likenesses of George Washington and
claimed he was an early American hemp grower. And at the end of a line of
food booths, California soft-drink maker Willie Phalinger hawked a soda he
said was made with hemp-seed oil in ginger and black cherry flavors.

At the gathering yesterday, an occasional whiff of pot could be detected
walking through the long, narrow park. As of late afternoon, 20 people had
been cited and removed from the park for possessing small amounts of
marijuana. There were two felony arrests for drug dealing, said Lt. Dick
Schweitzer, the head of the more than 90-member Seattle Police detail at the

That is about a third of the number arrested or cited a year ago at Hempfest
'97, Schweitzer said.

"It was a real good crowd this year, very mellow," Schweitzer said.

Some of the festival goers gathered around a booth where staffers shouted
out: "Marijuana lollipops!" The $1-pops sold by a Portland enterprise called
Cannabis Candy Co. were green and sweet and contained hemp oils that
transmitted the taste of the plant on the tongue.

"They're good," said Wade Davis of Port Orchard, sucking on one of the
candies while he hung out with friends. "I'm going to get some more."

Jason Davis, Cannabis Candy's president, said he'll soon begin searching for
local retailers to carry his product. The candy, he said, can be legally sold
because it contains only a small trace of THC, the active chemical in

The weather was mostly overcast yesterday, bringing out a smaller crowd than
a year ago. But attendees were no less enthusiastic in their marijuana
advocacy, although many said they were not sure they have the political clout
to pass this year's Washington state initiative.

"There are too many people that are against it," said Michelle Smit of
Seattle. "They're still worried about their kids smoking pot."

Her husband Jason, said he thinks such a measure will eventually pass.
"It'll take a while, but it will happen," he said.

P-I reporter Larry Lange can be reached at 206-448-8313 or

Thousands Turn Out For Marijuana Festival ('The Associated Press' Version)

From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (when@olywa.net)
To: "-Hemp Talk" (hemp-talk@hemp.net)
Subject: HT: Thousands turn out for marijuana festival
Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:38:47 -0700
Sender: owner-hemp-talk@hemp.net

Thousands turn out for marijuana festival

The Associated Press
08/24/98 3:00 PM Eastern

SEATTLE (AP) -- Thousands of people turned out for an annual celebration
extolling marijuana.

Hempfest '98 was held Sunday at Myrtle Edwards Park on the waterfront. The
Seattle Police Department estimated 35,000 people attended the event, which
featured music, displays of items made from hemp, including clothing, and
speeches condemning laws that make marijuana illegal.

This year's event came against the backdrop of Initiative 692, which will be
on the November general-election ballot. If passed, it would allow some
medicinal uses of marijuana.

Washington voters last year strongly rejected a similar measure, but that
proposal also contained controversial provisions such as allowing
prescription of LSD and heroin for medical use.

Sunday's festival featured displays of hemp-related merchandise, ranging
from T-shirts and marijuana-flavored lollipops to a soft drink that the
maker said was made with hemp-seed oil in ginger and black cherry flavors.

By late afternoon, 20 people had been cited for possessing small amounts of
marijuana, and there were two felony arrests for drug dealing, police Lt.
Dick Schweitzer said.

"It was a real good crowd this year, very mellow," Schweitzer said.

Counselor Arrested In El Reno ('The Oklahoman' Quotes FBI Spokesman Dan Vogel
Saying Glen Brummett, A Counselor For The Federal Correctional Institution
In El Reno, Oklahoma, Was Arrested Sunday On Complaints Of Conspiracy
To Manufacture, Possess And Distribute Methamphetamine
And Introduce Contraband Into A Federal Correctional Center)

Date: Wed, 26 Aug 1998 20:50:19 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US OK: Counselor Arrested in El Reno
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Michael Pearson 
Source: The Oklahoman (OK)
Contact: http://www.oklahoman.com/?ed-writeus
Website: http://www.oklahoman.com/
Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998
Author: Andrea Perrin, Staff Writer


A counselor for the Federal Correctional Institution in El Reno was arrested
Sunday on complaints of conspiracy to manufacture, possess and distribute
methamphetamine and introduce contraband into a federal correctional center,
FBI spokesman Dan Vogel said.

Glen Brummett, 46, was arrested about 7:15 a.m. when he arrived at work. At
the same time, his home at 405 N Park St. in El Reno was searched by federal

Vogel said he couldn't comment on what was found at Brummett's house.

An investigation began six months ago when authorities received information
about drugs possibly being taken into the prison.

Brummett, who has worked at the center, was in the Oklahoma County jail
Sunday night.

Pregnant Smokers' Deadly Legacy ('The Scotsman' Says Research Carried Out
At The University Of Minnesota Cancer Center In Minneapolis And Presented
At The Annual Meeting Of The American Chemical Society In Boston
Found By-Products Of A Nicotine-Derived Chemical Called NNK,
One Of The Strongest Carcinogens In Tobacco Smoke, In The Urine Of Infants
Born To Smoking Mothers - The New Findings Are The First To Show
That A Cancer-Causing Substance Specific To Tobacco Is Transmitted
To The Foetus)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 17:14:32 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: Pregnant Smokers' Deadly Legacy
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: shug@shug.co.uk
Source: Scotsman (UK)
Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com
Website: http://www.scotsman.com/
Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998


Scientists find clear evidence that women using tobacco pass on a strong
'cancer trigger' to unborn children John von Radowitz

CLEAR evidence that pregnant women who smoke transmit a powerful cancer
trigger to their babies has been discovered for the first time by scientists.

One of Britain's leading cancer experts described the findings as "absolute

Researchers in the United States found by-products of a nicotine-derived
chemical called NNK in the urine of infants born to smoking mothers. NNK,
unique to tobacco. is one of the strongest carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

The results from the University of Minnesota Cancer Center in Minneapolis,
suggest that alarming amounts of the chemical pass through the placenta to
be broken down in the unborn baby's body. Levels of the NNK by-products in
the babies were about 10 per cent of those found in the urine of adult
smokers - two and a half times the adult concentration, weight-for-weight.

Women are strongly advised not to smoke during pregnancy but until now all
the evidence of harm to the foetus has been based on statistical
correlations. Babies whose mothers smoked when pregnant were more likely to
be small, under-weight, have low intelligence and suffer from glue ear.

There is also some suspicion that leukaemia rates are higher in children
whose mothers smoked during pregnancy.

The new findings, presented at the annual meeting of the American Chemical
Society in Boston, are the first to show that a cancer-causing substance
specific to tobacco is transmitted to the foetus.

Professor Gordon McVie, director general of the Cancer Research Campaign.
said: "This is absolute dynamite. It's awful. Here we have cast-iron,
water-tight evidence that the baby is exposed to carcinogens thanks to the
mother's smoking habits."

A team of scientists led by Dr Stephen Hecht tested samples of the first
urine passed by 48 babies, from both smokers and non-smoking mothers, sent
to them by collaborating researchers in Germany.

In 22 of 31 samples from new-born babies whose mothers smoked during
pregnancy they found NNK metabolites - chemicals left after a substance is
broken down by the body.

No metabolites of the carcinogen were found in samples from babies whose
mothers did not smoke.

Dr Hecht called the findings "an unacceptable risk". He said the levels of
NNK by-products found were "substantial when one considers that exposure of
the developing foetus to NNK would have taken place throughout pregnancy".

Prof McVie said he was surprised and alarmed by the high levels of
metabolites discovered. "The average baby weighs about three kilos, so
you're looking at a concentration in the urine something like two and a
half times that of an adult, weight for weight," he said. "The chemical has
gone through the whole body. It's passed through the blood system, been
metabolised, gone through the liver and reached the kidneys. All the
tissues in the body must have seen it."

The research was an extension of previous work from Dr Hecht which last
year showed that NNK is found in non-smoking adults who breath in other
people's smoke at work

Dr Hecht pointed out that since most women who smoke during pregnancy
continue the habit afterwards, their children are exposed to the dangerous
chemical for many years.

Clive Bates, director of Action on Smoking and Health, said: "Babies
exposed to cancer-causing chemicals in the womb are suffering from one of
the nastiest forms of passive smoking."

Pregnant Smokers Pass Carcinogen To Baby ('The Washington Post'
And 'Associated Press' Version In 'The Seattle Times')

Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 11:58:02 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: Study: Pregnant Smokers Pass Carcinogen to Baby
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: John Smith
Source: Seattle Times (WA)
Contact: opinion@seatimes.com
Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/
Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998
Author: The Washington Post and The Associated Press


Women who smoke while pregnant appear to pass a potent carcinogen to their
babies, researchers reported today.

The study goes beyond what scientists have known for years: Smoking by
pregnant women causes babies to be born smaller, sicklier and, in some
cases, addicted to nicotine.

"These results demonstrate a significant potential risk to the unborn child
of a woman who smokes," said Stephen Hecht of the University of Minnesota
Cancer Center, who led the new research.

Hecht analyzed the first urine samples collected from 48 babies of smokers
and nonsmokers in Germany. Hecht looked for NNK, a carcinogen found only in
tobacco products, and for byproducts of NNK after it had been processed by
the body - NNAL and NNAL-Gluc.

"We found that the positive samples were only from the newborns of mothers
who smoked," Hecht said. Of the 31 samples from mothers who smoked during
pregnancy, 22 contained NNK, NNAL or NNAL-Gluc. Babies of nonsmokers had
none of those substances in their urine, Hecht said.

The pregnant women in the two-year study smoked between 5 and 25 cigarettes
a day, averaging 12 cigarettes a day. Results showed that NNK crosses the
placental barrier between mother and fetus, where it is then broken down by
the fetus and expelled in its urine, Hecht said.

"Hopefully this will deliver the message one more time about how dangerous
it is for pregnant women to smoke," Hecht said yesterday. Only 39 percent
of smokers quit when they become pregnant, according to a 1990 study in the
American Journal of Public Health.

Hecht was reporting the findings today at the annual meeting of the
American Chemical Society in Boston. The research has not been subjected to
peer review, the usual vetting process for published studies but rarely a
part of presentations at scientific meetings.

Hecht said more research is needed to determine the likelihood of the NNK
leading to cancer in the newborns later in life.

NNK, from the family of cancer-causing substances known as nitrosamines, is
not the only carcinogen in tobacco smoke but it is especially powerful. It
can cause adenocarcinoma, a kind of lung cancer found largely in smokers.
Studies have shown that the toxin can be passed from mother to offspring in

Previous studies have shown increases in respiratory ailments among the
children of smokers, as well as other health problems. Smoking during
pregnancy also has been linked to low birth weight and other conditions.

The levels of NNK and the related chemicals found in babies in the new
study was about 10 percent of the amount of those substances found in

Pregnant Smokers Transmit Toxins (The New Bedford, Massachusetts,
'Standard-Times' Version)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 19:07:49 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: Pregnant Smokers Transmit Toxins
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: John Smith
Pubdate: Monday, 24 August, 1998
Source: Standard-Times (MA)
Contact: YourView@S-T.com
Website: http://www.s-t.com/
Author: Michael Woods, Toledo Blade


BOSTON -- Women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy transmit one of
the most powerful carcinogens in tobacco smoke straight to the blood
of their unborn babies, scientists reported here yesterday.

Until now, public health authorities believed that nicotine and carbon
monoxide were the two most dangerous substances passed from the blood
of smoking mothers through the placenta into the blood of a developing

Carbon monoxide decreases the amount of oxygen circulating inside the
fetus' body. Nicotine, which is highly addictive, has its own adverse
effects. Both substances got much of the blame for rouge's gallery of
harmful effects linked known to occur in babies born to smoking mothers.

"This represents an unacceptable new risk to the fetus," Dr. Stephen
S. Hecht said in an interview. "Women should make every effort to not
to smoke during pregnancy, or any other time, for that matter."

Dr. Hecht reported the first direct chemical evidence that a powerful
tobacco carcinogen, NNK, is transmitted to the developing fetus when a
woman smokes cigarettes. He announced the finding at the 216th
national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS), being held
here this week.

With 155,000 members, the ACS is the world's largest scientific
organization. About 14,000 members are gathering here to present and
hear 6,700 reports on new advances in scientific fields -- ranging
from astronomy to zoology that involve chemistry.

In addition to holding national meetings, the ACS publishes most of
the world's top chemistry journals, sets standards for chemical names
and education, and engages in other activities.

Smoking is surprisingly common among pregnant women, Dr. Hecht

Tobacco smoke contains more than 2,500 chemical compounds, including
about 40 carcinogens, substances that cause cancer.

Dr. Hecht and his associates detected NNK and related compounds in
urine samples collected from newborn infants whose mothers smoked
during pregnancy. No NNK was found in urine of infants born to
non-smoking mothers.

Since the carcinogen is found only in tobacco smoke, there was no
other possible way, aside from cigarette smoking, in which it could
have gotten into the infants' bodies, Dr. Hecht said.

Researchers do not know whether NNK, like nicotine, also is passed to
infants in the breast milk of smoking mothers who nurse, Dr. Hecht

Women who smoke have a higher risk of complications during pregnancy,
low birthweight babies, stillbirths, and more babies who die during
the first month of infancy, according to the American Cancer Society.

The society said studies also link smoking during pregnancy with
long-term effects on a child. At age 7, for instance, children whose
mothers smoked heavily during pregnancy were shorter in stature and
had lower reading ability than other children.

Dr. Hecht said the precise risks to unborn infants from NNK are not
yet clear.

One major concern involves the possibility that infants exposed to
such a carcinogen before birth may have an increased of cancer as
adults, he said.

The cancer society says that children exposed to 10 or more cigarettes
during pregnancy have a 50 per cent higher risk of cancer.

Lawyer Sues US To Overturn Ban On Marijuana ('The Philadelphia Inquirer'
Discusses The Federal Class-Action Lawsuit Seeking To Overturn
The Federal Prohibition On Medical Marijuana, Filed By Public Interest Lawyer
Lawrence Elliott Hirsch Of Philadelphia)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 14:44:33 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US PA: Lawyer Sues U.S. To Overturn Ban On Marijuana
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: compassion23@geocities.com (Frank S. World)
Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998
Source: Philadelphia Inquirer (PA)
Contact: Inquirer.Opinion@phillynews.com
Website: http://www.phillynews.com/
Author: Joseph A. Slobodzian INQUIRER STAFF WRITER


Cited in the suit, which seeks to allow medicinal use, are personal stories
like the one of a Philadelphia AIDS patient and activist.

It's been said that nothing is so powerful as an idea whose time has come,
and lawyer Lawrence Elliott Hirsch may be right: That now is the hour to
sue to legalize the medical use of marijuana.

After all, it's been two years since Californians approved a ballot
question legalizing the medical use of marijuana to help patients suffering
from such illnesses as cancer, AIDS and glaucoma.

In the last month, state officials in Nevada and Washington state have
certified referendums for November's general election on legalizing
marijuana for medical use.

And in Camden County, Edward Forchion, an independent candidate for county
freeholder running on the "Legalize Marijuana" slate, has staged a
high-profile campaign that has gotten him charged with possession of a
controlled dangerous substance after he openly smoked a joint in both
Camden County Democratic headquarters and the office of U.S. Rep. Robert
Andrews (D., N.J.).

Smelling the winds of change, Hirsch said he decided that the time was
right to use the weapon of a federal class-action lawsuit to end the
government's 61-year-old ban on the herb aficionados prefer to call by its
Latin name, cannabis.

"This has to be the hottest issue since communism," said Hirsch, 59, in a
recent interview. Hirsch's lawsuit, filed last month in U.S. District
Court, lives up to his description as being a "grass-roots effort." Most of
the lawsuit's 128 pages are taken up with the life stories of 164
plaintiffs who contend they have found significant health benefits to
smoking marijuana.

Among the plaintiffs in the suit are Kiyoshi Kuromiya, 55, an AIDS patient
and activist from Philadelphia who says using marijuana helped him gain 40
pounds he had lost through "AIDS wasting syndrome," and Nancy Jamison, who
operates a Boston nonprofit corporation distributing food to the poor.

Jamison has used marijuana to combat the pain and symptoms of multiple
sclerosis, a crippling nerve disorder. Hirsch said the lawsuit had been two
years in the making, since he began advertising for plaintiffs at a
convention of the Washington-based Drug Policy Foundation, which has
lobbied to change U.S. drug laws.
Link to earlier story
The lawsuit has been assigned to U.S. District Judge Marvin Katz, a 15-year veteran on the federal bench, and is awaiting a formal appearance by a lawyer for the only defendant: the United States of America. First Assistant U.S. Attorney Michael L. Levy said that the lawsuit would be defended by lawyers for the Justice Department in Washington, and that those lawyers were drafting a motion to dismiss the lawsuit.
Link to earlier story
Hirsch said he was not worried: "I can't wait to hear the official response." Almost as unusual as the length of Hirsch's lawsuit is the nature of its claim: It seeks, in classic constitutional parlance, the "redress of grievances by the people," as it reads in the final clause of the First Amendment, for the "government prohibition of therapeutic cannabis." It was for that reason, Hirsch explained, that he purposely sued the U.S. government as an entity rather than naming individual defendants such as U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno, or Barry McCaffrey, the Clinton administration's drug czar.
Link to earlier story
Unlike the government's ill-fated 13-year effort to ban the use of alcohol except for medicinal purposes, enacted by the 18th Amendment and repealed by the 21st in 1933, Hirsch noted that laws prohibiting marijuana were imposed by Congress in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and in subsequent federal regulations by the Justice Department and the predecessor to the Drug Enforcement Administration. "What we have now is prohibition without a constitutional amendment," Hirsch said. Although the First Amendment's "redress of grievances" phrase is often interpreted to mean the people's right to petition Congress or the president, Hirsch argues that the wording does not exclude a court challenge. "It is absolutely the responsibility of the courts to determine the constitutionality of laws," Hirsch said. "This isn't a political question, it isn't a legislative question, it isn't an executive question. It's a judicial question." Hirsch could be right. But it's the judicial answer that scares a lot of others in the marijuana legalization movement. "Of course I'm concerned about making bad law," said Keith Stroup, a lawyer and executive director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), the Washington-based group that has campaigned to legalize cannabis since 1970. Stroup said he and NORML lawyers were to obtain a copy of Hirsch's lawsuit and would consider whether to support it, either as a "friend of the court" or by providing expert witnesses if the case gets to trial. "We're not in disagreement with [ Hirsch's ] goals," Stroup said. "The real question is whether we're using limited resources wisely and in a way that supports the social change we're seeking. "We're not in the 1970s anymore. . . . The federal courts today are a much more conservative body, and judges generally are unwilling to take on issues of social or political change." NORML has been down this route before. In 1972, it launched a suit petitioning the DEA's predecessor, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, to legalize cannabis. In 1988, after the prodding of a federal appeals court and two years of hearings, Francis L. Young, then chief DEA administrative law judge, concluded that the evidence "clearly shows that marijuana has been accepted as capable of relieving the distress of great numbers of very ill people, and doing so with safety under medical supervision. It would be unreasonable, arbitrary, and capricious for DEA to continue to stand between those sufferers and the benefits of this substance." The DEA director at the time, John Lawn, rejected Young's findings, a ruling that was upheld when NORML appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. At that point, Stroup said, NORML looked at the complexion of the U.S. Supreme Court and decided not to appeal further, fearing it could wind up with "bad law": binding Supreme Court precedent against legalizing marijuana. Since then, Stroup said, NORML has supported the two-year-old petition by Jon Gettman, a former NORML president, and Trans High Corp., the publisher of High Times Magazine, asking the DEA to end the marijuana prohibition. DEA officials in December responded to the petition by asking scientists at the Department of Health and Human Services to study whether marijuana and its chemical components should be removed from its Schedule I list of most dangerous drugs. Hirsch, however, derides Stroup's and NORML's concerns about his lawsuit's potential for creating "bad law," noting that the government has essentially phased out its short-lived experiment of providing marijuana to eligible patients who are seriously or terminally ill. "That's the worst bull," Hirsch said, referring to fears of his lawsuit. "How can we make an already repressive, bad law any worse if we go to court?"

Constantine On C-Span Wednesday Morning (A List Subscriber Publicizes
An Appearance By The Head Of The Drug Enforcement Administration
7-10 AM Wednesday EST, 4-7 AM On The West Coast)

From: "Peter McWilliams" (peter@mcwilliams.com)
To: "Peter McWilliams" (peter@mcwilliams.com)
Subject: FW: Constantine on C-Span Wed AM
Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 13:11:51 +0100


Constantine on C-Span Wed AM

DEA administrator Constantine will be on C-Span Wed morning on the
Washington Journal sometime between 7AM and 10 AM EST (4AM to 7AM PST).
Please try to call in and make his visit an informative learning experience

400 North Capitol St. NW
Suite 650
Washington DC 20001
202 624-1115 Conservative
202 624 1111 Liberal
(202) 737-6734 Moderate
FAX (202) 737-6734 FAX show

Alcohol-Related Driving Deaths At Record Low (An 'Associated Press' Article
In 'The Seattle Times' Says The US Department Of Transportation
Reported Today The Percentage Of Traffic Fatalities Caused By Drunken Driving
Dropped To A Record Low In 1997 - There Were 16,189 Alcohol-Related
Traffic Deaths In 1997, 38.6 Percent Of The Total, Down From 40.9 Percent
In 1996 And 57.3 Percent In 1982)

Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 17:07:55 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: WA: Alcohol-Related Deaths At Record Low
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: John Smith
Pubdate: Monday, 24 August, 1998
Source: Seattle Times (WA)
Contact: opinion@seatimes.com
Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/
Author: Kalpana Srinivasan, Associated Press writer


WASHINGTON-- The percentage of traffic fatalities caused by drunken driving
dropped to a record low in 1997 but still made up more than one-third of
automobile deaths, the government said today.

The Department of Transportation reported 16,189 alcohol-related traffic
deaths in 1997, 38.6 percent of the total. That was a decrease of about
1,000 deaths from 1996, when drunken driving was responsible for 40.9
percent of the 42,065 traffic deaths. In 1982, 57.3 percent of the 43,945
fatalities were alcohol-related.

The administration hailed the figures as evidence that measures such as zero
tolerance laws for young drivers have helped curb drunken driving. But
officials stressed that more needs to be done.

"This is good news but we must continue to do more to ensure that this
decline continues," President Clinton said.

"A strong message and tough laws are bringing about an important change in
society's attitude toward drunken driving, but we must continue our efforts
to reduce the number of these tragedies even further," said Transportation
Secretary Rodney Slater. The department has set a goal of reducing
alcohol-related traffic deaths to 11,000 annually by 2005.

For the first time since record-keeping began in 1975, alcohol-related
deaths were below 40 percent of all traffic fatalities. And drunken driving
deaths among teens aged 15 to 20 dropped 5 percent from 2,324 in 1996 to
2,209 in 1997, according to data by the department's National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration.

Clinton has encouraged states to lower their drunken-driving threshold to a
0.08 blood-alcohol concentration and authorized $500 million in grants as an
incentive for states to adopt the standard. Only 15 states have done so.

Getting all states to lower their limit would be an important step in
helping to ensure that the numbers keep decreasing, said Judith Stone,
president of Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety.

"We have to keep up these aggressive efforts. Otherwise we'll see the
numbers go in the other direction," Stone said. "We can't rest on our

Activists also credited implementation of zero tolerance by all 50 states
for reducing drunken driving among young drivers. These laws permit
suspension of driver's licenses of people under 21 who are found to be
driving after drinking.

"By passing tough laws, states are sending a strong message to teen-aged
drivers: It's not cool and it's not legal to drink," said NHTSA
administrator Ricardo Martinez.

Groups highlighted possible steps that could further reduce the number of
drunken driving deaths. Stone cited laws which would require repeat
offenders to pass a breathalyzer test before starting their cars. Some
states also have adopted measures that allow them to impound the cars of
drunken drivers.

Other findings of the fatality analysis report:

The highest percentage of drunken driving deaths, 49.8 percent, was among
21- to 34-year olds. The lowest, 5.9 percent, was among drivers 75 and

Of the 957 drinking drivers under age 21 who were killed in traffic crashes,
the majority, 792, were killed in crashes at night.

Utah had the lowest percentage of alcohol-related fatalities in 1997 with
20.6 percent, followed by New York with 27.4 percent.

McGwire Takes Hormone, Says Everybody Does (The 'Associated Press' Article,
Reprinted In 'The International Herald-Tribune,' That Broke The News
Of Mark McGwire, The St. Louis Cardinal Pursuing Baseball's Home-Run Record,
Using Androstenedione, A Legal, Performance Enhancing Substance)

Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 07:03:44 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: US: McGwire Takes Hormone, Says Everybody Does
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Peter Webster
Source: International Herald-Tribune
Contact: iht@iht.com
Website: http://www.iht.com/
Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998
Author: Associated Press


Sitting on the top shelf of Mark McGwire's locker, next to a can of Popeye
spinach and packs of sugarless chewing gum, is a brown bottle labeled

For more than a year, McGwire says, he has been using the
testosterone-producing pill, which is allowed in baseball but banned in the
National Football League, the Olympics and in U.S. college sports.

No one suggests that McGwire wouldn't be closing in on Roger Maris's
home-run record without the over-the-counter drug. After all, he hit 49
homers without it as a rookie in 1987, and more than 50 each of the past
two seasons.

But the drug's ability to raise levels of the male hormone, which builds
lean muscle mass and promotes recovery after injury, is seen outside
baseball as cheating and potentially dangerous.

"Everything I've done is natural - everybody that I know in the game of
baseball uses the same stuff I use," said McGwire, who also takes the
musclebuilder Creatine, an amino acid powder.

But many players insist they do not take Androstenedione, although the use
of other supplements is common.

Sammy Sosa, who trails McGwire by three in the home-run chase, uses
Creatine after games to keep up his weight and strength. Before games he
takes the Chinese herb ginseng. But Sosa said he doesn't use
Androstenedione or any other testosterone booster.

"Anything illegal is definitely wrong," said Mo Vaughn, the Boston slugger,
who said he does not take Androstenedione. "But if you get something over
the counter and legal guys in that power-hitter position are going to use
them. Strength is the key to maintaining and gaining endurance for 162
games. The pitchers keep getting bigger and stronger."

Randy Barnes, the 1996 Olympic gold medalist and world record-holder in the
shot put, recently drew a lifetime ban for using Androstenedione. Barnes is
appealing the decision.

Major League Baseball, like the National Basketball Association, bans only
illegal drugs, and the reasoning behind this in both leagues has nothing to
do with competitive fairness or health: it's just that the players'
associations and management in both sports have not agreed on ways of
dealing with the issue.

Although Androstenedione is banned by many sports, it is not illegal in the
United States, which is one reason its effects have not been studied.

"It's just a fluke of the law that this is totally unstudied," said John
Lombardo of Ohio State University, the NFL's adviser on steroids

"Androstenedione is a steroid. It has anabolic qualities. Therefore it is
an anabolic steroid."

Anabolic steroids have been associated with potentially fatal side effects,
including heart attacks, cancers, liver dysfunction and severe disorders of
mood and mental function.

"You can't even buy testosterone with a regular prescription," said Gary
Wadler, an assistant professor of medicine at Cornell University Medical
College. "You have to get a triplicate prescription. It's a controlled
substance by an act of Congress."

Creatine, which McGwire believes helps him recover faster from daily
weightlifting, is purported to increase muscle energy and mass. Long-term
effects of the powder are unknown. It has been known to lead to muscle
tears and cramps due to dehydration.

"I've been using Creatine for about four years," said McGwire, who is
6 feet-5 inches tall (1.95 meters) and weighs 245 pounds (111 kilograms).
''It's a good thing. It helps strength. It helps recovery. If you just use
common sense, there's absolutely nothing wrong with it. It's a form of
eating red meat.''

David Tumbas, the Chicago Cubs' trainer, said he doesn't recommend Creatine
but doesn't tell players not to take it. He said he asked players in spring
training if they were using it or similar supplements, and that about 10
said they were. He said he believed no one on the Cubs was taking

The International Olympic Cornmittee added Androstenedione to its banned
list in December after it found the pills and various steroids being hawked
on the Internet by a company called Price's Power International of
Virginia. But that's hardly the only place where "Andro," as it is often
called, is available. Great Earth Vitamin, a U.S. chain store, sells the
drug over the counter and by mail order.

"It's very popular," said Andrew Fischman, director of marketing for the
chain. ''The primary target of it is the 18- to 35-year-old muscle-head."

Sam Gannelli, the San Diego Padres' conditioning coordinator, said:
"Compared to every other sport, there's no time to heal in baseball. In
football, you have six days off after every game. In basketball, it's three
or four days. These guys are going every day for six months. "

But he added that ' 'steroids can really get you broken down. They can do a
lot of harm in the long run."

EPO Use Said to Be High in Italy

The drug erythropoietin more commonly known as EPO, is widely used by
Italian soccer players to enhance performance, an Italian Olympic official
was quoted as saying on Sunday, Agence France-Presse reported.

Sandro Donati, manager of the scientific research center run by the Italian
Olympic Committee, was quoted in Le Journal du Dimanche, a French
newspaper, as saying that a continuing judicial inquiry into drug-taking in
Italy would confirm the use of EPO.

He said: "The situation is without doubt worse with the clubs in the
Italian league than in other countries."

EPO is a synthetic hormone that stimulates the production of red blood
cells which can improve endurance.

Children DARE No Tolerance ('The North Shore News'
Portrays The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program In West Vancouver,
British Columbia, Which Eats Up $300,000 A Year Out Of The $5.5 Million
West Vancouver Police Budget - DARE Police Receive Much Less Training
Than Professional Educators, And There Is No Good Evidence
Supporting The Program's Efficacy)

Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:47:59 EDT
Originator: dare-list@calyx.net
Sender: dare-list@calyx.net
From: Dave Haans (haans@chass.utoronto.ca)
To: Multiple recipients of list (dare-list@calyx.net)
Subject: Article: Children D.A.R.E. no tolerance
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: North Shore News (Canada)
Contact: editor@nsnews.com
Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998

Children D.A.R.E. no tolerance

West Van kids taught to reject drugs,
booze, cigs... Michael Becker

CONSTABLE Harry McNeil is the quintessential good cop.

He's got an easy, likeable way about him and comes across as nothing
but honest. The West Vancouver police officer is the perfect D.A.R.E.
(Drug Abuse Resistance Education) instructor. The kids like him.

The D.A.R.E. program began in the Los Angeles Unified School District
in 1983 as a partnership between the school district and the L.A.
Police Department. In the U.S., approximately 75% of school districts
support it as a standard drug education program. It is taught in 47
countries throughout the world.

The program teaches students how to recognize and resist peer pressure
to try illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco. There are no grey areas:
the message is zero tolerance regarding the use of any of the

The D.A.R.E. curriculum was designed by academics to be taught by
police officers. Before entering the D.A.R.E. program, officers take
80 hours of special training in areas including child development,
classroom management, teaching techniques and communication skills. An
additional 40 hours of training is required for a D.A.R.E. officer to
teach the junior high curriculum and another 40 hours are needed to
teach the senior high curriculum.

The core curriculum targets children in grades 5 and 6. One lesson a
week is taught over a period of 17 weeks.

D.A.R.E. came to West Vancouver school district in 1995. It's an
expensive program, taking somewhere in the neighborhood of $300,000 a
year from the $5.5 million West Vancouver Police budget. The police
like it and the community seems to support it. The West Vancouver
Foundation sponsors D.A.R.E. and in 1996 raised $25,000 for the
program at a gala event.

McNeil, and fellow D.A.R.E. officers Const. Ian Craibe and Const. Rick
Catlin dedicate 28 hours a week to the school program. Sgt. Jim Almas
puts in approximately two hours a week.

As of this year, Const. Paul Skelton has been teaching the program
three hours a week at North Vancouver's Norgate community school. Many
of the school's students come from the Squamish Nation reserve. For
the rest of North Vancouver's schools, the drug awareness program of
choice is the RCMP's PACE (Police Assisting Community Education)

PACE is a drug education package for grades 5 through 9, and is meant
to foster the relationship between the police and young people within
the community. It supplements other classroom activity focused on drug

The popular D.A.R.E. program is not without controversy. Studies
abound supporting its efficacy. Early D.A.R.E. evaluations (1987-1989)
in the U.S. were generally favorable, showing decreased alcohol,
tobacco and other drug use, an increased resistance to drug use and an
increase in self-esteem.

But over recent years questions and criticisms have surfaced about the
merits of D.A.R.E.

A U.S. Justice Department-sponsored study by the Research Triangle
Institute notes D.A.R.E. has a "limited to essentially nonexistent
effect on drug use."

The U.S. General Accounting Office reports, "There is little evidence
so far that D.A.R.E. and other 'resistance training' programs have
reduced the use of drugs by adolescents."

West Vancouver Police stand by the anecdotal evidence, convinced that
D.A.R.E. is a positive force in the community.

McNeil said that the police department is looking at D.A.R.E. programs
in other jurisdictions that have been able to quantify the success of

"We'll be picking one this summer and we'll be putting it into effect
this school year to measure the success rate of the program -- not
only by smiles, we can also take a look at numbers. Numbers seem to
carry weight," he said.

It's a Friday morning in May. McNeil walks into the classroom at St.
Anthony's Catholic private school on Keith Road. Fourteen Grade 7
students are gathered in a classroom ready for the second one-hour
D.A.R.E. lesson of the week.

Decorative native dream catchers hang from the ceiling. On one wall
there's a poster of John Paul II in prayer. A D.A.R.E. poster
brightens a door. "D.A.R.E. to lead," it says. It shows some penguins
on an ice float. One jumps off, ahead of the pack.

The kids are neat and polite. The class stands and says good morning
to McNeil as he joins them.

"What day is it today?" he asks. "It's D.A.R.E. Day!" they shout back

And then it's D.A.R.E. box time. McNeil responds to questions left by
the children. He uses the D.A.R.E. session to talk about more than
substance abuse. He does not shy away from broader issues of crime and
punishment -- law, victims, the role of police in the community.

A note from the box: "What's the difference between a policeman in the
U.S. and in Canada?"

McNeil tells them it's more conservative in Canada and that there is
more violence and poverty to contend with in the States. "In Canada we
don't have ghettos. We have street people here but street people
choose to be street people. With drug abuse (in Canada) a lot of kids
are wondering what it's all about.

"They're not using drugs to to escape life in a ghetto where life is
really crummy. Life is pretty good here in West Vancouver."

The class watches a D.A.R.E. video. They see a cartoon character with
a joint in hand and a goofy look on his face standing in the middle of

Jose and Sandy are accosted by a guy who offers crack, cocaine, speed,
acid, crystal and crank. The cartoon druggies have green skin and bad

McNeil tells the kids that marijuana is a "gateway" drug. "If you were
to try it you might like it, but it isn't worth the gamble. There is
no good time to try marijuana," McNeil says.

The constable reviews some homework. McNeil asks one boy if he can
talk about the possible risk of long-term tobacco use.

He asks another what the possible risk might be of using marijuana
once. The boy responds, saying he could be expelled from school and
find trouble with his parents and the police.

Another is asked about the possible risk of using cocaine. The child
answers quickly: paranoia.

While zero tolerance remains the operative concept, McNeil
acknowledges that some children will come into class with different
information. What if some child had heard that marijuana has some
beneficial uses for glaucoma and pain relief? How would he address
such thinking?

Said McNeil: "We have to recognize that it is being used in some
places for cases where people have terminal cancer. In a Grade 5 class
we're not there to discuss terminal cancer. There are synthetic drugs
that are on the market that will give the same relief and they don't
have the side effects that marijuana has, like the THC, the side
effects the body suffers from that. It might reduce nausea but it
might invoke other things. It's (marijuana) is an option, but in our
view it's not a positive option."

Beyond the world of the D.A.R.E. classroom there are other opinions on
alcohol, tobacco and drugs. And they are often espoused by those in

Said McNeil, "I think children put a lot of weight on what mom and dad
say, what they hear on television.

"If we go through the complete program and they choose to take the
material from the program and examine it closely they will come out
with the conclusion that cigarettes are bad for you, that drinking at
a young age is not healthy, that marijuana use isn't healthy for you.
They'll come up with those conclusions.

"But now whether or not they will be influenced after the program by
someone to use the drugs is a different thing altogether. They do know
the consequences, they do know the outcome, they inevitably are the
ones who are going to be making the choices as to what they are going
to do."

If a child in class had parents who were quite open about their own
use of marijuana, for example, McNeil said he would cite studies to
show that the drug is harmful. "More than that, it is illegal, so
therefore we couldn't condone the use of it anyway. Even if they
changed the laws tomorrow on everything that we're doing in the
classroom, we wouldn't change what we're saying. We're not there
pushing the legal, we're there talking about the health factor," he

McNeil has been teaching the program for three years. He loves it.

"It's phenomenal, the reason being that it's warm and fuzzy, but it
has direction. It's presenting a program where the children have fun
and they learn. At the graduation they're emotional, they're so
excited. And there are others who really want to get this message
across because they've had loved ones who have died from cancer, loved
ones that are alcoholics.

"It allows them to speak out and say how they really feel inside."

West Vancouver's first D.A.R.E. class is now in Grade 8. It's a
critical year for temptation.

Three of the West Vancouver D.A.R.E. officers are certified for middle
school. They presented the middle school program at the Grade 7 level
and then finished it off this year at the Grade 8 level.

As of yet, there is no objective yardstick for measuring the success
of the program. "We don't really know the true outcome other than the
positiveness of the teachers and the children," said McNeil.

Although D.A.R.E. is now taught worldwide McNeil says the content of
the program has not been altered to address cultural differences.

"The program is designed that it only talks about straight facts.
Whether you're a little Asian boy, a little African boy or a little
Canadian boy, alcohol is going to affect you at the age of 11, and
marijuana or cigarettes will affect you at age 11.

"We do open the classes up to any parents to come in and sit through
any lessons they want. And with the parents we will discuss any of the
theory behind D.A.R.E."

Participation in the D.A.R.E. program is not mandatory. But said
McNeil, "Nobody has opted out. The kids really enjoy it. It's not a
put-down program, it's a lift up.

"We teach them problem solving, self-awareness, self-esteem and we
reinforce probably everything their parents are saying at home."

Mother Questions DARE Program (According To 'The North Shore News,'
A Mother Of A DARE Student Criticizes The Program, And Notes Her Daughter
Was Prevented From Delivering Her Essay At DARE Graduation Ceremonies
When The DARE Constable Said It Was 'Unacceptable' And Might Lead
To Misunderstanding Because She Wrote That Marijuana Was Useful
As A Medicine)

Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:50:09 EDT
Reply-To: dare-list@calyx.net
Originator: dare-list@calyx.net
Sender: dare-list@calyx.net
From: Dave Haans (haans@chass.utoronto.ca)
To: Multiple recipients of list (dare-list@calyx.net)
Subject: Article: Mother questions DARE program
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: North Shore News (Canada)
Contact: editor@nsnews.com
Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998

Mother questions DARE program

BOWEN Island resident Deborah Kirby's daughter participated in the
D.A.R.E. program. Her child's experience brought her to question the

On Wednesday, May 13 (1998) my daughter graduated from the D.A.R.E.

Just a few weeks earlier my daughter was excited when she told me that
her teacher would be choosing the people who would read their D.A.R.E.
essays to the assembly. She later told me hers had been selected.

She was very proud. The day before the ceremony, she practiced in
front of the principal. This morning, she invited me to hear her read.
Her name was on the program distributed at the door.

Shortly before the ceremony began my daughter was informed by the
D.A.R.E. constable that she could not read her essay. It was
unacceptable; it might lead to misunderstanding. No staff intervened.
We expected some acknowledgment. It did not come. We listened to 13
classmates read their paeans celebrating D.A.R.E.

My daughter wrote in brief, Grade 5 hyperbole that D.A.R.E. was a good
program. She also wrote that marijuana has positive uses in society,
that it is used to treat glaucoma, and ease the suffering of chemo and
AIDS patients. She actually juxtaposed the words "wonderful" and

For her decision to think beyond mere repetition she was punished by
having her work refused in public. She was denied the right to speak
to her peers because she thought outside of expected parameters. What
a great lesson.

Is the D.A.R.E. program a good one? On the surface it seems to be, we
all want our children to be able to resist peer pressure, to have a
better understanding of the effects of drugs, alcohol and tobacco and
to meet and interact with police officers in a positive way. But there
are serious flaws in this program.

It is predicated on the assumption that children cannot reason. It
dictates information and does not allow for critical discussion. The
program is delivered by police to students with no input from
teachers, no assessment of student work, no evaluation of teaching

It was developed and is wholly controlled by a business enterprise
worth close to $750,000,000 U.S. based in Los Angeles. No alterations
to fit the needs of a school, district, community are permitted
without authorization from head office.

The D.A.R.E. Program costs the West Vancouver taxpayer somewhere in
the order of $300,000 a year. I suggest this sum would go a long way
towards developing a program tailor-made for our schools -- one that
would reflect our values and mores and, most importantly, one that
begins with the premise that our children are thinking people.

Dares To Be Different ('The North Shore News' Prints The Suppressed Essay
On DARE Written By A 10-Year-Old From Bowen Island Community School
In West Vancouver, British Columbia)

Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:48:02 EDT
Errors-To: server-admin@calyx.net
Reply-To: dare-list@calyx.net
Originator: dare-list@calyx.net
Sender: dare-list@calyx.net
From: Dave Haans (haans@chass.utoronto.ca)
To: Multiple recipients of list (dare-list@calyx.net)
Subject: Article: Dares to be different
Newshawk: creator@mapinc.org
Source: North Shore News (Canada)
Contact: editor@nsnews.com
Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998

Dares to be different

D.A.R.E is a program where they teach young people like me how to say
no to peer pressure.

D.A.R.E. tries to teach kids to know they have a choice and to trust
themselves and their decisions. It is a wonderful program. I have
learned a lot in a short and well spent five months.

D.A.R.E is a program that is having a big impact on the kid drug
economy. I would like to see it keep going because young people should
not take drugs. I believe people also should know about some of the
wonderful things that supposedly bad drugs can do.

For an example let's take a look at marijuana. D.A.R.E. teaches us
that a little alcohol won't hurt you, as long as you don't abuse it.
It is the same for marijuana. Marijuana is not a bad drug as long as
you don't use it abusively or as a kid. It also has a number of
helpful uses. Doctors prescribe it to people with A.I.D.S and cancer
to help stimulate their hunger and to reduce pain and nausea, and to
people with glaucoma to reduce the pressure behind the eye.

Drugs and alcohol use are not easy to understand. Alcohol is a drug
that can damage your liver, but is legal and accepted in our society.
Marijuana is an illegal drug, but has many good uses.

Eleanor Smith, 10
Division 3, Bowen Island Community School

Police Recruit Horses In Race To Find Drugs ('The Toronto Star'
Says Ontario Provincial Police Officers Will Soon Be Using Retired Racehorses
To Search Areas Where Marijuana Is Being Grown That Are Inaccessible
To Police Four-Wheel Drive Vehicles)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 06:26:19 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: Canada: Police Recruit Horses In Race To Find Drugs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: Dave Haans
Source: Toronto Star (Canada)
Contact: lettertoed@thestar.com
Website: http://www.thestar.com/
Pubdate: Monday, August 24, 1998
Section: Page A2
Author: Roberta Avery, Special to the Star


MOUNT FOREST -- Ontario Provincial Police officers here will soon be using
retired racehorses on drug raids.

"We know of a number of areas where marijuana is being grown that are
inaccessible for our four-wheel drive vehicles. The horses will be a great
help in that respect," Constable Bob Mclntee said.

Four officers are being trained for the program which begins this fall.

Some marijuana growers plant their crop in the middle of cornfields and
officers on horseback will be able to check without damaging legitimate
harvests, Mclntee said.

Another favourite spot for pot growers is on the other side of swampy areas
along abandoned railroad tracks, said Mclntee.

"Now we'll be able to get in those areas to see what's happening."

The first horse, Oscar, arrived at the detachment in April; another
yet-to-be-named horse arrived last week. Both are retired racehorses and
are kept in an Arthur-area barn to be used as needed, Mclntee said.

Oscar has already appeared at some fall fairs in the Mount Forest area,
south of Owen Sound, and will be used for crowd control. The horses could
also be used in parades and wherever else they are considered an asset.

"These horses are used to being trailered around and they're very calm
around people," said Mclntee.

Unlike other Canadian police forces, the OPP doesn't have a mounted unit,
though a horse owned by an officer in Kirkland Lake in Northern Ontario is
used there on occasion.

"So we have the first mounted OPP officers in southern Ontario," said Mclntee.

The idea is the brainchild of Sergeant Steve Walsh who was transferred to
Mount Forest from Northern Ontario.

"We have had a lot of help from community partners who have been very
supportive of this idea," said Walsh.

The community has helped with expenses, while saddles for the two horses
came from Toronto police, who have scaled back their mounted units.

Walsh said it was premature to discuss plans for expanding the operation.

Ancient Egypt On Ecstasy (Britain's 'Independent' Says Party-Goers
In Ancient Egypt Might Have Induced An Ecstasy-Like State With The Help
Of A Sacred Plant Called The Blue Lily - Egyptologists Had Thought
It Was Used Only For Decoration, But Tests On Volunteers Have Found
That The Blue Lily Can Cause Psychotropic Effects
Similar To The Modern Party Drug MDMA, Or Ecstasy)
Link to earlier story
Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 16:18:38 -0700 From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews) To: mapnews@mapinc.org Subject: MN: Egypt: Ancient Egypt On Ecstasy Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Martin Cooke (mjc1947@cyberclub.iol.ie) Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Source: The Independent (UK) Contact: 1. letters@independent.co.uk Address: 1 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5DL, England Website: http://www.independent.co.uk/ Author: Steve Connor ANCIENT EGYPT ON ECSTASY Party-goers in ancient Egypt could have become induced into an ecstasy-like state of happiness with the help of a sacred plant called the blue lily. Tests on volunteers have found that the blue lily, which Egyptologists had thought was a benign plant used only for decoration, can cause psychotropic effects similar to the modern party drug MDMA, or ecstasy. Susan Duty, a pharmacologist at King's College London, monitored the effects of the blue lily on two people who reported that they felt happy and energetic and wanted to get up and dance. ''It is quite clear that the blue lily did have some psychoactive effects. Both of the volunteers were very talkative and energetic. At the same time they felt relaxed and contented and were also very happy,'' she said. Historians had thought the sacred blue lily, which was found scattered over Tutankhamen's body when the Pharaoh's tomb was opened in 1922, was a purely symbolic flower. The new research, which will be transmitted tonight on Channel 4's Sacred Weeds series, suggests the blue lily may have also played a role as a stimulant during parties thrown by the ancient Egyptians. ''Many of these subjective effects we observed are parallel to those seen with ecstasy. Although this is an early stage of uncharted territory, these findings will be looked on with great interest by pharmacologists,'' Dr Duty said. The blue lily is depicted on the walls of the temple at Karnak and appeared throughout Egyptian art.

Prohibition Is The Problem, Not Illegal Drugs (Four Letters To The Editor
Of 'The European' Agree With An Op-Ed By British Member Of Parliament
Paul Flynn, Vice-Chairman Of The Parliamentary All-Party Drugs Misuse Group)

Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 11:28:40 -0700
From: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org (MAPNews)
To: mapnews@mapinc.org
Subject: MN: UK: 4 PUB LTEs: Prohibition Is The Problem, Not Illegal Drugs
Sender: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Reply-To: owner-mapnews@mapinc.org
Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/
Newshawk: shug@shug.co.uk
Source: European, The
Contact: letters@the-european.com
Website: http://www.the-european.com/
Pubdate: 24 Aug 1998
Authors: Redford Givens, Clifford Schaffer, Dr Andrew Byrne, Tim Sheridan


IT SHOULD be obvious that giving control of a huge drugs market to vicious
criminals is bad policy. Virtually all of the problems we have with drugs
come from the illegal black market that our insane drugs laws subsidise.
Here in the United States 15 years of the harshest drug prohibition
enforcement in history have made us the world leader in incarceration,
while heroin and cocaine are purer, cheaper and more widely available than
ever before. Drugs prohibition is such a failure that we are beginning to
see addicts as young as 12 and 13.

It is interesting to note that history is repeating itself. A terrible
epidemic of child drunkenness rampaged across America in the late 1920s and
early 1930s. Bootleggers then, just like drugs dealers today, did not care
how old their customers were, as long as they had the money to pay for
alcohol. Schools had to be closed because of problems with drunk students.
Under-age drinking did not decline until alcohol prohibition was repealed
and licensed dealers could be forced to obey age limits.

The only way to regain control of illicit drugs is by decriminalising them
and regulating their use. Regulation is impossible under a drugs ban. The
harsher the laws become, the worse our "drugs problem" will be. When we
foolishly outlawed alcohol we experienced exactly the same "problems" we
now have with drugs prohibition.

We should remember that federal agents and the police never put the
bootleggers out of business when alcohol was banned; repeal did.

Redford Givens San Francisco, California, USA


PAUL FLYNN, Britain's leading anti-prohibition MP and medical cannabis
campaigner is right in arguing that a blanket ban on drugs does not solve
anything; it simply creates additional problems.

I co-founded the DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy, the website address
of which is. www.druglibrary.org. The centrepiece of the library is the
full text of the largest studies of drugs policy from around the world over
the past 100 years The library also has many thousands of supporting
historical and research documents. In short, all of these studies concluded
that banning drugs is a disaster and that legislation should be repealed.

I have personally contacted every "drugs tsar" appointed by the US
government in recent years, including William Bennett, Bob Martinez, Lee
Brown and General McCaffrey. I asked each of them if they could name any
significant study of drugs policy in the past 100 years which supported
prohibition. They all admitted that they did not know of a single such study.

The evidence is overwhelming. Prohibition of drugs is a disaster.

Clifford A Schaffer Director, DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy
Canyon County. California USA


THE reason why methadone treatment does not work in much of the United
Kingdom is because it is not given under supervision. In Scotland and
overseas, where methadone dosing is witnessed, deaths from the drug are
very uncommon. Most addicts on treatment use fewer illicit drugs; they get
jobs and largely return to normal family life and there is less crime.

Dr Andrew Byrne Redfern, New South Wales, Australia


THE only way to reduce the harm that drugs cause is to destroy the illegal,
irresponsible, armed black market and to replace it with a legal market
which can be rigorously policed, regulated and controlled.

Tim Sheridan London, England



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