------------------------------------------------------------------- Alternative Medicine Isn't Just On Fringes Anymore ('The Oregonian' Says Practitioners Of Naturopathic Medicine Are Gathering In Portland For Their Annual Convention This Week - Portland And The Rest Of The Northwest Have Been In The Forefront Of The Movement, And A Study Released This Year By Landmark Healthcare In Sacramento, California, Found That 42 Percent Of American Adults Use Some Form Of Alternative Medicine, Spending $13.7 Billion A Year) The Oregonian letters to editor: email@example.com 1320 SW Broadway Portland, OR 97201 Web: http://www.oregonlive.com/ Alternative medicine isn't just on fringes anymore * A convention in Portland underscores the rising profile of acupuncture, herbs and other such therapies -- even among insurers Monday, August 24 1998 By Erin Hoover Barnett of The Oregonian staff Hundreds of naturopathic physicians converge on Portland this week for a national convention. They arrive as alternative and mainstream medicine, pushed by consumer interest, take bolder steps toward each other: * The Oregon Cancer Center at Oregon Health Sciences University is starting research into alternative therapies for cancer. * Kaiser Permanente plans to offer limited coverage for acupuncture and naturopathic medicine beginning in January. Kaiser already covers chiropractic care, as do most other big health insurers. * Nature's Northwest , a grocery chain with organic produce and health foods, opened a Lake Oswego store this month with a pharmacy for prescription drugs combined with an herbal supplement dispensary. Customers can consult with a pharmacist and/or a naturopath and look up herbs and medications on an online computer network or read about them in a library and bookstore above the pharmacy. * OHSU's medical school will inaugurate an annual lecture on alternative medicine next spring, adding to coursework already offered. The conventional medical world began waking up to the alternative medicine movement in 1993, when Dr. David Eisenberg published a study indicating that one-third of all Americans use alternative therapies, spend $13.7 billion a year on them and generally do not tell their doctors. Consumers, recognizing the limits of conventional medicine, particularly in treating chronic illnesses, are looking for options. In an era of 20-minute doctor appointments at mega-medical office buildings, consumers are drawn to the more personal touch of alternative medicine practitioners. Aging baby boomers, taking charge of their health in ways their parents did not, are fueling the movement. Consumer pressure continues to build. A study released this year by Landmark HealthCare in Sacramento, Calif., found that 42 percent of American adults use some form of alternative medicine, particularly chiropractic and herbal therapies. Portland and the rest of the Northwest have been in the forefront of the movement. "The Northwest is a melting pot of health care modalities," said Clyde Jensen , president of Portland's National College of Naturopathic Medicine. "The Northwestern mentality is a very independent, pioneering mentality that has created a fertile ground for alternative health care measures as well as alternative activities in other areas of life." Jensen, a pharmacologist and past president of three osteopathic medicine colleges, moved to Portland from Tulsa, Okla., in 1996. National College and Bastyr University outside Seattle are the nation's only fully accredited natural medicine schools. Bastyr offers undergraduate and graduate programs in natural health sciences. In addition to National College, Portland is home to chiropractic and Asian medicine colleges and two massage schools. The colleges have fostered the growth of alternative therapies and their integration with conventional medicine. In 1996, for example, Bastyr University and King County, which includes Seattle, opened the nation's first fully integrated, publicly financed conventional and natural medicine clinic. The King County Natural Medicine Clinic offers primary medical care as well as naturopathic medicine, acupuncture, chiropractic and massage. "The rest of the country is now catching up to where Portland and Seattle have long been," said Peter Barry Chowka , public affairs consultant for the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, based in Seattle. Chowka expects 700 to 1,000 naturopaths and other health care practitioners at the association's five-day professional conference beginning Wednesday. The conference will include seminars on alternative medicine for mental illness and naturopathic treatment for cancer. Cancer is among hot topics Cancer treatment is one of the areas of alternative medicine that is beginning to capture the attention of the medical research community. OHSU's Oregon Cancer Center has begun soliciting research proposals in four areas: diet; exercise; mind/body medicine approaches to cancer, including acupuncture and guided imagery; and preventive approaches for people at high risk for cancer. "Our charge at the cancer center is to try to validate some of the alternative strategies that have been employed in the past and maybe even to develop some for the future," said Dr. Grover Bagby , center director. "My bet is that we're going to be able to do some good validations here. And we may also find that some of the old tried-and-true holistic remedies don't do much except make you feel good, which is also important." Researchers at Bastyr are studying natural treatments for breast cancer as well as for AIDS and respiratory tract infections. Anna MacIntosh , dean of research at National College of Naturopathic Medicine, and Dr. Bruce Goldberg, associate professor of family medicine at OHSU, also are studying upper respiratory illness. They are testing the effectiveness of herbal remedies in preventing colds. Joanne Nyiendo and Mitchell Haas , research professors at Western States Chiropractic College, are collaborating with Goldberg to compare standard medical and chiropractic approaches to low-back pain. In 1994, Western States became the first chiropractic institution to receive federal research financing, a total of $1.8 million so far. Initial results of the study are due in the fall. "People outside the chiropractic profession are looking at us with new vision," Nyiendo said. "It's like this stamp of approval because if the federal government is going to put up your money as a taxpayer to do this, then there must be something to it." The more research, the more comfortable the medical establishment becomes looking at possible uses of alternative therapies. The National Institutes of Health issued a consensus statement in November about which ailments acupuncture can treat effectively. Its findings helped persuade Kaiser Permanente to begin covering acupuncture for certain health problems, such as chronic pain. Starting next year, Kaiser members who work for Fred Meyer and other large regional employers may be referred by their primary doctors to a network of acupuncturists or a network of naturopathic physicians, managed by Complementary HealthCare Plans. Kaiser's challenge has been to respond to members' desire for alternative medicine while ensuring high-quality health care, said Dr. Tom Janisse , associate medical director for Northwest Permanente. "This is all new for everyone," Janisse said. "This isn't like deciding to work with a network of specialists who will deliver cardiology services. Cardiology is a discipline that we know well, that we can evaluate well." In April, Providence Health Plans began offering coverage through the same acupuncture and naturopathic networks as Kaiser. Providence and Kaiser already offer chiropractic care, using the network ChiroNet, also run by Complementary HealthCare. Research led Providence Health Plan to get involved in the Community Selfcare Center of Nature's Northwest, which includes the pharmacy/herbal supplement dispensary. Providence doctors reviewed research presented by a Nature's consultant showing the effect of mind/body medicine -- focusing on stress reduction, diet changes, exercise and lifestyle adjustments -- in preventing and treating heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Providence is considering paying for classes at Nature's in mind/body medicine for health plan members. "The next revolution" "This really could be the next revolution in health care," said Kurt Ziehlke , a registered nurse who does product development for Providence Health Plans. "Research is coming out that (mind/body medicine) is certainly a treatment option that shouldn't be ignored. It potentially can improve patients' quality of life. It's certainly less invasive." Stan Amy, Nature's president, said the Community Selfcare Center is based on the idea that to help people lead healthier lives, health care needs to be "in the path of everyday living." "The nation's ready," Amy said. "The entire environment around alternative medicine has changed radically. There's just been an explosion in interest, both among the public and the medical community, and we really need both." OHSU's medical school also has begun delving into alternative medicine. Besides starting its annual lecture on the topic, the school gives second-year students a half-day seminar on creating integrative health care by incorporating some types of alternative therapies. An alternative medicine student interest group also is active on campus. "It's very important from my perspective that our medical students are fully aware of what their patients' interests are," said Dr. Edward Keenan , associate dean for medical education at OHSU. "And it's clear that many patients have an interest in alternative medicine."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Peter Baez Defense Fund (A List Subscriber Forwards A Plea For Legal Donations For The Co-Founder And Volunteer Director Of The Santa Clara Medical Cannabis Center - Plus Links To A Few Articles About The Case) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:46:44 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Dale Gieringer) Subject: DPFCA: PRESS RELEASE Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/dpfca/ >Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 13:28:55 -0700 >From: "Baez,Peter" (firstname.lastname@example.org) >To: Dale Gieringer (email@example.com) > >Subject: PRESS RELEASE > >PETER BAEZ DEFENSE FUND >BY: GERALD F. UELMEN 8-24-98 > >Peter Baez is the co-founder and volunteer director of >the Santa Clara Medical Cannabis Center, which served >as the primary caregiver to provide medical marijuana >to 265 fellow sufferers from AIDS,Cancer, and other >debilitating diseases in the San Jose area. The center >sought to implement Proposition 215, a California >Initiative which declared the right of medical >patients to use marijuana for medical purposes with >the written or oral approval of a physician. On March >23rd, 1998, San Jose Police officers unlawfully seized >all patient files, all computers, and the centers bank >account, forcing it out of business. Peter Baez was >indicted on seven felony counts, and faces a maximum >of twenty-six years imprisonment. These charges are >based upon an accusation that he did not fully comply >with San Jose Police Department Regulations requiring >that the physician's approval be verified in writing, >and that funds paid to him to reimburse his expenses >rendered him ineligible for federal housing benefits, >as a vet of the Air Force, he received for his own >disability. Peter maintains his innocence of all >charges, and has requested a jury trial. The Peter >Baez Defense Fund has been established to assist in >defraying the expenses of Peter's legal defense. Peter >is being represented by Thomas Nolan of Palo Alto and >Professor Gerald F. Uelmen of Santa Clara University >School of Law. Tax-deductible contributions may be >sent to Daniel Abrahamson, C/O The Lindesmith Center, >1095 Market St., Suite 505, San Francisco, Ca 94103. >Checks should be made payable to The Lindesmith Center >(a non-profit organization engaged in the promotion of >rational drug policy in America), with a notation they >are for the Peter Baez Defense Fund. Any money raised >above what Peter needs, will be used to help others >who are facing similar charges in implementing Prop. >215. >Thank You. *** Dale Gieringer (415) 563-5858 // firstname.lastname@example.org 2215-R Market St. #278, San Francisco CA 94114 *** [Some articles about the Peter Baez case:] Simpson Lawyer To Defend Pot Club Chief (July 10) Ex-Pot Club Director Gathers Top Lawyers (July 9) Crusader's Image Takes Hit (June 8) Judge Approves Medical Marijuana Use (May 28) The Fall Of St. Peter - Why Public Officials Abandoned Medical Marijuana Advocate Peter Baez.(May 28) Baez Facing New Charges (May 19) Santa Clara County Medical Cannabis Center Update (May 11) San Jose Pot Club Shuts Its Doors After A Year (May 9) Cannabis Center's Closing Is A Sad Day For San Jose (May 8)
------------------------------------------------------------------- Update - Chavez/Herrick (A List Subscriber Forwards Coverage Of Today's Court Hearing In Orange County, California - Medical Marijuana Defendant Marvin Chavez Has Fired His Expensive, Pro Bono Attorney In Favor Of A Public Defender - And Convicted Orange County Medical Marijuana Defendant David Herrick Has A New Prison Address) From: Remembers@webtv.net (Genie Brittingham) Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 07:33:47 -0700 (PDT) To: email@example.com Subject: DPFCA: Fwd: UPDATE:Chavez/Herrick Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: DrugSense http://www.drugsense.org/dpfca/ She Who Remembers http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/7525 http://www.remembers.com Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 04:20:08 EDT To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: UPDATE:Chavez/Herrick Subject: Marvin Chavez hearing. Date: 8-24-98 From: William Britt Unhappy with pro bono Atty's Kennedy and Alexander because of lack of communication their failure to file wrts of appeals on the judge's decision to release patient records and deny a prop. 215 defense, Chavez was able to convince judge Frank Fasel to appoint a public defender. Criminal Lawyer Thomas Thornberg offered to assist Chavez, but after speaking with Kennedy advised Chavez to dismiss Alexander, but retain Kennedy because the judge would not give him the time he needed to research the case so they could work together. Chavez had made up his mind to go with the public defender and Thornberg stated that he would offer support. The judge will probably grant a continuance to give the PD time to review the case on friday. *** Subject: Dave Herrick - New Mailing Address Dave's new address is: David Herrick P-06857 B-5-B-229U Wasco State Prison-Reception Center P.O. Box 5500 Wasco, Ca 93280-5500 Dave has been moved to a reception facility with tough restrictions on types of mail. He is not allowed newspapers so he is desperate for information. He is allowed computer print-outs. He can receive a book of stamps or 5 stamped envelopes. He will stay where he's at for anywhere from 51/2 weeks to 5 months. He has been classified as restricted to light duty and will not have to perform hard labor, fire camps etc.. He can purchase 600 mg. Motrin. He is allowed out of his cell for an hour and a half 3 days a week in the dayroom and twice a week in the outdoor yard. When Marvin refused the plea bargin, Atty. Kennedy wondered in an newspaper interview what Dave would do if he had a chance to keep from spending 3 years in jail. It was a retorical question, but I asked him if he would have cut a deal, he sent me his reply: "Even though I was never offered a plea bargin, to take one would have admitted guilt, to a crime or criminal activity. At no time were Marvin Chavez or I ever engaged in criminal activities. It was our desire to provide a safe and affordable means for people with bona fide recommendations from their physicians, the opportunity to obtain their "medicine" without the fear of having to deal through the "Black Market". There was never any criminal intent, we were only acting out of compassion for these fellow patients who were denied access to their medicine because of the state governments inability to establish a bona fide distribution system. I would not have taken a plea bargin then, and I sure won't settle for anything less than total vindication." - Dave Herrick. Please contact me if you have any questions or wish to donate time or money to Marvin and Dave's legal funds. William Britt Patient Advocate
------------------------------------------------------------------- If A Guest Uses Drugs, Out You Go ('The San Francisco Examiner' Recounts The Case Of A Public Housing Tenant Who Almost Became Homeless Because, Unknown To Her, A Guest Possessed Heroin - With Help From San Francisco's Volunteer Legal Services Program, Which Took Her Case For Free, She Was Able To Put Her Case To A Jury, Which Rescued Her From The Federal 'One Strike You're Out' Housing Policy) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 17:05:31 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: US CA: If A Guest Uses Drugs, Out You Go Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: email@example.com (Frank S. World) Source: San Francisco Examiner (CA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.examiner.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Author: Emelyn Cruz Lat OF THE EXAMINER STAFF IF A GUEST USES DRUGS, OUT YOU GO It took a jury's verdict to save the apartment of Christina Mabanag Christina Mabanag, a single mother of three, was working a second job as an in-home caretaker last year when she received a frantic call. An excited neighbor told her there was a large crowd outside her home. Police were inside interrogating people, outside on her balcony, and walking around the complex's narrow corridors. Wild thoughts ran through her mind. Was one of her daughters hurt? Did someone burglarize her home? Unable to leave her wheelchair-bound patient behind, Mabanag drove home, bringing the 82-year-old woman. As she made her way past the throng, it became clear that police were there for a very different reason. She recalled a uniformed security guard pointing at her and saying, "I have no sympathy for you. You're going to lose your apartment." The message hit her like a ton of bricks. "I was so bothered and confused," said Mabanag, who lives in newly renovated public housing but asked that her address not be disclosed because she fears for her safety. She recounted how she was detained and questioned that day in March, 1997, as if she were under arrest. Authorities told Mabanag that her guest, a family friend staying for the weekend, had been arrested for drug possession. It didn't matter that she wasn't home, that she said she didn't know her friend used drugs - she would be evicted. The Housing Authority invoked the federal government's "one strike, you're out" policy, which allows evictions for offenses inside or outside tenants' apartments, with or without their knowledge. One of the most controversial uses of the policy nationwide has been against tenants who didn't know visitors had drugs. "I was really having a hard time," said Mabanag, her voice faltering. "I was going crazy. I didn't know what to do. I was calling my social worker all the time." Soon the eviction notices came, one on her doorstep, another wedged in her screen door, a third hung on a gate. Mabanag, who has no criminal record and never had problems at the development, tried to talk to her building manager, but "he said there was nothing he could do. I was evicted." He ordered her to turn in her keys and vacate the one-bedroom unit she shared with her children: Clara Jean Dixon, 12; Jasmine May, 8; and Marina Mabanag, 7. After the initial shock and disbelief dissipated, indignation set in. She refused to leave. Juggling her schedule as a part-time security guard, weekend caretaker and full-time mother, she went searching for legal help. The City's volunteer legal services program took her case for free. One of Mabanag's attorneys, Carolyn Burton, tried to negotiate with the city attorney's office, which represented the Housing Authority. Burton asked whether Mabanag could stay if she signed an agreement never again to let the guest in her home. Mabanag consented to warrantless searches to assure that no drug activity was going on. "After all, she had nothing to fear," Burton said. "She was innocent." But the city attorney's office rejected the offer. Matt Davis, the deputy city attorney who oversaw the prosecution, said he reviewed the case and determined that Mabanag should have known that her guest had a drug habit. The guest was found wandering the complex under the influence of heroin, he said. "Public housing is a privilege, not a right," he said. "Do people have to live with crime just because they're poor?" Police seized balloons filled with heroin and cocaine, hypodermic needles and other paraphernalia associated with drug use that "showed she shouldn't have allowed that woman to stay there," Davis said. During a three-day trial, two weeks before Christmas 1997, lawyers on both sides agreed on virtually all the facts. They concurred that drugs were found in the apartment, that Mabanag's friend possessed them and that she and her children were not in the apartment at the time. But they disagreed over who was responsible. Mabanag's lawyers said the jury must find she had direct knowledge of her friend's drug use to sustain an eviction. "How are they making public housing safer by getting rid of tenants who did nothing wrong?" said Burton. "You can't be the keeper of everything you don't know about. (The one-strike policy) is zero tolerance, not zero common sense." The Housing Authority not only argued Mabanag knew of her friend's drug use, but also said they had the right to oust her regardless of what she knew. "Good cause requires that the grounds for eviction are fa wrote Deputy City Attorney Scott Rennie in court papers. He contended that Mabanag knew of her friend's drug problem and chose to ignore it. Jurors disagreed. In its unanimous verdict, the jury found that although the guest had possessed illegal drugs, Mabanag had no actual knowledge of the drugs and should not be evicted. Hearing the decision, Mabanag wept. "There were a few tears shed by all of us," said Kathy Pugh, one of her lawyers. Mabanag says that despite the verdict, her life will never be the same. "I'm scared now," she said. "Someone knocks on my door and I get nervous. I don't let anyone come into my house anymore." 1998 San Francisco Examiner
------------------------------------------------------------------- New Drug Use Statistics Versus McCaffrey Assumptions (Dave Fratello Of Americans For Medical Rights Quotes The US Drug Czar In November 1996 Pledging To 'Inform All States' Of The 'Consequences Of The Referenda' Over Medical Marijuana In California And Arizona - So What Will Happen Now That The New National Household Survey On Drug Abuse Shows California Kids Use Less Pot?) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 23:20:34 GMT To: "DRCTalk Reformers' Forum" (email@example.com) From: Dave Fratello (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: New drug use stats vs. McCaffrey assumptions Reply-To: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org When the data from last week's new Household Survey on Drug Abuse did not actually show vast increases in California kids' marijuana use, I wondered what those who ordered the special over-samples had actually predicted. Here are two references... NOV. 15, 1996 -- statement from Office of National Drug Control Policy -- headline: "Drug Czar McCaffrey Emphasizes Federal Law Remains in Effect Following CA/AZ Referenda Legalizing Marijuana and Other Drugs as 'Medicine'" -- all in McCaffrey's voice: "... We will actively collect data -- i.e., drug related accident rates, teen pregnancy, work absences, hospital emergency cases, and the like -- which will indicate the consequences of the referenda." By our judgment, increased drug abuse in every category will be the inevitable result of the referenda. "We will inform all states." DECEMBER 30, 1996 -- from the 7-page 'action plan' on ONDCP letterhead spelling out all federal agencies' responses to the propositions -- "Objective 4 - Protect children from increased marijuana availability and use.... HHS will analyze all available data on marijuana use, expand ongoing surveys to determine current levels of marijuana use in California and Arizona, and track changes in marijuana use in those states." *** Now the 1997 numbers are in: Among youth age 12-17, teens in California report less frequent marijuana use than the national average -- a full 1/3 lower. 9.9% for U.S. excluding AZ and CA, 6.6% for California Meanwhile, HHS punted on doing any comparisons. Apparently the statisticians wouldn't let them lie this time. 1997 will now be a baseline for future comparisons.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Hemp Gets Its Day In The Summer Fun (The Seattle 'Post-Intelligencer' Says 35,000 People Attended The Annual Seattle Hempfest Sunday At Myrtle Edwards Park On The Waterfront) From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (email@example.com) To: "-News" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Hemp gets its day in the summer fun Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:23:38 -0700 Sender: email@example.com Author: Larry Lange, P-I Reporter Hemp gets its day in the summer fun Smoke and political fire in the park Hempfest '98, the annual marijuana political festival, filled a Seattle waterfront park with the plant's advocates yesterday. But it will be an initiative on the November ballot that will tell how much power lies behind the show. An estimated 35,000 people, according to the Seattle Police Department, came to Myrtle Edwards Park to display their affection for the weed and their support for the initiative that would legalize the drug for medical use. They danced to music, perused clothing made from hemp, a plant used for textile and other industrial purposes, and listened to speeches condemning the national war on drugs and laws that make marijuana illegal. "I'm one of many people that support the medical use of marijuana," said Eva Harrow, a Tacoma woman who strolled with her husband and 2-year-old daughter near the edge of Elliott Bay. "It's a matter of right." Initiative 692, which, if passed, would leave the use of medical marijuana up to patients and their doctors will be on the November ballot. Washington voters last year strongly rejected a similar measure that permitted medical use of marijuana by prescription but contained other controversial provisions, including the release of some prisoners serving time for drug violations and prescribed medical use of LSD and heroin. Medical-use initiatives have been approved in California and Arizona, and another one will also be on the ballot this year in Oregon. Yesterday's festival, like others before it, used merchandising - as well as rhetoric - to promote the legal use of marijuana. T-shirts sold at the festival organizers' booth displayed likenesses of George Washington and claimed he was an early American hemp grower. And at the end of a line of food booths, California soft-drink maker Willie Phalinger hawked a soda he said was made with hemp-seed oil in ginger and black cherry flavors. At the gathering yesterday, an occasional whiff of pot could be detected walking through the long, narrow park. As of late afternoon, 20 people had been cited and removed from the park for possessing small amounts of marijuana. There were two felony arrests for drug dealing, said Lt. Dick Schweitzer, the head of the more than 90-member Seattle Police detail at the festival. That is about a third of the number arrested or cited a year ago at Hempfest '97, Schweitzer said. "It was a real good crowd this year, very mellow," Schweitzer said. Some of the festival goers gathered around a booth where staffers shouted out: "Marijuana lollipops!" The $1-pops sold by a Portland enterprise called Cannabis Candy Co. were green and sweet and contained hemp oils that transmitted the taste of the plant on the tongue. "They're good," said Wade Davis of Port Orchard, sucking on one of the candies while he hung out with friends. "I'm going to get some more." Jason Davis, Cannabis Candy's president, said he'll soon begin searching for local retailers to carry his product. The candy, he said, can be legally sold because it contains only a small trace of THC, the active chemical in marijuana. The weather was mostly overcast yesterday, bringing out a smaller crowd than a year ago. But attendees were no less enthusiastic in their marijuana advocacy, although many said they were not sure they have the political clout to pass this year's Washington state initiative. "There are too many people that are against it," said Michelle Smit of Seattle. "They're still worried about their kids smoking pot." Her husband Jason, said he thinks such a measure will eventually pass. "It'll take a while, but it will happen," he said. P-I reporter Larry Lange can be reached at 206-448-8313 or firstname.lastname@example.org
------------------------------------------------------------------- Thousands Turn Out For Marijuana Festival ('The Associated Press' Version) From: "W.H.E.N. - Bob Owen" (email@example.com) To: "-Hemp Talk" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: HT: Thousands turn out for marijuana festival Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 18:38:47 -0700 Sender: email@example.com Thousands turn out for marijuana festival The Associated Press 08/24/98 3:00 PM Eastern SEATTLE (AP) -- Thousands of people turned out for an annual celebration extolling marijuana. Hempfest '98 was held Sunday at Myrtle Edwards Park on the waterfront. The Seattle Police Department estimated 35,000 people attended the event, which featured music, displays of items made from hemp, including clothing, and speeches condemning laws that make marijuana illegal. This year's event came against the backdrop of Initiative 692, which will be on the November general-election ballot. If passed, it would allow some medicinal uses of marijuana. Washington voters last year strongly rejected a similar measure, but that proposal also contained controversial provisions such as allowing prescription of LSD and heroin for medical use. Sunday's festival featured displays of hemp-related merchandise, ranging from T-shirts and marijuana-flavored lollipops to a soft drink that the maker said was made with hemp-seed oil in ginger and black cherry flavors. By late afternoon, 20 people had been cited for possessing small amounts of marijuana, and there were two felony arrests for drug dealing, police Lt. Dick Schweitzer said. "It was a real good crowd this year, very mellow," Schweitzer said.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Counselor Arrested In El Reno ('The Oklahoman' Quotes FBI Spokesman Dan Vogel Saying Glen Brummett, A Counselor For The Federal Correctional Institution In El Reno, Oklahoma, Was Arrested Sunday On Complaints Of Conspiracy To Manufacture, Possess And Distribute Methamphetamine And Introduce Contraband Into A Federal Correctional Center) Date: Wed, 26 Aug 1998 20:50:19 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US OK: Counselor Arrested in El Reno Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Michael Pearson
Source: The Oklahoman (OK) Contact: http://www.oklahoman.com/?ed-writeus Website: http://www.oklahoman.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Author: Andrea Perrin, Staff Writer COUNSELOR ARRESTED IN EL RENO A counselor for the Federal Correctional Institution in El Reno was arrested Sunday on complaints of conspiracy to manufacture, possess and distribute methamphetamine and introduce contraband into a federal correctional center, FBI spokesman Dan Vogel said. Glen Brummett, 46, was arrested about 7:15 a.m. when he arrived at work. At the same time, his home at 405 N Park St. in El Reno was searched by federal agents. Vogel said he couldn't comment on what was found at Brummett's house. An investigation began six months ago when authorities received information about drugs possibly being taken into the prison. Brummett, who has worked at the center, was in the Oklahoma County jail Sunday night.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Pregnant Smokers' Deadly Legacy ('The Scotsman' Says Research Carried Out At The University Of Minnesota Cancer Center In Minneapolis And Presented At The Annual Meeting Of The American Chemical Society In Boston Found By-Products Of A Nicotine-Derived Chemical Called NNK, One Of The Strongest Carcinogens In Tobacco Smoke, In The Urine Of Infants Born To Smoking Mothers - The New Findings Are The First To Show That A Cancer-Causing Substance Specific To Tobacco Is Transmitted To The Foetus) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 17:14:32 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: Pregnant Smokers' Deadly Legacy Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org Source: Scotsman (UK) Contact: Letters_ts@scotsman.com Website: http://www.scotsman.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 PREGNANT SMOKERS' DEADLY LEGACY Scientists find clear evidence that women using tobacco pass on a strong 'cancer trigger' to unborn children John von Radowitz CLEAR evidence that pregnant women who smoke transmit a powerful cancer trigger to their babies has been discovered for the first time by scientists. One of Britain's leading cancer experts described the findings as "absolute dynamite". Researchers in the United States found by-products of a nicotine-derived chemical called NNK in the urine of infants born to smoking mothers. NNK, unique to tobacco. is one of the strongest carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The results from the University of Minnesota Cancer Center in Minneapolis, suggest that alarming amounts of the chemical pass through the placenta to be broken down in the unborn baby's body. Levels of the NNK by-products in the babies were about 10 per cent of those found in the urine of adult smokers - two and a half times the adult concentration, weight-for-weight. Women are strongly advised not to smoke during pregnancy but until now all the evidence of harm to the foetus has been based on statistical correlations. Babies whose mothers smoked when pregnant were more likely to be small, under-weight, have low intelligence and suffer from glue ear. There is also some suspicion that leukaemia rates are higher in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. The new findings, presented at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston, are the first to show that a cancer-causing substance specific to tobacco is transmitted to the foetus. Professor Gordon McVie, director general of the Cancer Research Campaign. said: "This is absolute dynamite. It's awful. Here we have cast-iron, water-tight evidence that the baby is exposed to carcinogens thanks to the mother's smoking habits." A team of scientists led by Dr Stephen Hecht tested samples of the first urine passed by 48 babies, from both smokers and non-smoking mothers, sent to them by collaborating researchers in Germany. In 22 of 31 samples from new-born babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy they found NNK metabolites - chemicals left after a substance is broken down by the body. No metabolites of the carcinogen were found in samples from babies whose mothers did not smoke. Dr Hecht called the findings "an unacceptable risk". He said the levels of NNK by-products found were "substantial when one considers that exposure of the developing foetus to NNK would have taken place throughout pregnancy". Prof McVie said he was surprised and alarmed by the high levels of metabolites discovered. "The average baby weighs about three kilos, so you're looking at a concentration in the urine something like two and a half times that of an adult, weight for weight," he said. "The chemical has gone through the whole body. It's passed through the blood system, been metabolised, gone through the liver and reached the kidneys. All the tissues in the body must have seen it." The research was an extension of previous work from Dr Hecht which last year showed that NNK is found in non-smoking adults who breath in other people's smoke at work Dr Hecht pointed out that since most women who smoke during pregnancy continue the habit afterwards, their children are exposed to the dangerous chemical for many years. Clive Bates, director of Action on Smoking and Health, said: "Babies exposed to cancer-causing chemicals in the womb are suffering from one of the nastiest forms of passive smoking."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Pregnant Smokers Pass Carcinogen To Baby ('The Washington Post' And 'Associated Press' Version In 'The Seattle Times') Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 11:58:02 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: US: Study: Pregnant Smokers Pass Carcinogen to Baby Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Author: The Washington Post and The Associated Press STUDY: PREGNANT SMOKERS PASS CARCINOGEN TO BABY Women who smoke while pregnant appear to pass a potent carcinogen to their babies, researchers reported today. The study goes beyond what scientists have known for years: Smoking by pregnant women causes babies to be born smaller, sicklier and, in some cases, addicted to nicotine. "These results demonstrate a significant potential risk to the unborn child of a woman who smokes," said Stephen Hecht of the University of Minnesota Cancer Center, who led the new research. Hecht analyzed the first urine samples collected from 48 babies of smokers and nonsmokers in Germany. Hecht looked for NNK, a carcinogen found only in tobacco products, and for byproducts of NNK after it had been processed by the body - NNAL and NNAL-Gluc. "We found that the positive samples were only from the newborns of mothers who smoked," Hecht said. Of the 31 samples from mothers who smoked during pregnancy, 22 contained NNK, NNAL or NNAL-Gluc. Babies of nonsmokers had none of those substances in their urine, Hecht said. The pregnant women in the two-year study smoked between 5 and 25 cigarettes a day, averaging 12 cigarettes a day. Results showed that NNK crosses the placental barrier between mother and fetus, where it is then broken down by the fetus and expelled in its urine, Hecht said. "Hopefully this will deliver the message one more time about how dangerous it is for pregnant women to smoke," Hecht said yesterday. Only 39 percent of smokers quit when they become pregnant, according to a 1990 study in the American Journal of Public Health. Hecht was reporting the findings today at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston. The research has not been subjected to peer review, the usual vetting process for published studies but rarely a part of presentations at scientific meetings. Hecht said more research is needed to determine the likelihood of the NNK leading to cancer in the newborns later in life. NNK, from the family of cancer-causing substances known as nitrosamines, is not the only carcinogen in tobacco smoke but it is especially powerful. It can cause adenocarcinoma, a kind of lung cancer found largely in smokers. Studies have shown that the toxin can be passed from mother to offspring in animals. Previous studies have shown increases in respiratory ailments among the children of smokers, as well as other health problems. Smoking during pregnancy also has been linked to low birth weight and other conditions. The levels of NNK and the related chemicals found in babies in the new study was about 10 percent of the amount of those substances found in smokers.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Pregnant Smokers Transmit Toxins (The New Bedford, Massachusetts, 'Standard-Times' Version) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 19:07:49 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US: Pregnant Smokers Transmit Toxins Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Pubdate: Monday, 24 August, 1998 Source: Standard-Times (MA) Contact: YourView@S-T.com Website: http://www.s-t.com/ Author: Michael Woods, Toledo Blade PREGNANT SMOKERS TRANSMIT TOXINS BOSTON -- Women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy transmit one of the most powerful carcinogens in tobacco smoke straight to the blood of their unborn babies, scientists reported here yesterday. Until now, public health authorities believed that nicotine and carbon monoxide were the two most dangerous substances passed from the blood of smoking mothers through the placenta into the blood of a developing fetus. Carbon monoxide decreases the amount of oxygen circulating inside the fetus' body. Nicotine, which is highly addictive, has its own adverse effects. Both substances got much of the blame for rouge's gallery of harmful effects linked known to occur in babies born to smoking mothers. "This represents an unacceptable new risk to the fetus," Dr. Stephen S. Hecht said in an interview. "Women should make every effort to not to smoke during pregnancy, or any other time, for that matter." Dr. Hecht reported the first direct chemical evidence that a powerful tobacco carcinogen, NNK, is transmitted to the developing fetus when a woman smokes cigarettes. He announced the finding at the 216th national meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS), being held here this week. With 155,000 members, the ACS is the world's largest scientific organization. About 14,000 members are gathering here to present and hear 6,700 reports on new advances in scientific fields -- ranging from astronomy to zoology that involve chemistry. In addition to holding national meetings, the ACS publishes most of the world's top chemistry journals, sets standards for chemical names and education, and engages in other activities. Smoking is surprisingly common among pregnant women, Dr. Hecht noted. Tobacco smoke contains more than 2,500 chemical compounds, including about 40 carcinogens, substances that cause cancer. Dr. Hecht and his associates detected NNK and related compounds in urine samples collected from newborn infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. No NNK was found in urine of infants born to non-smoking mothers. Since the carcinogen is found only in tobacco smoke, there was no other possible way, aside from cigarette smoking, in which it could have gotten into the infants' bodies, Dr. Hecht said. Researchers do not know whether NNK, like nicotine, also is passed to infants in the breast milk of smoking mothers who nurse, Dr. Hecht said. Women who smoke have a higher risk of complications during pregnancy, low birthweight babies, stillbirths, and more babies who die during the first month of infancy, according to the American Cancer Society. The society said studies also link smoking during pregnancy with long-term effects on a child. At age 7, for instance, children whose mothers smoked heavily during pregnancy were shorter in stature and had lower reading ability than other children. Dr. Hecht said the precise risks to unborn infants from NNK are not yet clear. One major concern involves the possibility that infants exposed to such a carcinogen before birth may have an increased of cancer as adults, he said. The cancer society says that children exposed to 10 or more cigarettes during pregnancy have a 50 per cent higher risk of cancer.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Lawyer Sues US To Overturn Ban On Marijuana ('The Philadelphia Inquirer' Discusses The Federal Class-Action Lawsuit Seeking To Overturn The Federal Prohibition On Medical Marijuana, Filed By Public Interest Lawyer Lawrence Elliott Hirsch Of Philadelphia) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 14:44:33 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US PA: Lawyer Sues U.S. To Overturn Ban On Marijuana Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org (Frank S. World) Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Source: Philadelphia Inquirer (PA) Contact: Inquirer.Opinion@phillynews.com Website: http://www.phillynews.com/ Author: Joseph A. Slobodzian INQUIRER STAFF WRITER LAWYER SUES U.S. TO OVERTURN BAN ON MARIJUANA Cited in the suit, which seeks to allow medicinal use, are personal stories like the one of a Philadelphia AIDS patient and activist. It's been said that nothing is so powerful as an idea whose time has come, and lawyer Lawrence Elliott Hirsch may be right: That now is the hour to sue to legalize the medical use of marijuana. After all, it's been two years since Californians approved a ballot question legalizing the medical use of marijuana to help patients suffering from such illnesses as cancer, AIDS and glaucoma. In the last month, state officials in Nevada and Washington state have certified referendums for November's general election on legalizing marijuana for medical use. And in Camden County, Edward Forchion, an independent candidate for county freeholder running on the "Legalize Marijuana" slate, has staged a high-profile campaign that has gotten him charged with possession of a controlled dangerous substance after he openly smoked a joint in both Camden County Democratic headquarters and the office of U.S. Rep. Robert Andrews (D., N.J.). Smelling the winds of change, Hirsch said he decided that the time was right to use the weapon of a federal class-action lawsuit to end the government's 61-year-old ban on the herb aficionados prefer to call by its Latin name, cannabis. "This has to be the hottest issue since communism," said Hirsch, 59, in a recent interview. Hirsch's lawsuit, filed last month in U.S. District Court, lives up to his description as being a "grass-roots effort." Most of the lawsuit's 128 pages are taken up with the life stories of 164 plaintiffs who contend they have found significant health benefits to smoking marijuana. Among the plaintiffs in the suit are Kiyoshi Kuromiya, 55, an AIDS patient and activist from Philadelphia who says using marijuana helped him gain 40 pounds he had lost through "AIDS wasting syndrome," and Nancy Jamison, who operates a Boston nonprofit corporation distributing food to the poor. Jamison has used marijuana to combat the pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, a crippling nerve disorder. Hirsch said the lawsuit had been two years in the making, since he began advertising for plaintiffs at a convention of the Washington-based Drug Policy Foundation, which has lobbied to change U.S. drug laws.The lawsuit has been assigned to U.S. District Judge Marvin Katz, a 15-year veteran on the federal bench, and is awaiting a formal appearance by a lawyer for the only defendant: the United States of America. First Assistant U.S. Attorney Michael L. Levy said that the lawsuit would be defended by lawyers for the Justice Department in Washington, and that those lawyers were drafting a motion to dismiss the lawsuit.Hirsch said he was not worried: "I can't wait to hear the official response." Almost as unusual as the length of Hirsch's lawsuit is the nature of its claim: It seeks, in classic constitutional parlance, the "redress of grievances by the people," as it reads in the final clause of the First Amendment, for the "government prohibition of therapeutic cannabis." It was for that reason, Hirsch explained, that he purposely sued the U.S. government as an entity rather than naming individual defendants such as U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno, or Barry McCaffrey, the Clinton administration's drug czar.Unlike the government's ill-fated 13-year effort to ban the use of alcohol except for medicinal purposes, enacted by the 18th Amendment and repealed by the 21st in 1933, Hirsch noted that laws prohibiting marijuana were imposed by Congress in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and in subsequent federal regulations by the Justice Department and the predecessor to the Drug Enforcement Administration. "What we have now is prohibition without a constitutional amendment," Hirsch said. Although the First Amendment's "redress of grievances" phrase is often interpreted to mean the people's right to petition Congress or the president, Hirsch argues that the wording does not exclude a court challenge. "It is absolutely the responsibility of the courts to determine the constitutionality of laws," Hirsch said. "This isn't a political question, it isn't a legislative question, it isn't an executive question. It's a judicial question." Hirsch could be right. But it's the judicial answer that scares a lot of others in the marijuana legalization movement. "Of course I'm concerned about making bad law," said Keith Stroup, a lawyer and executive director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), the Washington-based group that has campaigned to legalize cannabis since 1970. Stroup said he and NORML lawyers were to obtain a copy of Hirsch's lawsuit and would consider whether to support it, either as a "friend of the court" or by providing expert witnesses if the case gets to trial. "We're not in disagreement with [ Hirsch's ] goals," Stroup said. "The real question is whether we're using limited resources wisely and in a way that supports the social change we're seeking. "We're not in the 1970s anymore. . . . The federal courts today are a much more conservative body, and judges generally are unwilling to take on issues of social or political change." NORML has been down this route before. In 1972, it launched a suit petitioning the DEA's predecessor, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, to legalize cannabis. In 1988, after the prodding of a federal appeals court and two years of hearings, Francis L. Young, then chief DEA administrative law judge, concluded that the evidence "clearly shows that marijuana has been accepted as capable of relieving the distress of great numbers of very ill people, and doing so with safety under medical supervision. It would be unreasonable, arbitrary, and capricious for DEA to continue to stand between those sufferers and the benefits of this substance." The DEA director at the time, John Lawn, rejected Young's findings, a ruling that was upheld when NORML appealed the decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. At that point, Stroup said, NORML looked at the complexion of the U.S. Supreme Court and decided not to appeal further, fearing it could wind up with "bad law": binding Supreme Court precedent against legalizing marijuana. Since then, Stroup said, NORML has supported the two-year-old petition by Jon Gettman, a former NORML president, and Trans High Corp., the publisher of High Times Magazine, asking the DEA to end the marijuana prohibition. DEA officials in December responded to the petition by asking scientists at the Department of Health and Human Services to study whether marijuana and its chemical components should be removed from its Schedule I list of most dangerous drugs. Hirsch, however, derides Stroup's and NORML's concerns about his lawsuit's potential for creating "bad law," noting that the government has essentially phased out its short-lived experiment of providing marijuana to eligible patients who are seriously or terminally ill. "That's the worst bull," Hirsch said, referring to fears of his lawsuit. "How can we make an already repressive, bad law any worse if we go to court?"
------------------------------------------------------------------- Constantine On C-Span Wednesday Morning (A List Subscriber Publicizes An Appearance By The Head Of The Drug Enforcement Administration 7-10 AM Wednesday EST, 4-7 AM On The West Coast) From: "Peter McWilliams" (email@example.com) To: "Peter McWilliams" (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: FW: Constantine on C-Span Wed AM Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 13:11:51 +0100 BE THERE OR BE SQUARE! Constantine on C-Span Wed AM DEA administrator Constantine will be on C-Span Wed morning on the Washington Journal sometime between 7AM and 10 AM EST (4AM to 7AM PST). Please try to call in and make his visit an informative learning experience :). C-SPAN 400 North Capitol St. NW Suite 650 Washington DC 20001 202 624-1115 Conservative 202 624 1111 Liberal (202) 737-6734 Moderate FAX (202) 737-6734 FAX show email@example.com
------------------------------------------------------------------- Alcohol-Related Driving Deaths At Record Low (An 'Associated Press' Article In 'The Seattle Times' Says The US Department Of Transportation Reported Today The Percentage Of Traffic Fatalities Caused By Drunken Driving Dropped To A Record Low In 1997 - There Were 16,189 Alcohol-Related Traffic Deaths In 1997, 38.6 Percent Of The Total, Down From 40.9 Percent In 1996 And 57.3 Percent In 1982) Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 17:07:55 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: US: WA: Alcohol-Related Deaths At Record Low Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: John Smith Pubdate: Monday, 24 August, 1998 Source: Seattle Times (WA) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.seattletimes.com/ Author: Kalpana Srinivasan, Associated Press writer ALCOHOL-RELATED DEATHS AT RECORD LOW WASHINGTON-- The percentage of traffic fatalities caused by drunken driving dropped to a record low in 1997 but still made up more than one-third of automobile deaths, the government said today. The Department of Transportation reported 16,189 alcohol-related traffic deaths in 1997, 38.6 percent of the total. That was a decrease of about 1,000 deaths from 1996, when drunken driving was responsible for 40.9 percent of the 42,065 traffic deaths. In 1982, 57.3 percent of the 43,945 fatalities were alcohol-related. The administration hailed the figures as evidence that measures such as zero tolerance laws for young drivers have helped curb drunken driving. But officials stressed that more needs to be done. "This is good news but we must continue to do more to ensure that this decline continues," President Clinton said. "A strong message and tough laws are bringing about an important change in society's attitude toward drunken driving, but we must continue our efforts to reduce the number of these tragedies even further," said Transportation Secretary Rodney Slater. The department has set a goal of reducing alcohol-related traffic deaths to 11,000 annually by 2005. For the first time since record-keeping began in 1975, alcohol-related deaths were below 40 percent of all traffic fatalities. And drunken driving deaths among teens aged 15 to 20 dropped 5 percent from 2,324 in 1996 to 2,209 in 1997, according to data by the department's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Clinton has encouraged states to lower their drunken-driving threshold to a 0.08 blood-alcohol concentration and authorized $500 million in grants as an incentive for states to adopt the standard. Only 15 states have done so. Getting all states to lower their limit would be an important step in helping to ensure that the numbers keep decreasing, said Judith Stone, president of Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. "We have to keep up these aggressive efforts. Otherwise we'll see the numbers go in the other direction," Stone said. "We can't rest on our laurels." Activists also credited implementation of zero tolerance by all 50 states for reducing drunken driving among young drivers. These laws permit suspension of driver's licenses of people under 21 who are found to be driving after drinking. "By passing tough laws, states are sending a strong message to teen-aged drivers: It's not cool and it's not legal to drink," said NHTSA administrator Ricardo Martinez. Groups highlighted possible steps that could further reduce the number of drunken driving deaths. Stone cited laws which would require repeat offenders to pass a breathalyzer test before starting their cars. Some states also have adopted measures that allow them to impound the cars of drunken drivers. Other findings of the fatality analysis report: The highest percentage of drunken driving deaths, 49.8 percent, was among 21- to 34-year olds. The lowest, 5.9 percent, was among drivers 75 and older. Of the 957 drinking drivers under age 21 who were killed in traffic crashes, the majority, 792, were killed in crashes at night. Utah had the lowest percentage of alcohol-related fatalities in 1997 with 20.6 percent, followed by New York with 27.4 percent.
------------------------------------------------------------------- McGwire Takes Hormone, Says Everybody Does (The 'Associated Press' Article, Reprinted In 'The International Herald-Tribune,' That Broke The News Of Mark McGwire, The St. Louis Cardinal Pursuing Baseball's Home-Run Record, Using Androstenedione, A Legal, Performance Enhancing Substance) Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998 07:03:44 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: US: McGwire Takes Hormone, Says Everybody Does Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Peter Webster Source: International Herald-Tribune Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.iht.com/ Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998 Author: Associated Press McGWIRE TAKES HORMONE, SAYS EVERYBODY DOES Sitting on the top shelf of Mark McGwire's locker, next to a can of Popeye spinach and packs of sugarless chewing gum, is a brown bottle labeled Androstenedione. For more than a year, McGwire says, he has been using the testosterone-producing pill, which is allowed in baseball but banned in the National Football League, the Olympics and in U.S. college sports. No one suggests that McGwire wouldn't be closing in on Roger Maris's home-run record without the over-the-counter drug. After all, he hit 49 homers without it as a rookie in 1987, and more than 50 each of the past two seasons. But the drug's ability to raise levels of the male hormone, which builds lean muscle mass and promotes recovery after injury, is seen outside baseball as cheating and potentially dangerous. "Everything I've done is natural - everybody that I know in the game of baseball uses the same stuff I use," said McGwire, who also takes the musclebuilder Creatine, an amino acid powder. But many players insist they do not take Androstenedione, although the use of other supplements is common. Sammy Sosa, who trails McGwire by three in the home-run chase, uses Creatine after games to keep up his weight and strength. Before games he takes the Chinese herb ginseng. But Sosa said he doesn't use Androstenedione or any other testosterone booster. "Anything illegal is definitely wrong," said Mo Vaughn, the Boston slugger, who said he does not take Androstenedione. "But if you get something over the counter and legal guys in that power-hitter position are going to use them. Strength is the key to maintaining and gaining endurance for 162 games. The pitchers keep getting bigger and stronger." Randy Barnes, the 1996 Olympic gold medalist and world record-holder in the shot put, recently drew a lifetime ban for using Androstenedione. Barnes is appealing the decision. Major League Baseball, like the National Basketball Association, bans only illegal drugs, and the reasoning behind this in both leagues has nothing to do with competitive fairness or health: it's just that the players' associations and management in both sports have not agreed on ways of dealing with the issue. Although Androstenedione is banned by many sports, it is not illegal in the United States, which is one reason its effects have not been studied. "It's just a fluke of the law that this is totally unstudied," said John Lombardo of Ohio State University, the NFL's adviser on steroids "Androstenedione is a steroid. It has anabolic qualities. Therefore it is an anabolic steroid." Anabolic steroids have been associated with potentially fatal side effects, including heart attacks, cancers, liver dysfunction and severe disorders of mood and mental function. "You can't even buy testosterone with a regular prescription," said Gary Wadler, an assistant professor of medicine at Cornell University Medical College. "You have to get a triplicate prescription. It's a controlled substance by an act of Congress." Creatine, which McGwire believes helps him recover faster from daily weightlifting, is purported to increase muscle energy and mass. Long-term effects of the powder are unknown. It has been known to lead to muscle tears and cramps due to dehydration. "I've been using Creatine for about four years," said McGwire, who is 6 feet-5 inches tall (1.95 meters) and weighs 245 pounds (111 kilograms). ''It's a good thing. It helps strength. It helps recovery. If you just use common sense, there's absolutely nothing wrong with it. It's a form of eating red meat.'' David Tumbas, the Chicago Cubs' trainer, said he doesn't recommend Creatine but doesn't tell players not to take it. He said he asked players in spring training if they were using it or similar supplements, and that about 10 said they were. He said he believed no one on the Cubs was taking Androstenedione. The International Olympic Cornmittee added Androstenedione to its banned list in December after it found the pills and various steroids being hawked on the Internet by a company called Price's Power International of Virginia. But that's hardly the only place where "Andro," as it is often called, is available. Great Earth Vitamin, a U.S. chain store, sells the drug over the counter and by mail order. "It's very popular," said Andrew Fischman, director of marketing for the chain. ''The primary target of it is the 18- to 35-year-old muscle-head." Sam Gannelli, the San Diego Padres' conditioning coordinator, said: "Compared to every other sport, there's no time to heal in baseball. In football, you have six days off after every game. In basketball, it's three or four days. These guys are going every day for six months. " But he added that ' 'steroids can really get you broken down. They can do a lot of harm in the long run." EPO Use Said to Be High in Italy The drug erythropoietin more commonly known as EPO, is widely used by Italian soccer players to enhance performance, an Italian Olympic official was quoted as saying on Sunday, Agence France-Presse reported. Sandro Donati, manager of the scientific research center run by the Italian Olympic Committee, was quoted in Le Journal du Dimanche, a French newspaper, as saying that a continuing judicial inquiry into drug-taking in Italy would confirm the use of EPO. He said: "The situation is without doubt worse with the clubs in the Italian league than in other countries." EPO is a synthetic hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells which can improve endurance.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Children DARE No Tolerance ('The North Shore News' Portrays The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program In West Vancouver, British Columbia, Which Eats Up $300,000 A Year Out Of The $5.5 Million West Vancouver Police Budget - DARE Police Receive Much Less Training Than Professional Educators, And There Is No Good Evidence Supporting The Program's Efficacy) Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:47:59 EDT Originator: firstname.lastname@example.org Sender: email@example.com From: Dave Haans (firstname.lastname@example.org) To: Multiple recipients of list (email@example.com) Subject: Article: Children D.A.R.E. no tolerance Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org Source: North Shore News (Canada) Contact: email@example.com Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998 Children D.A.R.E. no tolerance West Van kids taught to reject drugs, booze, cigs... Michael Becker CONSTABLE Harry McNeil is the quintessential good cop. He's got an easy, likeable way about him and comes across as nothing but honest. The West Vancouver police officer is the perfect D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) instructor. The kids like him. The D.A.R.E. program began in the Los Angeles Unified School District in 1983 as a partnership between the school district and the L.A. Police Department. In the U.S., approximately 75% of school districts support it as a standard drug education program. It is taught in 47 countries throughout the world. The program teaches students how to recognize and resist peer pressure to try illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco. There are no grey areas: the message is zero tolerance regarding the use of any of the substances. The D.A.R.E. curriculum was designed by academics to be taught by police officers. Before entering the D.A.R.E. program, officers take 80 hours of special training in areas including child development, classroom management, teaching techniques and communication skills. An additional 40 hours of training is required for a D.A.R.E. officer to teach the junior high curriculum and another 40 hours are needed to teach the senior high curriculum. The core curriculum targets children in grades 5 and 6. One lesson a week is taught over a period of 17 weeks. D.A.R.E. came to West Vancouver school district in 1995. It's an expensive program, taking somewhere in the neighborhood of $300,000 a year from the $5.5 million West Vancouver Police budget. The police like it and the community seems to support it. The West Vancouver Foundation sponsors D.A.R.E. and in 1996 raised $25,000 for the program at a gala event. McNeil, and fellow D.A.R.E. officers Const. Ian Craibe and Const. Rick Catlin dedicate 28 hours a week to the school program. Sgt. Jim Almas puts in approximately two hours a week. As of this year, Const. Paul Skelton has been teaching the program three hours a week at North Vancouver's Norgate community school. Many of the school's students come from the Squamish Nation reserve. For the rest of North Vancouver's schools, the drug awareness program of choice is the RCMP's PACE (Police Assisting Community Education) program. PACE is a drug education package for grades 5 through 9, and is meant to foster the relationship between the police and young people within the community. It supplements other classroom activity focused on drug prevention. The popular D.A.R.E. program is not without controversy. Studies abound supporting its efficacy. Early D.A.R.E. evaluations (1987-1989) in the U.S. were generally favorable, showing decreased alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, an increased resistance to drug use and an increase in self-esteem. But over recent years questions and criticisms have surfaced about the merits of D.A.R.E. A U.S. Justice Department-sponsored study by the Research Triangle Institute notes D.A.R.E. has a "limited to essentially nonexistent effect on drug use." The U.S. General Accounting Office reports, "There is little evidence so far that D.A.R.E. and other 'resistance training' programs have reduced the use of drugs by adolescents." West Vancouver Police stand by the anecdotal evidence, convinced that D.A.R.E. is a positive force in the community. McNeil said that the police department is looking at D.A.R.E. programs in other jurisdictions that have been able to quantify the success of D.A.R.E. "We'll be picking one this summer and we'll be putting it into effect this school year to measure the success rate of the program -- not only by smiles, we can also take a look at numbers. Numbers seem to carry weight," he said. It's a Friday morning in May. McNeil walks into the classroom at St. Anthony's Catholic private school on Keith Road. Fourteen Grade 7 students are gathered in a classroom ready for the second one-hour D.A.R.E. lesson of the week. Decorative native dream catchers hang from the ceiling. On one wall there's a poster of John Paul II in prayer. A D.A.R.E. poster brightens a door. "D.A.R.E. to lead," it says. It shows some penguins on an ice float. One jumps off, ahead of the pack. The kids are neat and polite. The class stands and says good morning to McNeil as he joins them. "What day is it today?" he asks. "It's D.A.R.E. Day!" they shout back fervently. And then it's D.A.R.E. box time. McNeil responds to questions left by the children. He uses the D.A.R.E. session to talk about more than substance abuse. He does not shy away from broader issues of crime and punishment -- law, victims, the role of police in the community. A note from the box: "What's the difference between a policeman in the U.S. and in Canada?" McNeil tells them it's more conservative in Canada and that there is more violence and poverty to contend with in the States. "In Canada we don't have ghettos. We have street people here but street people choose to be street people. With drug abuse (in Canada) a lot of kids are wondering what it's all about. "They're not using drugs to to escape life in a ghetto where life is really crummy. Life is pretty good here in West Vancouver." The class watches a D.A.R.E. video. They see a cartoon character with a joint in hand and a goofy look on his face standing in the middle of traffic. Jose and Sandy are accosted by a guy who offers crack, cocaine, speed, acid, crystal and crank. The cartoon druggies have green skin and bad teeth. McNeil tells the kids that marijuana is a "gateway" drug. "If you were to try it you might like it, but it isn't worth the gamble. There is no good time to try marijuana," McNeil says. The constable reviews some homework. McNeil asks one boy if he can talk about the possible risk of long-term tobacco use. He asks another what the possible risk might be of using marijuana once. The boy responds, saying he could be expelled from school and find trouble with his parents and the police. Another is asked about the possible risk of using cocaine. The child answers quickly: paranoia. While zero tolerance remains the operative concept, McNeil acknowledges that some children will come into class with different information. What if some child had heard that marijuana has some beneficial uses for glaucoma and pain relief? How would he address such thinking? Said McNeil: "We have to recognize that it is being used in some places for cases where people have terminal cancer. In a Grade 5 class we're not there to discuss terminal cancer. There are synthetic drugs that are on the market that will give the same relief and they don't have the side effects that marijuana has, like the THC, the side effects the body suffers from that. It might reduce nausea but it might invoke other things. It's (marijuana) is an option, but in our view it's not a positive option." Beyond the world of the D.A.R.E. classroom there are other opinions on alcohol, tobacco and drugs. And they are often espoused by those in trust. Said McNeil, "I think children put a lot of weight on what mom and dad say, what they hear on television. "If we go through the complete program and they choose to take the material from the program and examine it closely they will come out with the conclusion that cigarettes are bad for you, that drinking at a young age is not healthy, that marijuana use isn't healthy for you. They'll come up with those conclusions. "But now whether or not they will be influenced after the program by someone to use the drugs is a different thing altogether. They do know the consequences, they do know the outcome, they inevitably are the ones who are going to be making the choices as to what they are going to do." If a child in class had parents who were quite open about their own use of marijuana, for example, McNeil said he would cite studies to show that the drug is harmful. "More than that, it is illegal, so therefore we couldn't condone the use of it anyway. Even if they changed the laws tomorrow on everything that we're doing in the classroom, we wouldn't change what we're saying. We're not there pushing the legal, we're there talking about the health factor," he said. McNeil has been teaching the program for three years. He loves it. "It's phenomenal, the reason being that it's warm and fuzzy, but it has direction. It's presenting a program where the children have fun and they learn. At the graduation they're emotional, they're so excited. And there are others who really want to get this message across because they've had loved ones who have died from cancer, loved ones that are alcoholics. "It allows them to speak out and say how they really feel inside." West Vancouver's first D.A.R.E. class is now in Grade 8. It's a critical year for temptation. Three of the West Vancouver D.A.R.E. officers are certified for middle school. They presented the middle school program at the Grade 7 level and then finished it off this year at the Grade 8 level. As of yet, there is no objective yardstick for measuring the success of the program. "We don't really know the true outcome other than the positiveness of the teachers and the children," said McNeil. Although D.A.R.E. is now taught worldwide McNeil says the content of the program has not been altered to address cultural differences. "The program is designed that it only talks about straight facts. Whether you're a little Asian boy, a little African boy or a little Canadian boy, alcohol is going to affect you at the age of 11, and marijuana or cigarettes will affect you at age 11. "We do open the classes up to any parents to come in and sit through any lessons they want. And with the parents we will discuss any of the theory behind D.A.R.E." Participation in the D.A.R.E. program is not mandatory. But said McNeil, "Nobody has opted out. The kids really enjoy it. It's not a put-down program, it's a lift up. "We teach them problem solving, self-awareness, self-esteem and we reinforce probably everything their parents are saying at home."
------------------------------------------------------------------- Mother Questions DARE Program (According To 'The North Shore News,' A Mother Of A DARE Student Criticizes The Program, And Notes Her Daughter Was Prevented From Delivering Her Essay At DARE Graduation Ceremonies When The DARE Constable Said It Was 'Unacceptable' And Might Lead To Misunderstanding Because She Wrote That Marijuana Was Useful As A Medicine) Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:50:09 EDT Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Dave Haans (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Article: Mother questions DARE program Newshawk: email@example.com Source: North Shore News (Canada) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998 Mother questions DARE program BOWEN Island resident Deborah Kirby's daughter participated in the D.A.R.E. program. Her child's experience brought her to question the effort: On Wednesday, May 13 (1998) my daughter graduated from the D.A.R.E. Program. Just a few weeks earlier my daughter was excited when she told me that her teacher would be choosing the people who would read their D.A.R.E. essays to the assembly. She later told me hers had been selected. She was very proud. The day before the ceremony, she practiced in front of the principal. This morning, she invited me to hear her read. Her name was on the program distributed at the door. Shortly before the ceremony began my daughter was informed by the D.A.R.E. constable that she could not read her essay. It was unacceptable; it might lead to misunderstanding. No staff intervened. We expected some acknowledgment. It did not come. We listened to 13 classmates read their paeans celebrating D.A.R.E. My daughter wrote in brief, Grade 5 hyperbole that D.A.R.E. was a good program. She also wrote that marijuana has positive uses in society, that it is used to treat glaucoma, and ease the suffering of chemo and AIDS patients. She actually juxtaposed the words "wonderful" and "drug." For her decision to think beyond mere repetition she was punished by having her work refused in public. She was denied the right to speak to her peers because she thought outside of expected parameters. What a great lesson. Is the D.A.R.E. program a good one? On the surface it seems to be, we all want our children to be able to resist peer pressure, to have a better understanding of the effects of drugs, alcohol and tobacco and to meet and interact with police officers in a positive way. But there are serious flaws in this program. It is predicated on the assumption that children cannot reason. It dictates information and does not allow for critical discussion. The program is delivered by police to students with no input from teachers, no assessment of student work, no evaluation of teaching ability. It was developed and is wholly controlled by a business enterprise worth close to $750,000,000 U.S. based in Los Angeles. No alterations to fit the needs of a school, district, community are permitted without authorization from head office. The D.A.R.E. Program costs the West Vancouver taxpayer somewhere in the order of $300,000 a year. I suggest this sum would go a long way towards developing a program tailor-made for our schools -- one that would reflect our values and mores and, most importantly, one that begins with the premise that our children are thinking people.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Dares To Be Different ('The North Shore News' Prints The Suppressed Essay On DARE Written By A 10-Year-Old From Bowen Island Community School In West Vancouver, British Columbia) Date: Thu, 27 Aug 1998 18:48:02 EDT Errors-To: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Originator: email@example.com Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Dave Haans (email@example.com) To: Multiple recipients of list (firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: Article: Dares to be different Newshawk: email@example.com Source: North Shore News (Canada) Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Pubdate: Aug 24, 1998 Dares to be different D.A.R.E is a program where they teach young people like me how to say no to peer pressure. D.A.R.E. tries to teach kids to know they have a choice and to trust themselves and their decisions. It is a wonderful program. I have learned a lot in a short and well spent five months. D.A.R.E is a program that is having a big impact on the kid drug economy. I would like to see it keep going because young people should not take drugs. I believe people also should know about some of the wonderful things that supposedly bad drugs can do. For an example let's take a look at marijuana. D.A.R.E. teaches us that a little alcohol won't hurt you, as long as you don't abuse it. It is the same for marijuana. Marijuana is not a bad drug as long as you don't use it abusively or as a kid. It also has a number of helpful uses. Doctors prescribe it to people with A.I.D.S and cancer to help stimulate their hunger and to reduce pain and nausea, and to people with glaucoma to reduce the pressure behind the eye. Drugs and alcohol use are not easy to understand. Alcohol is a drug that can damage your liver, but is legal and accepted in our society. Marijuana is an illegal drug, but has many good uses. Eleanor Smith, 10 Division 3, Bowen Island Community School
------------------------------------------------------------------- Police Recruit Horses In Race To Find Drugs ('The Toronto Star' Says Ontario Provincial Police Officers Will Soon Be Using Retired Racehorses To Search Areas Where Marijuana Is Being Grown That Are Inaccessible To Police Four-Wheel Drive Vehicles) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 06:26:19 -0700 From: email@example.com (MAPNews) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: MN: Canada: Police Recruit Horses In Race To Find Drugs Sender: email@example.com Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Dave Haans Source: Toronto Star (Canada) Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.thestar.com/ Pubdate: Monday, August 24, 1998 Section: Page A2 Author: Roberta Avery, Special to the Star POLICE RECRUIT HORSES IN RACE TO FIND DRUGS MOUNT FOREST -- Ontario Provincial Police officers here will soon be using retired racehorses on drug raids. "We know of a number of areas where marijuana is being grown that are inaccessible for our four-wheel drive vehicles. The horses will be a great help in that respect," Constable Bob Mclntee said. Four officers are being trained for the program which begins this fall. Some marijuana growers plant their crop in the middle of cornfields and officers on horseback will be able to check without damaging legitimate harvests, Mclntee said. Another favourite spot for pot growers is on the other side of swampy areas along abandoned railroad tracks, said Mclntee. "Now we'll be able to get in those areas to see what's happening." The first horse, Oscar, arrived at the detachment in April; another yet-to-be-named horse arrived last week. Both are retired racehorses and are kept in an Arthur-area barn to be used as needed, Mclntee said. Oscar has already appeared at some fall fairs in the Mount Forest area, south of Owen Sound, and will be used for crowd control. The horses could also be used in parades and wherever else they are considered an asset. "These horses are used to being trailered around and they're very calm around people," said Mclntee. Unlike other Canadian police forces, the OPP doesn't have a mounted unit, though a horse owned by an officer in Kirkland Lake in Northern Ontario is used there on occasion. "So we have the first mounted OPP officers in southern Ontario," said Mclntee. The idea is the brainchild of Sergeant Steve Walsh who was transferred to Mount Forest from Northern Ontario. "We have had a lot of help from community partners who have been very supportive of this idea," said Walsh. The community has helped with expenses, while saddles for the two horses came from Toronto police, who have scaled back their mounted units. Walsh said it was premature to discuss plans for expanding the operation.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ancient Egypt On Ecstasy (Britain's 'Independent' Says Party-Goers In Ancient Egypt Might Have Induced An Ecstasy-Like State With The Help Of A Sacred Plant Called The Blue Lily - Egyptologists Had Thought It Was Used Only For Decoration, But Tests On Volunteers Have Found That The Blue Lily Can Cause Psychotropic Effects Similar To The Modern Party Drug MDMA, Or Ecstasy)Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 16:18:38 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: Egypt: Ancient Egypt On Ecstasy Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: Martin Cooke (firstname.lastname@example.org) Pubdate: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 Source: The Independent (UK) Contact: 1. email@example.com Address: 1 Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5DL, England Website: http://www.independent.co.uk/ Author: Steve Connor ANCIENT EGYPT ON ECSTASY Party-goers in ancient Egypt could have become induced into an ecstasy-like state of happiness with the help of a sacred plant called the blue lily. Tests on volunteers have found that the blue lily, which Egyptologists had thought was a benign plant used only for decoration, can cause psychotropic effects similar to the modern party drug MDMA, or ecstasy. Susan Duty, a pharmacologist at King's College London, monitored the effects of the blue lily on two people who reported that they felt happy and energetic and wanted to get up and dance. ''It is quite clear that the blue lily did have some psychoactive effects. Both of the volunteers were very talkative and energetic. At the same time they felt relaxed and contented and were also very happy,'' she said. Historians had thought the sacred blue lily, which was found scattered over Tutankhamen's body when the Pharaoh's tomb was opened in 1922, was a purely symbolic flower. The new research, which will be transmitted tonight on Channel 4's Sacred Weeds series, suggests the blue lily may have also played a role as a stimulant during parties thrown by the ancient Egyptians. ''Many of these subjective effects we observed are parallel to those seen with ecstasy. Although this is an early stage of uncharted territory, these findings will be looked on with great interest by pharmacologists,'' Dr Duty said. The blue lily is depicted on the walls of the temple at Karnak and appeared throughout Egyptian art.
------------------------------------------------------------------- Prohibition Is The Problem, Not Illegal Drugs (Four Letters To The Editor Of 'The European' Agree With An Op-Ed By British Member Of Parliament Paul Flynn, Vice-Chairman Of The Parliamentary All-Party Drugs Misuse Group) Date: Mon, 24 Aug 1998 11:28:40 -0700 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (MAPNews) To: email@example.com Subject: MN: UK: 4 PUB LTEs: Prohibition Is The Problem, Not Illegal Drugs Sender: firstname.lastname@example.org Reply-To: email@example.com Organization: Media Awareness Project http://www.mapinc.org/lists/ Newshawk: firstname.lastname@example.org Source: European, The Contact: email@example.com Website: http://www.the-european.com/ Pubdate: 24 Aug 1998 Authors: Redford Givens, Clifford Schaffer, Dr Andrew Byrne, Tim Sheridan PROHIBITION IS THE PROBLEM, NOT ILLEGAL DRUGS IT SHOULD be obvious that giving control of a huge drugs market to vicious criminals is bad policy. Virtually all of the problems we have with drugs come from the illegal black market that our insane drugs laws subsidise. Here in the United States 15 years of the harshest drug prohibition enforcement in history have made us the world leader in incarceration, while heroin and cocaine are purer, cheaper and more widely available than ever before. Drugs prohibition is such a failure that we are beginning to see addicts as young as 12 and 13. It is interesting to note that history is repeating itself. A terrible epidemic of child drunkenness rampaged across America in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Bootleggers then, just like drugs dealers today, did not care how old their customers were, as long as they had the money to pay for alcohol. Schools had to be closed because of problems with drunk students. Under-age drinking did not decline until alcohol prohibition was repealed and licensed dealers could be forced to obey age limits. The only way to regain control of illicit drugs is by decriminalising them and regulating their use. Regulation is impossible under a drugs ban. The harsher the laws become, the worse our "drugs problem" will be. When we foolishly outlawed alcohol we experienced exactly the same "problems" we now have with drugs prohibition. We should remember that federal agents and the police never put the bootleggers out of business when alcohol was banned; repeal did. Redford Givens San Francisco, California, USA *** PAUL FLYNN, Britain's leading anti-prohibition MP and medical cannabis campaigner is right in arguing that a blanket ban on drugs does not solve anything; it simply creates additional problems. I co-founded the DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy, the website address of which is. www.druglibrary.org. The centrepiece of the library is the full text of the largest studies of drugs policy from around the world over the past 100 years The library also has many thousands of supporting historical and research documents. In short, all of these studies concluded that banning drugs is a disaster and that legislation should be repealed. I have personally contacted every "drugs tsar" appointed by the US government in recent years, including William Bennett, Bob Martinez, Lee Brown and General McCaffrey. I asked each of them if they could name any significant study of drugs policy in the past 100 years which supported prohibition. They all admitted that they did not know of a single such study. The evidence is overwhelming. Prohibition of drugs is a disaster. Clifford A Schaffer Director, DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy Canyon County. California USA *** THE reason why methadone treatment does not work in much of the United Kingdom is because it is not given under supervision. In Scotland and overseas, where methadone dosing is witnessed, deaths from the drug are very uncommon. Most addicts on treatment use fewer illicit drugs; they get jobs and largely return to normal family life and there is less crime. Dr Andrew Byrne Redfern, New South Wales, Australia *** THE only way to reduce the harm that drugs cause is to destroy the illegal, irresponsible, armed black market and to replace it with a legal market which can be rigorously policed, regulated and controlled. Tim Sheridan London, England -------------------------------------------------------------------
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